Raymond B.Cattell: Cartel (1905-1998), American psychologist, the first application of factor analysis to investigation of personality. His study of psychological tests, measurement of individual differences, and promote the application of psychology, effectively promoting the function of the American Psychological movement. He compiled "16 Personality Factor Test" is widely used.
1905 years Raymond Cattell was born in England Batista blessing County.
1921 years, entered the University of London, majoring in physics and chemistry, Bachelor of Science degree three years later, after graduating from graduate school majoring in literature and philosophy, University of London, and has won the master's and doctorate in philosophy literature .
1928- 1931, he served as a lecturer at the University of Exeter in England;
1932- 1937 year founded and presided over Leicestershire, England psychological clinic.
1937 year shall be the famous American Psychological Health scientist E · Thorndike invited to Columbia University Teachers College for one year, respectively, after the lecture at Clark University and Harvard University,
1944 years after a long career at the University of Illinois.
Cattell divided into the personality traits and source traits surface, the surface characteristics of a quality external behavior is directly observed, the surface does not change the characteristics change over time. Source traits are inherent, basic personality traits determine surface characteristics are those stable, as the basic factors of personality structure characteristics. Source traits need to get through a rigorous scientific method.
The most prominent contribution to the cartel is to study human personality psychology applied statistical methods to analyze factors. Cartel found a total of 16 kinds of source traits, and the preparation of the "Cartel 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire" (sixteen personality factor questionaire, referred 16PF). The questionnaire can also be called "cartel sixteen kinds of personality factor scale" or "cartel sixteen personality factor test" is recognized worldwide as the most authoritative personality test method is widely used in clinical medicine mental disorders study behavioral disorders, personality characteristics of psychosomatic diseases, to personnel selection and training is also a good reference.
(a) Allport's trait theory
Allport first proposed the theory of personality traits. Allport put into common traits and characteristics of personal qualities.
In common trait is a social and cultural patterns, most people or a group shared the same characteristics. In studying cultural differences of personality, you can compare the characteristics of different cultures together. Personal characteristics refers to the unique characteristics of the individual body. Personal qualities are divided into primary qualities, central character, a minor character. The primary character is a man of the most typical and most general characteristics; the central character is composed of several important characteristics of individual uniqueness, each person has about 10 centers qualities 5 ~; secondary characteristics are individuals that are not too important qualities, in general does not show it. Often it appears only in exceptional circumstances.
(II) Cattell personality trait theory
Cattell method using factor analysis of personality traits were analyzed, a theoretical model based on personality theory. Model is divided into four layers, namely individual traits and common characteristics, surface characteristics and source traits, physical characteristics and environmental characteristics, power characteristics, capacity characteristics and temperament traits. .
1 individual traits and common traits: same Allport's trait theory point of view.
2 source traits and characteristics of the surface: The surface characteristics can be observed from the outside directly to behavioral characteristics. Source traits is a potential basis for restricting surface qualities are intrinsic factors of personality. .
3 physical characteristics and environmental characteristics: source traits can be distinguished from the two qualities. Physical characteristics must
given by the inherent biological factors, such as the excitability of 16PF, emotional stability. Environmental characteristics determined by the acquired environmental factors, such as the 16PF worries, persistence and so on.
4 power characteristics, ability and temperament trait characteristics: The power characteristics have a dynamic characteristic, so that the individual towards a target. Including physical driving force, attitude and sentiment. Ability traits manifested in terms of differences in perception and movement, including fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. Temperament trait is to determine the characteristics of emotional response speed and intensity of a person. Cartel proposed 16 kinds of source traits independent action by the method of analysis of the factors, which prepared the "Cattell 16 personality factors questionnaire." He believes that each person will have these 16 qualities, but the performance of different people there are differences of degree. It is possible to perform quantitative analysis of personality. 1. Eysenck proposed a method based on factors of personality "three-factor model" analysis
(c) the nature of the modern theory
. These three factors are:
(1) extroversion: the performance of the inner and outer difference tends;
(2) nervousness: performance differences in emotional stability;
(3) psychosis: the performance of a lonely, cold, hostility, weird other negative personality traits.
different levels of performance on these three factors constitute a mix of personality traits. According to this model we developed Eysenck Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the scale has been widely used in personality evaluation.
2. Personality Big Five (The Big Five)
Ta Peisi be re-analyzed the characteristics of the cartel variables vocabulary learning methods and found five relatively stable personality factors.
openness to experience (openness to experience): reflects the imagination, aesthetic, rich in emotion, surprise, creativity, intelligence and other traits.
conscientiousness (conscientiousness): display the competent, fair, well-organized, due diligence, achievement, self-discipline, caution, restraint and other characteristics.
extraversion (extraversion): the performance of passion, social, decisive, active, adventure, optimism and other characteristics.
agreeableness (agreeableness): reflects the trust, candor, altruism, compliance, modesty, empathy and other qualities.
emotional instability (neuroticism): including anxiety, hostility, depression, self-awareness, impulse, and so fragile.
the first letter of the five traits constitute "OCEAN" word, represents the personality of the ocean. Michael Ray and Costa preparation of the "big five personality measurement scale." This is one of the most widely used personality measurement scale.
