means a mountain plateau where the climate is affected by the height of the formed weather and terrain of mountains. Mainly in Gao Taishan and large highland regions such as the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau, Andes of South America and so on. Gao Taishan, the temperature decreases with increasing height, vertical climate change significantly within a certain height, humidity, fog, more precipitation; more to the upper portion of the mountain, stronger wind. China Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, high altitude, low temperature, but strong radiation, abundant sunshine, low rainfall, strong wind and winter months. The annual temperature range is small, day difference is large.
mountain vegetation type diversity by altitude and latitude influence.
vertical distribution of climate, biodiversity, climate is a very special type, other climate are affected by the level of influence of latitude, and altitude mountain climate is not, it is particularly affected by the terrain elevation a high degree of influence.
plateaus diurnal temperature difference no more than 10 ℃. Windward precipitation, low snow line; leeward less precipitation, high snow line.
alpine climate on the ground than to seem extreme instability, changes dramatically. This is because the rapid temperature change on mountains, high and low temperature difference (diurnal temperature) is relatively large. Between about 15-20 ℃.
low temperature and low pressure. Starting from sea level, is increased by 1,000 m, the temperature drops by about 6 degrees. Thus, although in the foothills of 30 ℃, but up to 4000 meters high mountain, as Yushan, but only about 10 ℃. As pressure is inversely proportional. The higher the altitude, the lower the air pressure. Under standard conditions, increased by 100 m, 10 mbar reduced pressure. 750 mbar, 4000 meters high Peak about 460 mbar. The phenomenon of low pressure to affect the human body caused by the shortness of breath, loss of appetite and other symptoms, which is characterized by altitude sickness. More exposed, windy. Because of the changing climate on the mountain between one said, whether in summer or winter, frequent fog influx and make the whole mountain into a vast expanse of the world. The visibility around suddenly reduced, make it easier to hit fans in the fog season, the already low temperatures, coupled with the fog caused by moist air, so that the exposed skin susceptible to damage. The mountains and how windy it? That is because the undulating terrain on the mountain are significant differences between the ground and the sun's radiant heat due to the uneven distribution of heat, so often the phenomenon of air flow. And because the mountain air flow resistance than the multi-wind. Winter fall frost and summer heat thunderstorm. Rain hail the occasion. Hot summer thunderstorm in the afternoon on the mountain and more.
plateau mountain climate is a non-zonal climate, refers to the plateau azonal caused by climate and altitude mountain climate (mountain climate). The natural climatic zone with a vertical level with the equator to the poles with a natural appearance similar to its band spectrum of how much altitude and latitude of the mountain about. Baseband determining the horizontal zone consistent with a natural, line height is proportional to the temperature of snow, rain and inversely. Mountain climate is a place highly influenced by climate and terrain of mountains formed. The main factors as altitude, towards the mountains, slope and terrain.
① atmospheric pressure exponentially decreases with increasing altitude. Under clear sky conditions, without snow covered mountain direct solar radiation during the day and night active radiation intensity with height increases. Due to different slope, various sunny and shady get solar radiation, and thus affect the distribution of temperature and air flow.
② air temperature decreases with increasing altitude above sea level. General lapse rate to summer maximum, minimum in winter of the year. Mountains to the main table and aspect affect the temperature of the temperature difference generated on both sides of the mountains, and lead to different weather phenomena. Sunny high temperature, large changes, shady low temperature, small change. Diurnal temperature range and in the summit and slopes of the poor is relatively small, and there are autumn and spring temperature higher than the temperature of the phenomenon of poor daily temperature valley and mountain basin and the annual range is relatively large, and there are high temperatures in spring in autumn temperature phenomenon.
③ precipitation and precipitation days with mountain altitude increases. Mountain above a certain height, due to the reduced water vapor content in the gas flow, and precipitation with height increases. Precipitation maximum height as the maximum precipitation height. Aspect affect the performance of the rainfall is more rainfall windward leeward. Especially on both sides of tall mountains, huge difference in rainfall caused great changes in vegetation landscape. For example, the North American west coast Kedilela mountains south in the temperate westerlies, the wind of the west side of the forest landscape, and the east side of the leeward is desert or semi-desert landscape. Mountainous terrain also affects the diurnal variation of rainfall. General to the top of the mountain is a multi-day rain, but the valley basin places mainly rain.
