Nuclear driving aircraft carrier, referred to as nuclear bicycle, is a aircraft carrier with nuclear reactor as a power plant. It is a large water-raising ship with a carrier machine as the main combat weapon and is active and combat in the form of aircraft carrier. Nuclearbornects have a lot of technical advantages over the ordinary aircraft carriers in the endless, fuel, replenishment, integrated operations, concealed. Relying on the nuclear driving aircraft carrier, a country can do a military pressure and combat against the country without relying on the local airport. Nuclear boy still has technical problems in nuclear power devices, electromagnetic diluters, safety protection. At present, there is only one Nuclear Power Aircraft Market in the world, and there are 11 active nuclear aircraft carriers in the United States.
US Nuclear Airfarer
After the establishment of a nuclear submarine in the United States, the US Navy recognizes that after the nuclear power is superior, it decides to develop nuclear power aircraft carrier. In November 1961, the world's first nuclear power carrier "Enterprise" was completed. The US "Enterprise" aircraft carrier equipment is equipped with a larger motorcycle and amazing endurance, replacing a nuclear fuel for 10 consecutive. Moreover, it can drive to any of the world at high speed. The advent of "Enterprise" nuclear power carrier has enabled the development of the aircraft carrier into a new era.
The United States has developed the "Nims" nuclear dynamic aircraft carrier based on the "Enterprise" nuclear carrier. This is the second-generation nuclear driving aircraft carrier after the "enterprise" nuclear carrier. . Its headns are "Nimitz", which was built in May 1975. Its standard drainage is 72916 tons, and the ship is 332.9 meters. It is 40.8 meters wide. There are 2 nuclear reactors and 4 steam turbines, and the speed is 30. It is 13 years, which can be used in 1 million voyage. The ship can be equipped with 90 types of fighters, and the maximum number of carrier has exceeded 100. The "Nimitz" level is a US Navy's large-scale nuclear power aircraft carrier, and the jewel number self CVN-68 to CVN-77 has a total of ten. It began design and construction from the 1960s, until the beginning of the 21st century, Nimitz level has always been the pillar of the United States and the global strategy.
Furt-level nuclear driving aircraft carrier is developed in the Nims-class nuclear driving aircraft carrier. The United States has the world's largest and largest aircraft carrier, and has "corporate" level, "Nimitz"-level large-scale nuclearbornect, the United States is the most powerful country in the world, and the US Nuclearbornema Technology is still in the world. status.
French nuclear bicycle
In addition to the United States, only France has a nuclear power aircraft carrier. Dai Gaulle is the first one of France is also the only nuclear driving aircraft carrier. In fact, it is also the only one in history and the only nuclear driving aircraft ship that does not belong to the US Navy. Dai Gaolle has started construction in May 1983, in 1994, it officially served in September 2000. The drainage volume of "Dai Gaole" is 38,000 tons, and the captain is 261.5 meters, and the water is 8.45 meters. Its active system uses two K-15 water stacks and two steam turbines. After the nucleus is filled with nuclear fuel, it can be saved in the sea in the sea after 5 years.
The aircraft carrier is not alone, not a single soldier, but is active and combat in the form of aircraft carrier. The aircraft carrier battle group referred to as aircraft carrier battle group, a combat fleet headed by aircraft carrier, namely aircraft carrier fleet. It is at the heart of a large aircraft carrier. At present, there are 10 aircraft carriers in the US Navy, all of which are nuclear power, which means that the US Navy can form 10 airborne fierce battle groups.
The US nuclear airborne fighting group is based on 1 Navitz or enterprise-level nuclear bodies, which is the flagship of the aircraft carrier fleet, also equipped with 1 ~ 2 missile cruisers, 2 ~ 3 A missile destroyer, 1 ~ 2 frigate, 1 fast combat supporter, 1 puff ship.
Nuclear airborne battle group can stay away from the local, not relying on land airport, as a rapid motor power for the navy, used to complete the following combat tasks:
Conduct at sea, conduct a large-scale sea-speed frontal battle.
Protecting the use and safety of the sea transportation channel during the war, especially the transportation and task of protecting the amphibious unit.
From the maritime support of the Marine Warfare, collaborative land-based aircraft forms a victory of the land war in a particular area. For example, during the Gulf War and the Iraq War, the United States dispatched nuclear bicycle fighting groups, support, and assisted landing troops on land fighting.
Usually demonstrates power at sea to meet the national interest needs with the means of force display. The United States often uses this method to meet political purposes.
Nuclear power aircraft carrier is extremely powerful, adding nuclear fuel to long-term battery life, enhance its self-sustainability and combat power, and usually do not need to carry a large amount of fuel.
Nuclear power aircraft carrier can save a large amount of space and load-bearing tonna, on the one hand, more aviation fuel can meet the combat needs of the carrier; On the one hand, you can load more weapon equipment and personnel. Under the same specification, nuclear power aircraft carrier is more efficient than conventional power aircraft carriers, and the long-lasting battle status can be guaranteed during deployment.
Nuclear power aircraft carrier does not need to replenish fuel, effectively alleviate the demand for logistics replenishment, and expand the radius of combat. The nuclear power unit can fully demonstrate its high speed, high mobility, while allowing the whole ship to get rid of high dependence on large tankers.