3. Seven-factor model
Terry Root and others with a different choice of words principle, won seven factors, constitute seven-factor model. The seven factors are: positive emotionality, negative titer, positive titers, negative emotions, reliability, agreeableness, inherited property.
II type theory
Theory type produced in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, the main difference is used to describe a class of people with psychological another person, i.e., personality differences in types. There are three main types of Theory:
(a) a single type of theory
single type is determined according to whether a particular group of people and personality. The most typical single type T personality theory is the theory out by the American psychologist Frank Fali Ti. T personality is a good adventure, thrill of personality characteristics.
T personality breakdown:
Depending on the nature of the risk behavior into: T + and T-.
T +: represents the risk-taking behavior toward healthy, active and creative direction. Such as car racing, adventure and so on.
T + personality based on the activity characteristics can be divided into: the type of physical and mental T + T + type.
physical T +: athlete.
Intellect T +: As scientists explore new scientific technology.
T-: indicates risky behavior towards destructive nature, such as alcoholism, drug abuse, violence.
(B) opposing the Theoretical
two opposite directions according to a personality characteristic determined.
Freeman and Rothman described personality type A-B, the relationship between people in the study of personality and working pressure, which used to personality types.
A type personality: impetuous, impatient. For high achievement, self-motivated, have the spirit of hard work, job involvement, sense of urgency and sense of competition, agile, fast talking, living in a state of tension. Poor social adaptation, is a kind of restlessness personality.
B Personality: gentle, safe behavior, strong sense of satisfaction on the work and life, like the slow pace of life, capable of thinking requires patience and careful work. .
2 inside - extroverted personality type theory - extroverted personality
divided personality types, first proposed in the well-known personality by the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung based psychological tendencies.
introverted: the main points of interest and concerns.
Outbound: the interests and concerns point to an external object.Features within the
Personality: self-analysis, careful work, thoughtful, relations are narrow, sometimes adjustment problems occur.
outgoing personality characteristics: a focus on the outside world, emotionalism, passionate, decisive, independent, good communication, quick action and so on.
Third, the personality theory of psychoanalysis
personality theory of psychoanalysis to Freud's theory represented his personality theories include the following basic elements:
(a) the force of the personality:
the core personality is the human inner psychological event, these psychological events launched behavior, or constitute intent behavior. Source of motivation for human behavior that mental energy, the energy from the innate and instinctive driving force. Motivational behavior is often unconscious.
(b) the personality structure consists of three components:
This I (id): instinctual need to meet, follow the pleasure principle;
self (ego ): follow the reality principle;
superego (super ego): follow the ideal principles.
This part of my unconscious, ego and superego are conscious part of the personality belongs to the control system.
(c) self-defense mechanism
refers to the use of self-psychological strategy, in order to protect themselves away from everyday life to experience all kinds of conflicts. Common are:
1 repressed; projection 2; 3 rationalization effect; 4 reverse effect; 5 sublimation; 6 metastasis.......
(D) view of personality development
Freud oral stage, anal, genital period, incubation period, period sexuality and identity, the Oedipus complex concepts such as individual psychological explanation course development.
From the perspective of space, human elements including behavior, physical, emotional, mental, cognitive, purpose, history, future, multi-faceted and varied ten The basic level. With time, the decision to conduct relations, creating physical characteristics, emotions influence attitudes, the spirit of achievement temperament, cognitive ability about the purpose of the decision plan to bring historical experience and future ideal setting, so that the content can be summarized as the relationship between human behavior , physical characteristics, attitudes, ethos, cognitive ability, the purpose of planning, historical experience, vision of the future, multi-faceted and multi-dimensional ten categories varied multi-state, there is a transition between the various types, thus creating a new nature, a total of eighteen categories.
1. Openness: Description willingness to relate to people, pay attention to the harmonious development;
2. Perfection: Describe the pursuit of perfection, emphasis objectives of the program;
3. Contests of: describe the degree of improvement and study of things;
4. Cognitive: attention to describe whether the accumulation of knowledge, including the level of intelligence;
5. Achievements: the description whether the degree of emphasis on achievement;
6. Power: the description willingness to dominate and influence others;
7. Romance: the extent described in Romantic;
8. Donating: Description willingness to give to others, it contains love, filial piety and justice;
9. Activity: Describe the mood of excitement and level of activity;
10. Body: the physical characteristics of the described conditions and the degree to enjoy;
11. Doubts: the description of whether or not inclined to explore the motivation of others;
12. Agreeableness: described peace and quiet, easy-going extent;
13. Tradition: describe the extent of the traditional stick;
14. Freedom: Description emphasis of freedom;
15. Wisdom: the description of creativity, degree of wisdom;
16. Imagine: the description of great importance to imagine the extent of the pursuit of perfection.
17. Multifaceted: the complexity of the character described;
18. Variability: Description of the degree of alertness;
is the character style of human development (or degree levels), the nature of the individual 18, each having four levels, so that a total of 72 character.