Now, with the improvement of my country's industrial equipment level, the level of lubrication and maintenance needs to be improved urgently. Experts have predicted that about 35% of the world's energy losses are due to friction and wear. In 1999, the economic benefit that Japan gained from the management of mechanical lubrication was about 8 trillion yen. In our daily life, a car running on the road may lose thousands of dollars in repair costs and transportation income due to a bearing’s lack of oil and burn; on the rumbling steel production line, it may be because of a key bearing’s burning. , And the entire assembly line ceased production, resulting in chain economic losses of tens to millions. Therefore, it is of great significance to pay great attention to improving backward lubricating equipment, to allocate full-time lubricators, to strictly select lubricating oil, and to do a good job of lubrication seriously. Improving the level of lubrication management has the following significance:
1. Advanced lubrication management system can greatly reduce the cost of spare parts of the sports pair and the complete machine, and reduce the pressure of the library;
2. Extend or Multiply the service life of the sports pair and the whole machine, reduce maintenance personnel and maintenance costs;
3. Reduce wear resistance, reduce energy consumption, and save electricity or fuel costs;
4 .Reduce the time and frequency of production stoppage and replacement due to the wear and tear of the sports pair, and greatly improve the production efficiency.
It is usually used by enterprises as a method of equipment management together with active maintenance
Active maintenance refers to: the root cause of equipment damage Carry out repairs to effectively prevent failures from occurring. With the continuous deepening of industrial modernization, lubrication management and active maintenance have received more and more attention from enterprises. People in the industry have found that the input-output ratio of this work is astonishingly high, generally over a hundred times.
One. What is lubrication
Add lubricant between the contact surfaces of various friction pairs that undergo relative motion, so that the two friction A lubricating film is formed between the surfaces to separate the dry friction surfaces that were in direct contact. The dry friction becomes the friction between the lubricant molecules to reduce friction, reduce wear, and extend the service life of mechanical equipment. This is lubrication.
2. Lubrication requirements
Due to the different functions, working conditions and properties of the friction pairs, the requirements for lubrication are also different. The following points are summarized:
(1) According to the working conditions and nature of the friction pair, select an appropriate lubricant.
(2) Determine the correct lubrication method and method according to the working conditions and nature of the friction pair, and distribute the lubricating oil between the friction surfaces in a certain amount.
(3) Do a good job in lubrication management
three. The role of lubricants
The purpose of using lubricants is to lubricate the friction part of the machine, reduce friction resistance, prevent sintering and wear, reduce power consumption, and improve mechanical efficiency . In addition, there are some practical effects, which are summarized as follows:
(1) Reduce friction
Adding lubricant between the friction surfaces can reduce the friction coefficient. Thereby reducing frictional resistance and saving energy consumption. Under fluid lubrication conditions, the viscosity of the lubricating oil and the thickness of the oil film play a very important role in reducing friction. With the increase of metal-metal contact points between the contact surfaces of the friction pair, boundary lubrication conditions appear. At this time, the chemical properties of the lubricant (the chemical activity of the additives) become extremely important.
(2) Reduce wear
The adhesive wear, surface fatigue wear and corrosion wear of mechanical parts are closely related to the lubrication conditions. Adding antioxidants and anticorrosive agents to the lubricant is beneficial to inhibit corrosion and wear, while adding oily agents and extreme pressure antiwear agents can effectively reduce adhesive wear and surface fatigue wear.
(3) Cooling effect
Lubricants can reduce friction, and can absorb heat, transfer heat and dissipate heat, thus reducing the temperature rise caused by mechanical running friction ω.
(4) Anti-corrosion effect
When the friction surface is covered with lubricant, it can prevent or avoid air, water droplets, water vapor, corrosive gas and liquid, dust, and oxidation. Corrosion and rust caused by objects, etc.
The electrical resistance of refined mineral oil is high. For example, electrical insulating oil used as electrical insulating material has a resistivity of 2*10 16
Ω.mm2/m (water is 0.5*10 16Ω. mm2/m)
(6) Force transmission oil can be used as static force transmission medium. For example, hydraulic oil for automobiles and cranes. It can also be used as a power transmission medium, such as automatic transmission oil.
(7) Vibration reduction effect
Lubricant is adsorbed on the metal surface and has low stress. Therefore, it has the ability to absorb impact energy when the friction pair is subjected to an impact load. For example, the shock absorber of a car is oil damping (converting mechanical energy into fluid energy).
(8) Cleaning effect
The impurities in the oil system can be taken away through the circulation of lubricating oil, and then filtered out by the filter. Engine oil can also disperse dust and various sediments, and play a role in keeping the engine clean.
(9) Sealing function
Lubricant forms a seal on certain exposed parts, prevents the intrusion of moisture or impurities, and acts as a seal between the cylinder and the piston.
Enterprises need to establish a lubrication management system and use scientific lubrication technology. Set up an appropriate lubrication management organization, and allocate necessary full-time or part-time lubrication management technical personnel, with a reasonable division of labor and clear responsibilities. The basic content of lubrication management is as follows.
1. Determine the lubrication management organization, formulate the rules and regulations of lubrication management, job responsibilities and work rules.
