Management method

Basic methods

The basic methods of management include administrative methods, economic methods, legal methods, and educational methods.

Administrative method

Meaning: Administrative method refers to the administrative agency directly commanding subordinate actions through administrative orders, indicators, regulations, etc., in accordance with the administrative system and level, based on authority and obedience as the premise Management methods.

Features: authoritative, mandatory, vertical, specific


1. Conducive to the centralization and unification of the management system, avoiding doing things independently.

2. It is conducive to the performance of management functions and strengthens the management role.

3. It is conducive to flexible handling of various special problems.


1. The management effect of administrative methods is directly restricted by the level of organizational leadership.

2. The strong points are centralized and unified, which is not convenient for decentralized management.

3. Distortion of the law of economic value.

Legal method

Meaning: Legal method refers to the use of law, which is a code of conduct formulated or approved by the state and guaranteed to be implemented by the state’s compulsory force, and corresponding social norms for management Method.

Features: normative, serious, compulsory


1. Maintain normal management order.

2. Adjust the relationship between various management factors.

3. Promote socialist democratic construction and democratic management.


1. Lack of flexibility and flexibility, which is not conducive to dealing with some special problems and emerging problems.

2. In principle, it is applicable to various fields of management, but in some fields, it seems powerless.

Economic method

Meaning: The economic method is the organization according to objective laws, using various economic means to adjust the economic interest relationship between various aspects, in order to obtain higher economic benefits and society Benefit management methods.

Features: interest, flexibility, equality, compensation


1. Facilitate decentralization.

2. Fully mobilize the enthusiasm and initiative of the members of the organization.

3. It is conducive to the organization to improve economic efficiency and management efficiency.

Disadvantages: Economic methods are based on the law of value, with a certain degree of blindness and spontaneity.

Educational method

Meaning: The educational method of management refers to the organization according to certain goals and requirements, to carry out targeted ideological and moral education to the managed to inspire their ideological consciousness, so as to Consciously adjust the management methods of their respective behaviors according to the organization's goals.

Features: enlightenment, truthfulness


1. Inspire people's lasting enthusiasm and enthusiasm for work.

2. It plays an important role in promoting the comprehensive application of other management methods.

Disadvantages: Education is not as compulsory as administrative methods and legal methods for the supervised, nor does it have the inducement of economic methods. Existence determines consciousness, and people's thoughts are restricted and influenced by various social factors, as well as traditional thoughts and culture. For ideological education to have a real effect, it must go through long-term and unremitting efforts.

Classification of management methods

Human-based management

From the perspective of the development of management, the adoption of a Come out. After the 1930s, management experts discovered that improving people's enthusiasm and giving full play to their initiative and creativity are more important for improving the efficiency of organizations. The size of the results of organizational activities is determined by the leadership style and the emotions of the staff. As a result, management has shifted the focus of research to the person in management. This is the interpersonal relationship theory with behavioral science as the main content. Interpersonal relationship experts advocate the adoption of behavior management methods, that is, through the analysis of various psychological factors that affect people’s behaviors, and adopting certain measures to improve interpersonal relationships, so as to improve the staff’s mood and morale, so as to produce the greatest results. To achieve the purpose of improving organizational efficiency.

Under the impetus of the theory of interpersonal relations, the management and research of organizations has developed from the original "things" as the center to "people" as the center, and from the original research on "discipline" to the right The analysis of behavior has evolved from the original "supervisory" management to "independent" management, and from the original "dictatorship" management to "democratic participatory" management. Managers adopt a staff-centric leadership approach in management, that is, implement democratic leadership and allow employees to participate in decision-making meetings. Leaders often consider the situation, ideas, requirements and hopes of subordinates, and adopt a cooperative attitude with subordinates to manage problems Through collective discussion, decisions are made by the collective, and supervision also takes the form of mutual supervision among employees, and so on. In this way, employees can easily integrate with the organization emotionally. They are not afraid of alienation but cordial trust to their boss, and their work mood can be maintained at a high level, so that organizational activities can achieve greater results. This kind of human-centered management theory and method also contains a series of more specific management methods. The commonly used methods include participation management, democratic management, work expansion, proposal system, and mobile management.

