classified according to whether the renewable energy, energy can be divided into renewable and non-renewable resources. Anything that can be replenished continuously, or can be re-generated energy in a short period called renewable energy. Wind, hydro, ocean energy, tidal energy, solar energy and biomass is a renewable energy.
not regenerated energy
After the short term energy can not be restored formed millions of years, known as non-renewable resources. Such as coal, oil and natural gas. With their large-scale exploitation of its reserves less and less, and the total time of depletion. Geothermal energy substantially non-renewable energy, but huge reserves of the Earth's interior point of view, but also the nature of regeneration. The new development of nuclear energy would make the nuclear fuel cycle and the nature of proliferation. Fusion energy higher than the energy of nuclear fission 5 to 10 times, most suitable for fusion fuel heavy hydrogen (deuterium) and is present in a large amount of seawater can be described as "inexhaustible." Nuclear energy is one of the pillars of future energy systems.Category Description
non-renewable energy sources are mainly:
coal, oil, gas, chemical energy, fuel and the like.
Coal is ancient plant buried underground because of crustal movement, evolved through a long era in suitable geological environment, the carbon content is generally 46% to 97%. Coal is an important fuel and chemical industrial raw materials. Coal reserves on earth are very rich. Coal is a growing decomposition of organic matter in plant debris from the marsh or river deltas of coal reserves in all major regions of the world today, with the proportion of three non-European regions, Asia and Oceania, and North America the highest overall and words, the current reserves of coal, it is estimated that we use for two hundred years.
is a mixture of coal and organic substances consisting of inorganic. Coal organic matter mainly consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) of oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) composed of four elements, there are elements in the inorganic matter in the coal, mainly sulfur (S), phosphorus ( P) and rare elements. In my country, coal resources are mainly located in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Shandong provinces and autonomous regions, well-known large-scale coal mines in Datong Coal Mine, Dongsheng coal mines, coal mines and other House of God.
oil is generally considered to be "kerogen", after the temperature of exercise time, bit by bit generated by the formation of organic substances floating in the formation. Because of the buoyancy of the oil in the water moving slowly along the annual fault formation or up until the oil-tight closed by the barrier layer and stay down. When in this closed oil increasing in number.
is second only to petroleum fossil fuels coal, it is a natural yellow, brown or black combustible liquid or semi-fluid flow of viscous mixtures of hydrocarbons. Oil is also known as "crude." It can be processed into various fractions, including natural gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, diesel, lubricating oil, paraffin wax, and many other types of derivatives, is the most important liquid fuels and chemical raw materials.
Natural gas is a hydrocarbon, mostly along when out of mining crude oil in the past due to inability to overseas shipping, so only for local use, if there is I had to burn scrap remaining, a great pity. In terms of artificial construction of natural gas storage facilities, in the event of external damage such as earthquakes, fires, easy to produce dangerous. In terms of artificial construction of natural gas storage facilities, in the event of external damage such as earthquakes, fires, easy to produce dangerous.
Natural gas is another important addition to the primary energy coal and oil. Has a high calorific value when it burns, pollution of the environment is also smaller, but also an important chemical raw materials. Petroleum gas generation process with similar, but more easily formed than oil.
natural gas mainly composed of methane, ethane, propane, butane and hydrocarbons, of which 80% methane and 90%. Natural gas commonly divided into pure natural gas, associated gas, four kinds of gas condensate gas and mines.
chemical reaction produced is called chemical energy, in addition to coal combustion heat of combustion of wood, petroleum and its products produced, there electrolytic power generation. Electrolytic generation of two different metals is a number from separator plate, was immersed with the electrolytic solution, a voltage is generated across the plates. Two metal ions for the electrolytic solution tends to force or pressure is not the same dissolution, chemical changes, electrolytically release energy.