Nuclear power aircraft carrier is more powerful whether it is air, the sea, against land and anti-submarine, its comprehensive combat capacity is more powerful. The nuclear power unit effectively solves the energy demand of the aircraft carrier, such as the energy demand of the ejection device, aircraft elevator, and blocking device, can be fully resolved through the nuclear power unit.
Nuclear Power Aircraft carrier requires additional huge intake and exhaust system in addition to the participation of nuclear power devices, energy conversion process without oxygen. It can simplify the hull structure design and the infrared feature of high temperature gas can be reduced, which reduces the probability of detecting the enemy. Compared with conventional power aircraft carriers, nuclear power aircraft carriers can save a large amount of fuel tank and chimney, and reduce the interference of flight operations and corrosion of the body.
Aircraft carrier is a large platform consisting of many modern advanced technology systems, which is an integrated part of the super-large marine combat set group. Large systems include power systems, electronic information systems, carrier systems, anti-ship, anti-potential, anti-guided defense system. Compared to the ordinary aircraft carrier, nuclear power aircraft carrier currently has the following technical problems:
Nuclear power device technology
Nuclear power device technology is a core technology of nuclear power aircraft carrier. Although China has already had the ability to build a 094 nuclear submarine with drainage volume of 10,000 tons, due to the huge amount of the air carrier, the requirements for nuclear reactors are higher, and the nuclear submarine reactors can be replaced directly to the aircraft carrier. At the time of construction, the French "David" is built, due to the limitations of the technical level and economic conditions, it directly adopts nuclear submarine reactor, leading to the power supply that cannot meet the needs of the aircraft carrier, which has great constraints on the performance of the aircraft carrier. Therefore, the power unit must be provided in accordance with the requirements of the top-level design to allow the nuclear power unit to meet the needs of the overall performance of the aircraft carrier.
Electromagnetic dilometer technology
The current nuclear power aircraft carrier in the world has adopted steam ejection technology, and the United States uses electromagnetic ejection techniques in the "Ford" aircraft carrier in 2016. However, the US experience shows that the electromagnetic elastic system involves engineering development and system integration, and the development cost is high and the cycle is long. The United States has spent 28 years in the Navy aircraft carrier electromagnetic ejection, and the cost of $ 3.2 billion, from the time of investment, the difficulty of this technology can be imagined.
Aircraft carrier reactor is a high-temperature high-voltage high-radiation device, when operating, the temperature of the reactor pressure vessel and the loop conduit can reach 300 ° C, 150 Atmospheric pressure, the reactor is also a powerful source of radiation. The working conditions of the loop are very demanding. In the working hours of up to decades, it will cause great damage to the strength of the protective material. Therefore, in order to ensure that the nuclear power unit is safe and reliable, it is necessary to carry out very in place for the equipment of the loop, while ensuring the quality of the maintenance. It is necessary to pay attention to the radioactive dose monitoring of the environment, scientifically collect and handle the radioactive waste of solid liquid gaseous, and only each place can meet the dose of the required requirements to make the crew and staff have a safe working environment.
First, nuclear power aircraft carrier is an important strategic weapon for maintaining the world and regional peace, defending the country's marine sovereignty, and has a significant improving national status and protection of national territory significance.
Second, the nuclear power device is more suitable for large water surface ships such as aircraft carrier and submarine. Nuclear power aircraft carrier's infinite endurance and sustained high speed advantages can be quickly sent to any of the world's waters. Considering the endurance, combat capabilities, etc., only large aircraft carriers and submarines are more suitable for use cost-high nuclear power devices. In the procedural operation of the Ocean, the lower the nuclear motor carrier, the lower the redeability, and its utility is, the utility of nuclear power is far from the routine power aircraft carrier. In terms of civilian ships, nuclear power devices are usually only applied to the fields such as icebreaker.
Third, the reactor is the core of the nuclear power carrier, and the ship's nuclear power device still needs further exploration. Only with reliable and stable nuclear power devices can ensure that the nuclear power aircraft carrier is stable in a harsh marine environment and continuously plays.
fourth, despite the many advantages, the nuclear power carrier also has certain problems, mainly focusing on cost high and nuclear security issues. Large aircraft carriers are extremely high in their full-service cycles from construction, service to maintenance, retirement, etc.. Therefore, the development of nuclear power aircraft carrier needs to be strongly supported and investment in the country. In addition, the nuclear power carrier is not only high, but its nuclear fuel replacement and retirement itself is also a huge cost. Due to technical reasons, the French Navy "Dai Gaole" did not achieve the target of the original 20-year replacement nuclear fuel. And the US military, due to the large number of the aircraft carrier, the maintenance time is long, and this problem is masked to a certain extent. However, it is undeniable that the disposal, transportation and final processing of nuclear fuel are extremely troublesome.
But Even so, despite the presence, maintenance and use costs are higher related issues, nuclear power aircraft carrier is still an important officer for power. At present, many countries in the world have developed large and medium-sized nuclear power aircraft carriers according to their own national strength and defense needs, and the maritime strong country represented by the United States is firmly unwavering the route of nuclear power aircraft carrier.