Scientific management

Scientific management uses money as the bait, and the theory of interpersonal relations advocates that management must attach importance to the psychological satisfaction of people. Classical organization theory emphasizes the rational division of labor and effective control of the organization, while the interpersonal relationship theory emphasizes the stimulation of interpersonal behavior. Therefore, the emergence of interpersonal relationship theory has brought tremendous changes to organizational management. Beginning in the 1940s, the theory of interpersonal relations has gradually infiltrated the practice of organizational management. In this management thought, management scientists have found ways to ease labor relations, improve workers' morale, and improve production efficiency. Human-oriented management method is a new management method proposed as an innovation to task management method. The major difference between this management method and the task management method is: the task management method requires the standardization of the activities of the staff, the staff's degree of freedom in the work is very small, but it is more guaranteed to complete the tasks specified by the organization. The law of behavior management has greater flexibility, staff members have considerable freedom in the organization, and are able to exert their autonomy and creativity. However, in this way, the changes within the organization are also greater, and the tasks specified by the organization are sometimes different. Unable to complete. In order to absorb the strengths of the two methods and overcome the weaknesses, a new management method was proposed, which is the management by objectives method.

Management by objectives

Management by objectives is the initiative of Drucker, a well-known American management scientist. In 1954, in his book "Management Practice", he first proposed "Management by objectives and The proposition of "self-control" was subsequently further elaborated in the book "Management-Tasks, Responsibilities, Practice". Drucker believes that it is not that there is a job to have a goal, but on the contrary, there is a goal to determine everyone's work. Therefore, "the mission and tasks of an enterprise must be transformed into goals." If there is no goal in a field, the work in this field will inevitably be ignored.

Therefore, managers should manage their subordinates through objectives. After the senior managers of the organization have determined the organizational objectives, they must be effectively decomposed and transformed into sub-objectives for each department and individual. Subordinates are assessed, evaluated, rewarded and punished based on the completion of the target. Drucker believes that if a field does not have a specific goal, this field will inevitably be ignored. If there is no consistent direction to indicate everyone's work, the larger the scale of the enterprise, the more people, and the finer the division of labor, the greater the possibility of conflict and waste. The sub-objectives of each manager and worker of an enterprise are the requirements of the enterprise's overall goal, and it is also the contribution of employees to the enterprise's overall goal. Only when each goal is completed can the overall goal of the enterprise be hoped for, and the sub-goals are the main basis for leaders at all levels to assess their subordinates. Drucker also believes that the greatest advantage of management by objectives is that it enables people to use self-control management instead of management dominated by others, and inspires people to exert their utmost ability to do things well.

Target management is based on believing in people’s enthusiasm and ability. Leaders at all levels of an enterprise do not simply rely on administrative orders to force them to do it, but instead use motivational theories to guide their subordinates. Employees set their own work goals, exercise self-control independently, consciously take measures to complete the goals, and automatically conduct self-evaluation.

Objective management induces and inspires employees to do it consciously, and its biggest feature is to promote the realization of the overall goal of the enterprise by stimulating the production potential of the employees and improving the efficiency of the employees.

System Management

After the Second World War, the scale of corporate organizations has expanded and the internal organizational structure of the company has become more complex. This has brought up an important management topic, how to solve the complex Management issues of large enterprises. In order to solve the efficiency problems of complex large enterprises, a systematic approach was born.

The systematic method belongs to the general scientific methodology, which establishes the necessary methodological principles by recognizing, researching and discussing objects with complex structures. The so-called systematic method is a method of understanding and investigating the research object in the form of a system according to the systematic nature of the thing itself. Specifically, from a systematic point of view, always focus on the interaction and mutual restraint between the whole and the part (element), the whole and the external environment, and the interaction and mutual restriction between the part (element) and the part (element) Object, so as to achieve a way to best deal with the problem. The system method is a scientific method that satisfies the whole, takes the overall situation into consideration, and unifies the whole and the part dialectically. It organically combines analysis and synthesis, and uses mathematical language to quantitatively and accurately describe the movement state and law of the research object. It paves the way for the use of mathematical logic and electronic computers to solve complex system problems, and establishes the necessary methodology principles for understanding, researching, and exploring the complex structure of the whole.

