European Nuclear Research Organizations, located in the Meyrin region in the suburbs of Geneva, Switzerland. Its main function is to provide particle accelerators and other infrastructure for high-energy physics research to carry out experiments with many international cooperation. At the same time, a large computer center with strong data handling capacity is also established, and the analysis of experimental data is also analyzed for use in other places to form a huge network center.
The European Nuclear Research Organization has hired about 3,000 full-time employees. About 6,500 scientists and engineers from 80 nationality, representing more than 500 university institutions, tested in CERN. This accounts for approximately half of the world's particle physics circle.
Particle Physics Museum welcomes public members visit their actual work in some time periods, and has multiple languages.
Abbreviated word CERN originally represents the European Nuclear Research Council (Conser Européen Pour La Recherche Nucléaire) is a 1952 Established by 11 European Government It is temporarily set for the Board of Lab. After being disgraced at the Interim Council, the new laboratory was renamed the European Nuclear Research Organization in 1954, which is still preserved. Based on the director of the former CERN - Kovalski, if the thumbnome Oern set by the new name is very abrupt. Warner Heisenberg considers "Although the name is like this, the thumbnail can still be Cern."
European nuclear research organization held in the particle Important achievements in physics. This is a few of these:
● In 1973, the Gargamelle bubble room found neutral stream.
● In 1983, UA1 and UA2 found W and Z Banguar.
● Italian Rubbia and Simon Van Der Meer have won the 1984 Nobel Physics Award.
● Sumakeges Charpak won the 1992 Nobel Physics Award.
● On September 23, 2011, the Physician of the University of Bern University, Ireittato, et al. Ireittato, etc., called the median movement of the neutral submissions. 60 nanoseconds, if the research results gain the scientific identification, Einstein's theory of "the fastest speed" proposed in the narrow relativeism published in 1905, but in Cern in February 2012 The report released in the 23rd pointed out that this result has an error, and the error comes from providing a timestamp for GPS to provide a timestamp overnight and used to output the GPS signal to the atomic clock. The cable is not properly connected; later in the research team The inner non-confident voting passes (more than 30 important members in the team, I am invisible to the ticket), IRTATo and others also resigned for this.
● On July 4, 2012, the European Nuclear Research Organization (CERN) announced that the compact, slap coil (CMS) of large strong monk colligator (LHC) was 125.3 ± 0.6Gev. The new bolt (more than 4.9 standard deviations of the background), the super-hollow instrument (ATLAS) measured a new glass of mass (5 standard deviations) with a mass of 126.5GeV. On March 14, 2013, it issued a press release that the new particles detected on July 4, 12 this were Higs.
February 19, 2020, the European Nuclear Research Center issued a publication that the center's research team first successfully measured certain quantum effects in the anti-hydrogen atom energy structure, measurement results and "normal" The theoretical prediction of hydrogen effects is consistent, and this type of quantum effect is paved more accurately and other basic quantities for more accurate measurements.
It is also the world's first website, the first web server, the birthplace of the first browser.
Open facilities include:
Science and innovation Earth
Particle Physics Museum, Exhibition Particle Physics and European Nuclear Research Organization History
European Nuclear Research Organization has a network consisting of six accelerators and a gear unit that is working. Each machine is a particle beam to increase energy before the particle beam is taken or sent to a stronger accelerator. The machine is operating as follows:
● Two Linear Accelerator , providing low energy particles to inject the proton synchronous accelerator. One for the proton, the other is for the son. They are called LINAC2 and LINAC3.
● Proton synchronous accelerator
● 28 gev proton synchronous accelerator , built in 1959, for other stronger super The proton synchronous accelerator (SPS) provides a particle beam.
● Super Protective Synchronous Accelerator , a ring accelerator of two kilometers in diameter begins in 1976, and the energy output consists of 300 GEV to 450 GEV. It is often used as a proton-anti-chose collision, and accelerates high energy electrons and positron. These particles were finally injected into large electron-positron collision (LEP). In 2007, it will inject neutron and heavy ions for large strong monk collision (LHC).
● Large Libarability Separator (isolde) to study unstable nucleus. The particles are provided by the proton synchronous accelerator. It was built in 1967 and upgraded in 1974 and 1992.
● The physical properties of the anti-chose geller are studied at low speed (about one-tenth speed). At the same time, the anti-hydrogen is simultaneously combined with anti-hydrogen to study the characteristics of antimetic characteristics.