④ wind speed increases with increasing altitude mountain. Peak, ridges and valleys the outlet wind speed, wind speed small basin, bottom and lee. Winds on the mountain at night are generally large and small during the day, afternoon minimum, and foothills, valleys and vice versa. Mountain also have some local circulation, such as wind valley, striped mullet, foehn, slope wind, wind and ice.
⑤ humidity (water vapor pressure and relative humidity) aspect, the water pressure decreases with increasing altitude. In most cases, the upper portion of the mountain because of the low temperatures, clouds and more, above the lower the relative humidity, but also in winter high mountain contrary, less cloud Peak winter small relative humidity. Day valleys and basins relative humidity changes, high night and day low, the lowest in the afternoon. Peak diurnal variation of relative humidity is generally small.
early plateau and mountain people will have altitude sickness, which is a feature of plateaus caused by climate, the specific performance is as follows:< p> a, hypobaric hypoxia:atmospheric pressure varies with altitude, the composition of atmospheric gases, the height varies in tandem, i.e., decreasing with height. Oxygen partial pressure as well. Reduced atmospheric pressure at high altitude. Atmospheric oxygen and the oxygen partial pressure decreases, the human alveolar oxygen partial pressure is reduced, the diffusion of oxygen in the blood capillaries into the lung will be reduced, and arterial oxygen saturation is also reduced, as oxygen saturation decreases to a certain extent, organs and tissues can cause insufficient supply of oxygen to produce functional or organic changes, then hypoxia symptoms, such as headache, dizziness, memory loss, palpitation, shortness of breath, cyanosis, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, bloating, fatigue, insomnia, changes in blood pressure and the like. This is also the root causes altitude sickness occurs.
two, cold and dried: temperature with increasing altitude gradually decreased, generally every 1000 meters, the temperature dropped to about 6.5 deg.] C, and even in some areas liter 150 meters high can be reduced by 1 ℃. Thin air in most parts of the plateau, dry few clouds during the day and ground receiving large amounts of solar radiation energy, the temperature near the ground floor of a rapid increase in the evening, cooling the ground fast, sharp decline in surface air temperature. Therefore, the difference between the highest temperature among the lowest temperature of the plateau one day and a great, sometimes within one day, going through cold and heat, Bai Tianlie day when the air, sometimes temperatures as high as 20 ~ 30 ℃, and sometimes at night and early morning temperatures can drop below 0 ℃, this is also a major feature of the plateau climate. Since the plateau atmospheric pressure, vapor pressure is also low, with the increase in moisture in the air and decreasing altitude, the more so the higher elevations tend drying climate. Plateau wind speed, surface moisture loss significantly higher than the plains, especially breathing deepened to speed up the moisture and sweat shed during labor or strenuous activity even more. At the same time due to the diuretic factors of high altitude hypoxia and cold, so that the body's water content is reduced, resulting in respiratory tract and systemic exceptionally dry skin, reducing defense capabilities, Rongyifasheng pharyngitis, dry cough, nosebleeds and chapped and so on.
Third, the long duration of sunshine, solar radiation Strong: plateau thin air cleaner, less dust and water vapor content, transparency of the atmosphere is higher than the plains, the transmittance of solar radiation increases with altitude increases, the impact of the strong ultraviolet radiation of the sun and is mainly exposed skin, eyes Rongyifasheng damage, skin damage manifested as sunburn, edema, pigmentation, thickening of the skin and wrinkles formation. High altitude sunlight and strong ultraviolet radiation likely to cause acute eye damage, mainly caused acute keratitis, cataract, snow blindness and visual impairment.
Four other factors: plateau hypoxia often caused by reduced gastrointestinal motility, saliva, bile and intestinal fluid secretion reduction, loss of appetite, poor digestion and absorption.
plateau famous worldwide latitude and low latitudes, there is China's Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, Inner Mongolia Plateau and the Loess Plateau, western highlands, highland Bolivia and South America highlands of East Africa and so on. Due to differences in their geographical location, land and sea environment, altitude and plateau form, the climate is also different.