When using a systematic method to examine the research object, the principle of integrity and optimization should generally be followed. Integrity is the basic starting point of the system approach. The so-called holistic principle is to treat the research object as an organic whole formed by various constituent elements, reveal the characteristics and movement laws of the object from the interdependence and mutual restraint relationship between the whole and the part, and the overall nature of the research object. The nature of the whole is not equal to the mechanical sum of the properties of the elements that form it. The wholeness of an object is determined by the interaction of the elements (or subsystems) that form it. Therefore, it does not require people to divide the object into many simple parts in advance, examine them separately, and then add them mechanically. It requires that the object be treated as a whole, from the interdependence, interconnection, and mutual restriction of the whole and the elements. The relationship indicates the overall nature of the system. For example, the performance and activity rules of a system composed of people, animals and plants, mountains and rivers, trees, flowers and grass, and atmospheric environment, only exist in the interaction and interdependence of the various elements of the system. Study any part of it separately Neither can reveal the regularity of the system. The principle of optimization refers to selecting an optimal scheme from many alternative schemes in order to make the system run in the optimal state and achieve the optimal effect. It can determine the optimal goal for the system according to needs and possibilities, and use the latest technology and processing methods to divide the entire system into different hierarchical structures, coordinate the relationship between the whole and the parts in the movement, and make the functions and goals of the parts obey the overall system. Optimal efficacy, so as to achieve the overall optimal purpose.

Types of management

Collapsible management

“Closing” means that the cooperation between the individual and the whole must be emphasized in the management of the enterprise, so as to create a high degree of harmony between the whole and the individual . "Boss" magazine stated that in corporate management, European and American companies mainly emphasize personal struggle, and encourage different management to harmonize and learn from each other. Its specific characteristics are:

1. Rhythm. A harmonious and energetic atmosphere is reached between enterprises and individuals, which inspires people's drive and pride.

2. It is both integral and individual. Every member of the company has a sense of mission for the company. "I am the company" is a resounding slogan in "closed-up" management.

3. Self-organization. Let your subordinates make decisions and manage yourself.

4. Volatility. Modern business management must implement a flexible business strategy, progress and innovate amidst fluctuations.

5. Complement each other. It is necessary to encourage different views and practices to complement each other, so that the shortcomings in one situation become the advantages in another.

Drawer management

It is also called "job analysis" in modern enterprise management. "Drawer-style" management describes that there is a clear job specification in the drawer of each manager's desk. In corporate management, there can be neither duties nor powers, nor powers and no powers. Responsibilities must be combined with duties, responsibilities, powers and interests.

There are five steps for enterprise managers to carry out "drawer-style" management: The first step is to establish a job analysis team composed of various departments of the enterprise. The second step is to correctly handle the relationship between centralization and decentralization within the enterprise. The third step is to decompose layer by layer around the overall goal of the enterprise, and implement the scope of responsibility and authority level by level. The fourth step is to compile "job descriptions" and "job specifications" and work out the requirements for each job. The fifth step must consider the combination of the assessment system and the reward and punishment system.

One-minute management

Many business managers in the West have adopted the "one-minute" management rule and achieved remarkable results. The specific content is: one minute goal, one minute praise and one minute penalty. The so-called one-minute goal means that everyone in the company clearly writes down their main goals and responsibilities on a piece of paper. Each goal and its inspection criteria should be clearly expressed in 250 words and can be read in one minute. In this way, it is convenient for everyone to have a clear understanding of why and how to do it, and check their work regularly based on this. One minute of praise is human resource incentives. The specific method is that the manager of the enterprise often spends a short time, picking out the correct part of the things that the employees do to praise. This can encourage each employee to be clear about what he is doing, work harder, and continue to develop in the direction of perfection. One-minute punishment refers to something that should have been done but not done well. The person concerned is first criticized in time, pointed out its mistakes, and then reminded "how do you value him? What is dissatisfied is his work here and now." . In this way, people who have done something wrong can be willing to accept criticism and take care to avoid the same mistakes in the future.

The beauty of the "one minute" management rule is that it greatly shortens the business management process and has immediate results. One-minute goals make it easy for each employee to clarify their job responsibilities and strive to achieve their own work goals; one-minute praise can make each employee work harder; one-minute punishment can make the wrongdoer willing to accept criticism and encourage him Work more seriously in the future.

Management characteristics


Modern management methods develop the qualitative description of traditional management methods to the quantitative calculation of absorption and management, and combine qualitative analysis and The combination of quantitative analysis makes management “scientific”. Practice has proved that qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis are two sides that cannot be partial or neglected. Without qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis will lose its soul and lose its direction; and any quality is expressed as a certain quantity, without quantity, there is no quality, and without accurate numbers as the basis, correct judgments cannot be made.