Large-scale hardcore collision (LHC) will work in May 2008. It is hidden in a ring tunnel of 27 kilometers diameter. The front of the tunnel is a large electron-positron collision (LEP), which is already stopped in November 2000.
This tunnel is 100 meters underground, between Geneva Airport and nearby Jurathanshan. Five experimental colligations (respectively, the compact and waters-CMS, large strong monk collision super-ring instruments - Talas, LHCB, TOTEM AND ALICE are being built, is expected to start operation in 2007. These five anti-detectors have different locations and different techniques, respectively, and mutual verification. Construction of these experimental facilities requires an extraordinary engineering plan. For example, in order to lower the components of the CMS experiment detector to the underground cave, a special crane will have to use Belgium. This machine can raise almost 2,000 tons of components. Because of the needs of the building, approximately 5,000 magnets are placed on a special axis on March 7, 2005.
This accelerator will produce a large number of computer materials, which will be far more than a single research institution. Therefore, CERN will transmit to various cooperative laboratories in the world in a streaming process. In April 2005, the researchers successfully trials to seven different locations per second of 600MB transmission speed. However, scientists must reach three times the transmission speed requirements of this transmission speed before analyzing the large-scale hardcore collining in 2007.
● 600 mev synchronous cyclotron (1957-1991)
● Cross collision storage ring (ISR) (1971-1984)
● Large electron-positary electronic collision (LEP) (1989-2000)
● Low-energy anti - chromogenic ring (1982- 1996)
Small accelerator is located in the Switzerland of the French border in Meihan experimental location (also known as the West). In 1965, it has been extended to the other side of the border. In France places with Switzerland, there is no clear boundary, only some markers. There are six entrances to Meihan experimental location:
a, Switzerland, open
B, Switzerland, all CERNs every day during the upper and lower hours Open
C, Switzerland, open
d, Switzerland, in Switzerland, in the upper and lower hours of the delivery
E, in France, the CERN personnel in France in France is open to all, and the Customs Management
Tunnel entrance in France. It is only open to enter and exit the French equipment and need to receive a pass. These freights are tax-free under the Treaty of the organization. The channel is managed by Customs.
The tunnel of the super prototron accelerator and large strong monk alley is almost entirely outside the main experimental location, almost completely buried under French farmland and does not leave traces. However, they maintain the facilities of the laminated building in some locations, or with experimentation, such as low temperature cooling factories and channel wells. The laboratory is located below these sites, as in the depth of the tunnel.
Although some low-temperature cooling facilities and in-region are in Switzerland, three experimental areas are in France, while Atlas is in Switzerland. The largest experimental area is the North District - Prévessin in the GEX area of France, which is a target station of non-collining experiments of a super prototomogenic accelerator. Other experimental areas are experiments for UA1, UA2, large strong collision.
In addition to these experimental locations, there are other experimental locations with formal names or numbers. For example, Na32 is an experimental location in North District, looking for particles containing sputum. WA22 is an experimental place in Western Mayan, using a large European bubble chamber BEBC test microbiobi interaction. UA1, UA2 represents the experiment of the underground area, that is, in the super prototomogenic accelerator.
The World Wide Web is the product of the ENQUIRE in the European Nuclear Research Organization, which was initiated by Tim Bernas - Li in 1989. According to the concept of hypertext, the plan is to better share information for researchers. The first website was built in 1991. On April 30, 1993, the European Nuclear Research Organization announced that the open web is used by everyone. The first web page made by Tim Bernas-Lee is still saved.
Recently, the European Nuclear Research Organization has established a global development center, hosting the European Science Grid Plan (Egee), large strong collision mesh computing plan and CERN Internet switching point ( CⅸP) - one of two Swiss internet access points.
European Nuclear Research Organization Member States:
Belgium, Denmark, Germany (including front West), France, Greece, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Netherlands, UK, Yugoslavia
Austria joined in 1959.
Yugoslav leaves in 1961.
Spain was joined in 1961, leaving in 1969 and rejoined in 1983.
Portugal is added in 1985.
Finland and Poland joins them in 1991.
Hungary joins in 1992.
Czech and Slovakia joined in 1993.
Bulgaria joins in 1999.
Scientific innovation sphere hall
particle physics museum, exhibition particle physics History of European Nuclear Research Organization