battery is manufactured using this principle into. Battery There are two types, one is spent on the throw, the batteries can no longer be regarded as a battery (Figure 3-16). Another is a rechargeable battery used repeatedly, i.e., nickel-cadmium battery or the like, referred to as secondary batteries. Nuclear
nuclear energy, also known as atomic energy, is an efficient long-lasting energy. Nuclear power is the use of uranium-235 fission chain reaction of releasing large amounts of heat, the water into steam, which use steam to drive generators. Nuclear power generation method There are many ways to use Taiwan boiling water type nuclear power and pressurized water nuclear power generation. In addition to nuclear power generation as the main application, but in all aspects of agriculture, medicine, industrial technology ...... and so we have many uses. Such as agriculture: to use it to make fruits and vegetables stay fresh, improved varieties, to prevent pests and diseases and other functions; it can be a huge investment in a wide range of functional nuclear power plant to kill cancer cells to treat cancer and other amounts in medicine, construction time-consuming, suitable for the construction of the site is hard to find. The biggest disadvantage is radioactive nuclear waste disposal and safety issues. The advantage is less fuel made easier and convenient transport and storage of raw materials, not many requirements, and safety stock expense.
The actual use of nuclear energy in two ways: First, the fission of heavy nuclei has now reached the stage of practical method, which is the principle of nuclear fission reactors; the second is light nuclear fusion research is still in the pilot phase this is the principle of nuclear fusion reactions.
human animal powersince
dawn of Homo sapiens, people know how to use the most simple and readily available energy ---- manpower. No car, people rely on walking legs; no tools, carrying things necessary to use both hands. Gradually, people know how to use animal power, such as horses, cattle, mules and other livestock to drive, instead of manpower. The early nineteenth century, the railroad has been simple, but there is no power, so only the employer or animals pulling carts. About 200 years ago, has emerged bicycle, in the absence of power before the invention, the bicycle is the most convenient and popular means of transport.
From the history of economic thought can be found in Western classical scholars continually explore the ever increasing population, endless human desire and natural resources are limited the issue, between man and nature obviously there is increasingly fierce competition in the trend, so at that time economists are not optimistic about the future development, or even mostly full of melancholy and pessimism; but afterwards when reviewing the actual experience of economic development, always appear one after another breakthrough in the development, brought new development hope. The mid-nineteenth century, ecologists have been more aware of human self-centered, view of the establishment of the human environment, and everything becomes possible form of "Top", which reminds people of the world should pay attention to the interdependence between human beings and all things; but so far, human the nature of knowledge and understanding is still very limited and mostly confined to the use of natural resources around them engaged in the production or consumption, in order to meet the endless desire, as to the production or consumption of waste generated in the process of, generally do not have the concept of re-use of recycling, but negatively dependent on the nature of assimilation capacity (absorptive capacity), the decomposition of these wastes, reduce direct harm to humans. Therefore, for a long time or has been a lot of human exploitation of natural resources and waste accumulate in the environment, this trend in the future probably will be faced with the threat of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation of, or even derail the sustainable development of mankind.
Industrial and Commercial Bank of China and Standard Bank of South Africa has signed a 20 billion rand (1 US dollar equals 9 rand) agreement to jointly support the development of renewable energy projects in South Africa. This is one of Chinese investment in renewable energy projects in Africa, China is becoming a leader in renewable energy investments in Africa.
ICBC help alleviate liquidity pressure
"this is a very important business, it emphasizes the commitment of Standard Bank in renewable energy sector, display standard Bank strengthened partnership with the world's largest lender Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, "standard Bank Group, co-CEO Ben Kruger said at the signing ceremony.
Commercial Bank of China is the single largest shareholder of Standard Bank of South Africa, accounting for 20% of the shares. ICBC chairman Jiang Jianqing said: "The purpose of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China is through partnerships with Standard Bank, to promote South Africa's use of renewable energy to support the South African government for renewable energy projects to help protect the environment." Standard Bank power and infrastructure finance director George Kosovo Voss said the two banks will join South Africa to obtain renewable energy independent power producer project preferred bidder qualified companies to provide loans.