Modern management methods widely adopt modern system theories, apply system analysis methods to management, and systematize and simplify complex issues. Modern management methods provide a scientific mathematical model for managers to comprehensively understand and solve problems, and implement the optimal selection of plans, scheme designs, and methods.


The application of modern management methods can achieve management standardization. The standardization of management work is to stipulate standard data, standard work procedures, and standard work methods that are frequently repeated in management work in accordance with the laws of management activities, as the principle of engaging in management work.


In modern management, not only fully develop the role of leaders and professional Employees play a greater role in management.


Identify the problem

At the beginning of the system analysis, we must first clearly determine the nature and scope of the problem to be solved, and what the research problem contains The main factors, analyze the interrelationship between the elements of the system, and the interrelationship with the external environment. Only by delimiting the boundaries of the problem in this way can the identified problem be understood and realistic. After determining the problem, you should start to collect data, investigate, experiment, observe, record, the status of each element (subsystem), environmental conditions, etc. This is essential for establishing models and conducting feasibility studies and comparisons of various model schemes.

System analysis

For the same specific goal, there are many ways to implement it, and the investment and benefits of each method will be different. System analysis consists in drawing up as many action plans as possible and conducting experiments and comparisons to find the lowest cost and best effective plan. When analyzing and analyzing, the complex system is always decomposed into a number of simpler subsystems, and then the results of the decomposition are synthesized and analyzed as a whole. Only by repeating this many times can it be close to objectiveness.

After systematic analysis of various schemes, which one is better? Which is worse? How feasible is it? All have a reliable basis. But are these methods reliable? Is the quoted information accurate? It also requires decision makers to make judgments. This is the process by which decision makers use wisdom and experience. Various mathematics and measurement methods cannot replace the wisdom and experience of decision makers.

Scheme decision

Choose a scheme from one or several schemes that are worth adopting or further consideration, and try to choose the best scheme that meets the system requirements among the candidate schemes.

Implementation plan

According to the final selected plan, specific implementation will be carried out as planned. If the implementation is relatively smooth, or if there are not many difficulties encountered, a slight modification can proceed smoothly, then the whole step will come to an end. If there are more problems, you need to go back to one of the previous steps and start over.

In management practice, the biggest problem with the system approach is that the optimal plan is difficult to determine, because no plan can be considered optimal from any angle. For the same plan, if you choose With different influencing factors, the optimal conclusions are often different. The lack of a clear indicator for the choice of schemes makes the system method cumbersome in the actual operation process, and the final implementation of the organization is often not the optimal scheme. Management Theory Research Network

Management methods are working methods adopted in management activities to achieve management goals and ensure the smooth progress of management activities.


Clear responsibilities

Goal management establishes a complete vertical and horizontal connection within the enterprise by setting goals from top to bottom or bottom to top. The goal system, which closely organizes all departments and all types of personnel in the enterprise in the goal system, clarifies responsibilities and distinguishes relationships, so that each employee’s work is directly or indirectly linked to the overall goal of the enterprise, so that employees can see Clear the relationship between personal work goals and corporate goals, understand the value of your work, and inspire everyone's enthusiasm to care about corporate goals. In this way, the strength and talents of all employees can be concentrated more effectively, and the work results of the enterprise can be improved.

Employee participation

Target management attaches great importance to consultation, joint discussion and exchange of opinions between superiors and superiors. Through consultation, deepen the understanding of the target, eliminate the differences of opinion between the superior and the superior, and achieve the unity of the superior and the superior. Because goal management absorbs all employees of the enterprise to participate in the whole process of goal management implementation, respects the individual will and wishes of employees, gives full play to the autonomy of employees, exercises self-control, and changes the traditional practice of assigning work tasks from top to bottom. The initiative, enthusiasm and creativity of employees.

Focus on results

The goal pursued by objective management is the work results that the enterprise and each employee should achieve in a certain period of time. Target management does not take action performance as satisfaction, but actual results as the goal. For target management, work results are not only the basis for assessing the degree of completion of the target, but also the main basis for awards and personnel assessment. Therefore, management by objectives is also called results management. If you leave the results of your work, you don't call it management by objectives.