2. Implement the "five fixed" management of equipment lubrication work.
3. Compile equipment lubrication technical files (including lubrication charts, cards, lubrication process regulations, etc.) to guide equipment operators and maintenance workers to correctly carry out equipment lubrication.
4. Organize the supply, storage and use of various lubricating materials. Pay attention to several links such as oil plan, quality inspection, oil substitute, oil saving and oil recovery, and implement fixed oil use.
5. Compile equipment cleaning and oil change plans for the year, season, and month, and the equipment cleaning and oil change cycle structure suitable for the factory.
6. Check the lubrication status of the equipment, and solve the problems in the equipment lubrication system in time. Such as supplementing or replacing defective lubricating elements, devices, refueling tools, appliances, etc., and improving refueling methods.
7. Take measures to prevent equipment leakage. Summarize and accumulate experience in controlling oil spills.
8. Organize technical training for lubrication work, and carry out publicity work for equipment lubrication.
9. Organize the test and application of new grease, new additives, new sealing materials, and new lubrication technologies for equipment lubrication, learn, and promote advanced lubrication management experience at home and abroad.
1. Organizational structure
In order to ensure the normal development of lubrication management, the company’s lubrication management organization should reasonably Setting up various levels of lubrication management organizations and equipping them with appropriate personnel is an important link and organizational guarantee for doing well equipment lubrication. There are currently two main organizational forms of lubrication management, namely, centralized management and decentralized management (in the process of converting the business mechanism, the company can consider the setting of the lubrication organization according to the needs of equipment management).
(1) Centralized management form
It is to set up a lubrication station and a lubricating oil regeneration group under the equipment power department of the enterprise to directly manage the equipment lubrication work in all workshops of the plant (Figure 1― 1). The advantages of this management form are conducive to the rational use of labor, to improve the professionalization, work efficiency and quality of lubrication personnel, and to promote advanced lubrication technology. The disadvantage of this type of organization is poor coordination with production. Therefore, this form of organization is mainly used for small and medium-sized enterprises.
Figure 1-1 Centralized management form
(2) The decentralized management form is to establish a lubrication terminal in the equipment power department, with a lubricant preparation group, a cutting fluid preparation group and waste oil The recycling group is responsible for the regeneration of lubricating oil, cutting fluid and waste oil throughout the plant. The workshop is equipped with a lubrication station, responsible for the lubrication of the equipment in the workshop (Figure 1-2). The advantage of this form is that it can fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the workshop, which is conducive to production cooperation. Its disadvantage is that the technical force is scattered and it is easy to overlook the equipment lubrication work. Decentralized management is mainly used in large enterprises.
Figure 1-2 Decentralized management form
2. Lubrication management Staffing
Large and medium-sized enterprises, in the equipment power department To be equipped with engineering and technical personnel in charge of lubrication work. Small enterprises should set up full-time (part-time) lubrication technicians in the equipment power department. The number of lubricating technicians can be determined according to the total amount of the company’s equipment complexity factor. Table 1-1 is the reference number for determining the proportion of personnel allocated according to the repair complexity coefficient.
Table 1-1 The proportion of lubrication workers employed
According to the needs of carrying out lubricating oil working condition testing and waste oil recycling, large and medium-sized enterprises should be equipped with oil laboratories and laboratory technicians. The waste oil treatment station should be managed by a dedicated person.
Lubrication technicians should be educated in mechanical or friction lubrication engineering at technical secondary school or above, be able to select lubricating materials correctly, master information about new lubricating materials, and have analysis and monitoring instruments and judgments for operating general oils The ability of the pros and cons of oil products to continuously improve lubrication management.
Lubrication workers are technical types of work. In addition to mastering the technical knowledge that lubricators should have, they should also have the skills of a maintenance fitter above the second level. It is necessary to complete cleaning, oil change, and oil filling work, frequently check the lubrication status of the equipment, do a good job in the management of various lubrication tools, and also assist in the lubrication management business, and send samples for inspection on a regular basis.
In recent years, various industrial machinery has become increasingly automated, and mechanical design and structure have become increasingly sophisticated and complex. Generally, factories are prone to blindly develop production, and neglect the proper lubrication and maintenance of machinery, so that failures are prone to occur, affecting the shutdown of the entire production system, and the loss is so large that it is difficult to estimate. In order to maintain the smooth operation of production machinery, proper management of lubrication is necessary to maximize the efficiency of machinery and equipment.
It is not difficult to implement lubrication management, but the following five key points must be paid attention to at any time and place:
1. Right oil-Choose a lubricating agent of appropriate specifications.
2. Right time-refuel, check and change the oil at the specified time.
3. Right quantity-add appropriate amount of lubricant.
4. Right place-Add lubricant to the part that needs lubrication.
5. Right man-who can refuel, change oil, and check.
After the implementation of lubrication management, because the mechanical lubrication is correct, the following results will be achieved:
1. Reduce friction and save power consumption.
2. Reduce wear and extend mechanical life.
3. Reduce mechanical failures and improve production efficiency.
4. Save lubricating oil.
5. Reduce costs and increase production profits.