The average height of 4,000 meters above the Tibetan Plateau, an area of great highland climate features more prominent. The main features of the plateau climate are: ① a small thickness since the upper plateau atmosphere, low moisture content and the like, so that the radiation intensity, the intensity of ultraviolet radiation increases more. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau radiation than most areas in the same latitude in eastern China height of about 1 times. Meanwhile, the large highland effective radiation, radiation balance so small. ② plateau daily temperature changes significantly. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau daily temperature change of about 1 to 2 times higher than in eastern China. ③ plateau for ocean currents rainy edge strip, with the interior of the edge away from the plateau ocean currents are low rainfall. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau south of Cherrapunji (India) average annual rainfall of 11,429 mm, while the hinterland of the plateau, west and north of rainfall of less than 100 mm. ④ Since the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in surface air temperature changes and different from the surrounding atmosphere with a high degree of freedom, the winter, the temperature gradient direction in summer there is a difference, hence the plateau monsoon phenomenon.
Loess Plateau climate, can be summarized as follows: less rainfall, the rainy season is short, longer dry seasons, wet and dry season, obviously; adequate sunlight, sunshine hours and more, frost-free period, the conditions are favorable heat ; windy winter and spring, winter and dry, drought quite obvious. Loess Plateau annual rainfall is generally between 300 to 600 millimeters annual rainfall in some areas up to 800 to 1000 mm. Rainfall concentrated in the summer, focus on seven or eight two months, relatively short rainy season, dry and dry relatively long period of time. Due to the rainfall concentrated in the summer, the chance of heavy rain in summer precipitation and relatively more, and often accompanied by heavy rain and hail, so the summer rainy, hail climate is a characteristic of the Loess Plateau. Flash rainstorms often cause flash floods and soil erosion; strong hail is often destroyed large areas of crops.
Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, Yunnan and Guizhou Plateau is the general term plateau, including Guizhou, Yunnan mountain region east of mourning labor, the northern part of Guangxi and Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan and other provinces and the junction region, at an altitude 1000 between ~ 2000 meters, similar to the Northwest Loess Plateau. But the Guizhou Plateau and the Yunnan plateau in terms of climate and natural landscape features still has not exactly features. Guizhou plateau climate characteristics, can be summarized as follows: the more abundant rainfall, gentle rain, more rain days throughout the year and more clouds, less sunshine, humid climate, temperature change in gentle, slow winter there is a sense of cool in summer. Climatic conditions Yunnan plateau strategic yet strange, its geographical latitude south, it has a subtropical climate characteristics of low latitude, but its high altitude, but it is not entirely different from the sub-tropical climate. Plateau topography and altitude, greatly enriched the natural landscape in Yunnan and its climatic conditions, the unique climate of Yunnan plateau, and another features. From the temperature characteristics, the most parts of Yunnan Plateau, the total can be said: summer is cool, not cold in winter, suitable temperature, spring, obviously can not tell the year of the changing seasons.
represents the region
Qinghai high altitude cold desert and mountain widespread, thin air, forming a unique Qinghai plateau climate characteristics, namely: a cool, dry, windy, hypoxia. Qinghai average annual temperature is -5.8 -8.6 degrees Celsius, the temperature around with different altitude and vertical distribution. As to the temperature is concerned, it was concluded climate characteristics Qinghai: "The short summer long winter, spring and connected." Drying climate is another notable feature of Qinghai, Qinghai average annual precipitation is about 300 mm, but the annual precipitation in most areas less than 400 mm, a relatively large area of up to 500-700 mm of precipitation, in part, appear to snowstorm way, The annual precipitation of the driest areas less than 20 mm.
Qinghai windy, duality. On the one hand, high winds causing severe environmental disasters, it also became the Qinghai wind-rich regions. 90% of the province's annual average wind speed of more than 3 meters per second, the distribution trends for the large north-west, south-east small, such as the Midwest Qaidam Basin, the western Southern Qinghai and Qilian Mountains in the western part of the annual average wind speed of 4 meters per second above, wherein Animaqing mountain, over 17 meters per second wind speed winds, often more than 15 consecutive days.
hypoxia is a problem a lot of people come to Qinghai, the first encounter, due to the thin air Qinghai, the average air pressure of 625 mbar, under these conditions, resulting in a phenomenon: Qinghai not open water, its boiling point between 80-85 degrees. And many people long for living in Qinghai to Hainan Island, but there will be so-called "oxygen poisoning" symptoms.
Qinghai Province vast, strong solar radiation, long hours of sunshine, abundant light and heat resources. Sunshine per year between 2000 to 3600 hours, compared with the latitudes of the North China Plain, Loess Plateau, more than 400 to 700 hours; the total amount of radiation per square centimeter in the province between 586 ~ 741 kJ. Vast land and abundant light and heat resources, is conducive to the development of animal husbandry and highland fruits and other cash crops, the use of great potential.