Kosovo Worth introduced so far, Standard Bank has conducted two rounds of bidding for renewable energy projects, ended the first round last year, funded debt financing over 9 billion rand expected second round 60 billion rand, an upcoming third round will be of interest to more developers, so soon face liquidity problems involved in Industrial and Commercial bank of China will help reduce the pressure in this regard. "It represents our funds increasingly diverse trends." Kosovo Voss said. "Renewable energy projects will require large financial commitment, the more sources of funding, available capital better, these long-term capital provides flexibility for Standard Bank, so that we can appropriately plan structure of the transaction."
< b> Africa, the future of the world's energy giants
"Africa does not lack energy, but not the rational use of energy." African historian Cheikh Anta Diop in 1985 in Congo ( DRC) capital Kinshasa spoken word is still relevant today. Kenya "Business Daily" recently published an article that renewable energy can make Africa the world's energy giants. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) published entitled: report "The future of renewable energy in Africa's road to sustainable development," it pointed out that the future of solar energy and hydropower will be the main renewable energy development in Africa, the African demand for electricity in the next 20 years will be expanded 10 times, it is an important renewable energy source. According to the UN report, Africa has the potential to develop geothermal generating capacity of 14,000 MW and 1759 TWh (Twh) hydroelectric capacity. Frost Sullivan, the company in August 2011 published report indicated that the African renewable electricity investment from 2011 to rise to $ 3.6 billion in 2020 to $ 570.
Deloitte South Africa renewable energy expert Paul said to the reporter, along with Africa, social stability and government emphasis on renewable energy development, Africa's renewable energy industry ushered in a small climax. South Africa the next 20 years is expected to invest $ 90 billion in renewable energy, in order to achieve the goal of total green renewable energy increased by 40 percent, doubling the country's total generating capacity. East African countries are developing geothermal resources in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya to build the world's most mainland wind farm. ECOWAS was established in 2009 to promote renewable energy development center for renewable energy development. "Ghana Financial Times" reported that ECOWAS will implement renewable energy accounted for 48% of the target in energy use in 2030.
The new China-Africa energy cooperation in the ascendant
Paul told reporters, Africa's biggest challenge facing the development of renewable energy is booming can not find financing. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China 20 billion rand South African renewable energy development can be described as timely. In addition, Chinese companies in South Africa to build a 100-megawatt solar plant capacity, Chinese enterprises to build a 20-megawatt hydropower plant in western Kenya, Tanzania, China is building wind and solar hybrid project, China - Ghana renewable energy technology transfer to South-South cooperation new energy projects such as China-Africa cooperation in the ascendant.
WWF in 2012 entitled "A vibrant partner? Exploring China Renewable catalyst role "in the report that energy development in Africa over the past 10 years, China strengthened the presence of renewable energy in Africa, as its main investors. Chinese renewable energy companies, especially large-scale wind and solar energy companies to invest in Africa, the largest project to date has been announced that the Lesotho highlands power project, a total of $ 15 billion to finance the development of wind energy and hydropower project in Lesotho. The report notes that over the past five years, China is financing and construction of hydropower projects in more than 29 countries, 70 in Africa, by the end of 2007, China-funded $ 3.3 billion to build 10 major hydropower projects in Africa, provide 6,000 megawatts of power stability, accounting Sub-Saharan Africa 30% of water and electricity supply. In other areas of renewable energy, the rapid investment in China in 2009 alone China announced to help Africa build 100 clean energy projects.
reported that China's investment in Africa strongly eliminates two bottlenecks in the development of renewable energy: lack of funds and lack of technology. Paul said that Chinese investment in renewable energy in Africa to promote African energy security and transfer of technology, to promote the development of the renewable energy industry in Africa, to promote the diversification of the energy mix of African, African reduce the large energy fluctuations in energy and petrochemical dependence and deforestation, enhancing Africa's capacity to address climate change.