1973 Nian from the "Tokyo Declaration" was officially launched GATT negotiations and ended in 1979. States participating in the current round of negotiations (including many developing countries and several Eastern European countries) need to make more than the previous rounds, the discussion has expanded to include non-tariff barriers, including areas.
US President Richard Nixon proposed the convening of the cause after several rounds of consultations with the EC and Japan, it was also known as "Nixon round." This round of negotiations to cut tariffs result in a comprehensive way of cuts, the level of import tariffs fell by 35 percent, nine major industrial markets finished the weighted average tariff rate from 7% reduced to 4.7%, of which the EC is 5% United States 4%, 3% in Japan, involving $ 300 billion in trade volume, including some agricultural products.
1. Using the most general principles governing tariff negotiations in order to achieve concessions, constraints, and eliminate tariffs;
2. Reduce, eliminate non-tariff barriers, to reduce or eliminate adverse effects of such barriers and restrictions on trade, and this barrier more effectively placed under international control;
3. Check the multilateral trading system, security system, especially the reference to Article 19 of the GATT;
4. The method of agricultural trade liberalization, features and steps;
5. Priority was given to tropical products and preferential treatment;
6. It is deducted for certain "category" of all trade protection.
As an overall reduction of more than five years in a way the result of tariff reductions, tariff concessions and constraints involving $ 300 billion trade volume, with this result, "Kennedy Round" comparable. Developing countries to implement their import tariff concessions and $ 3.9 billion in the form of constraints, in terms of tariff reduction commitments.
The main difference
limit non-tariff barriers as the main content, and success in some respects. As specified:
1 in addition to allowing exceptions, government procurement should be taken to international tender open competition, should not discriminate against foreign suppliers.
2. In addition to agriculture, forestry, aquatic products, prohibit all subsidies for exports, or importing country may impose anti-dumping and countervailing duties.
3. Simplify import licensing procedures, and non-discrimination for all the supplier, equal and open basis to handle.
4. Technical barriers constraint technology, health and safety trade.
5. To develop a fair and reasonable customs valuation system.
These protocols require the signing Governments should ensure that existing policies are consistent with the agreement, both breaking the constraints "grandfather clause" of the "provisional application of the Protocol", the General Agreement itself off than more binding. This round of talks has laid the foundation for improving the November 1979 GATT provisions in the following areas:
1 to adopt and implement more favorable treatment to developing countries "enabling clause.".
2. To allow developing countries to maintain basic needs and priorities and seek to adopt a more flexible trade measures.
3. Finishing Depending on the design of the General Agreement, trade restrictions to protect domestic fiscal and balance of payments and adopted.
4. Measures to improve the overall workings of the agreement, such as consultation, supervision and resolve disputes.
significance Tokyo Round
Tokyo Round range including the reduction or elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers, as well as any other measures that impede or undermine industrial and agricultural products in world trade. Among them, including tropical products and raw materials, irrespective of their most elementary or already processed products. The adequacy of its use as a supplementary measure to safeguard the multilateral system of coordination reduction or elimination of trade barriers in all likelihood some selected departments for consideration.
Tokyo Round of talks than ever, the content of any agreement is more extensive and rich, it is not only to develop trade and tariff reduction and elimination of non-tariff measures, and for the next ten years the multilateral trading system the relationship between form and international trade has made a design. The main achievements of the Tokyo Round negotiations 11 separate agreements, in which all or part of nine agreements with non-tariff barriers related, two are about tariff barriers. There are six specific agreements on non-tariff barriers, which are: dumping, subsidies, standards, government procurement, customs valuation and import licensing procedures. In addition three non-tariff agreement is sector-specific, involving civil aircraft, dairy products and beef.
From the development of the multilateral trading system and to strengthen the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade of functional point of view, the Tokyo Round is an important turning point, played a role in connecting link. First introduced according to the established formula of tariff reduction, the greater the higher the tariff concessions magnitude; the second is to produce a range of only a few non-tariff barriers in the agreement of the Parties in force (commonly referred to as the Code). They are subsidies and countervailing measures, technical barriers to trade, import licensing procedures, government procurement, customs valuation, anti-dumping, beef agreement, International Dairy Agreement, trade in civil aircraft agreement; Third, developing countries may have a choice to participate in the relevant agreement or code of practice .
Although the Tokyo Round achieved some success, but it does not and can not solve all the problems facing the multilateral trading system. Agricultural exporting countries continued to complain of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade failed to resolve their concerns; the implementation of automatic restrictions on exports of automotive practice at that time did not concluding observations. Similar problems are a threat to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade system.