Because the task management law not only stipulates the work task, but also the method to complete the task, and the tasks and methods are standardized. The work enthusiasm and creativity are severely restricted; and the human-based management law puts too much emphasis on the leadership’s trust in the employees and let the employees go to work independently, which makes it difficult to ensure the completion of the tasks. The goal management method combines the two, that is, the organization stipulates the overall goal, each department sets the department goal according to the overall goal, and the department goal is decomposed and implemented to the people. As for how to achieve the goal, let the staff let the staff decide. In this way, it can not only ensure the completion of the organization's tasks, but also give full play to the initiative and enthusiasm of the employees. Therefore, the goal management method is a superior management method compared with the task management method and the behavior management method. After target management was put forward, it spread quickly in the United States. After the Second World War, when the economies of various countries shifted from recovery to rapid development, companies urgently needed to adopt new methods to mobilize the enthusiasm of employees to improve their competitiveness. The emergence of target management can be said to have emerged at the historic moment, so it was widely used, and soon became Japan’s , Western European and other countries’ enterprises have imitated it and become popular all over the world.

Target management may seem simple, but to put it into practice, managers must have a good understanding and understanding of it.

First of all, managers must know what target management is and why they should implement target management. If the managers themselves cannot understand and master the principles of management by objectives, it is impossible to organize and implement management by objectives.

Secondly, managers must know what the company’s goals are and how their own activities adapt to these goals. If some of the company's goals are ambiguous, unrealistic or uncoordinated, it is actually impossible for managers to coordinate with these goals.

Third, the goals set by goal management must be correct and reasonable. The so-called correctness means that the setting of goals should conform to the long-term interests of the enterprise and be consistent with the goals of the enterprise, rather than short-term. Reasonable means that the number and standards for setting goals should be scientific, because too much emphasis on work results will bring pressure to human behavior and lead to unscrupulous behavior. In order to reduce the possibility of choosing unethical means to achieve these effects, managers must determine reasonable goals and clearly express expectations of behavior, so that employees always have a normal degree of "tension" and "work."

Fourth, the set goals are assessable in terms of quantity and quality, which may be the key to the success of goal management. Any goal should be measurable in quantity or quality. Some goals, such as "always pay attention to customer needs and serve them well", or "minimize credit loss", or "improve the efficiency of personnel No one in time can accurately answer whether they have achieved these goals. If the target management cannot be assessed, it will not be helpful for the evaluation of management work or work effect.

Because goal management has relatively high requirements for managers, and there are always problems of this kind and that in the setting of goals, the goal management is often Form has great limitations in practice.

Improve the application

Strengthen the scientific basis for management methods. In management practice, it is necessary to continuously promote the construction and improvement of management methods to make management methods more scientific and effective. Among them, the most important thing is to strengthen the scientific basis of management methods, make them comply with the requirements of relevant objective laws, and better reflect the functional role of management mechanisms. It is necessary to clarify the nature and characteristics of management methods, and use them correctly. If a manager decides to adopt a management method, he must find out what the objective basis of its role is, which aspect of the method it acts on, whether it can produce obvious results, and the characteristics and limitations of the method itself in order to be correct and effective Use it. Study the nature and characteristics of managers and management objects to improve pertinence. The management method is the way or means by which the manager acts as the management object. The final effect depends not only on the factors of the method itself, but also on the nature and characteristics of the two parties to the management. It is necessary to study the management objects and the managers themselves. Only in this way can the management methods be applied to the management objects and be conducive to the exertion of the advantages of the managers, so that the management methods are highly targeted and effective.

Understand and master the management environment factors, and adopt appropriate management methods. Since the management environment is an important factor that affects the effectiveness of management, managers must carefully understand and master environmental variables when choosing and using management methods, including timing, so that the management methods are in harmony with the environment in which they are located. Play its role effectively.

Pay attention to the comprehensive application of management methods. Different management methods have their own strengths and limitations, and each exerts its advantages in different fields. No method is absolutely applicable to all occasions, and there is no occasion where only one method can be used. Therefore, in order to use management methods scientifically and effectively, it is necessary to flexibly choose a variety of methods according to goals and actual needs, and apply various management methods comprehensively and systematically in order to achieve the overall effectiveness of the management methods.

Modernization Guidelines

1. Realize scientific management methods.

2. Realize the optimization of management methods.

3. Realize the civilization of management methods.

4. Realize the modernization of management methods.


Management method is the natural extension, specificity and actualization of management theory and principle. It is a necessary bridge for management principles to guide management activities and a way to achieve management goals. Its role is irreplaceable by all management theories and principles themselves.

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