Chengdu-Lhasa Highway

The synonym Kham-Tibet Highway generally refers to the Chengdu-Lhasa Highway.


The northern line is first built, but the southern line is more important. It passes through Kangding (the historical capital of Xikang Province).

The northern line is 2,412 kilometers in length, and the highest point along the way is Queer Mountain at an altitude of 5,050 meters; the southern line is 2,146 kilometers in length and passes through Litang at an altitude of 4,014 meters. There is a highway (169 kilometers) from Qamdo to Bangda between the north and south lines. This part belongs to the Xiaobei line. The southern route is short and the elevation is lower than that of the northern route, so the southern route travels from the Sichuan-Tibet Highway to Tibet. Traveling into Tibet along the Sichuan-Tibet Highway, crossing 14 steep mountains above 4000 meters above sea level from east to west, and crossing turbulent rivers such as the Dadu River, Jinsha River, Nujiang River, and Lancang River. The journey is difficult and dangerous, but The scenery along the way is magnificent, with snow-capped mountains, virgin forests, grasslands, glaciers, canyons and large rivers.

Two lines (3 photos)

Since April 1950, the Sichuan-Tibet Highway, after arduous construction by 110,000 soldiers and civilians, the northern line was officially opened to traffic in December 1954, with more than 2,000 The soldiers and civilians paid their lives for this. Since then, the road construction army has built the southern line from East Oluo to Bangda via Batang, Mangkang, Zuogong, and opened to traffic in 1969. It was officially included as part of the 318 National Highway. Erlang Mountain, Tianquan County, Ya'an City, is the first mountain on the Sichuan-Tibet line from the Chengdu Plain to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. When the road construction troops were building the steep section of Erlang Mountain on the Sichuan-Tibet Highway, there were 7 soldiers for it every kilometer. Gave his life. In order to commemorate the great achievements of the martyrs in Erlang Mountain, the Tianquan County government built a cemetery for the martyrs, erected monuments and wrote articles, and engraved the immortal achievements of the martyrs.

As one of the five important passages for the inland of the motherland to enter and exit Tibet (the other four are the Qinghai-Tibet Highway, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, the Xin-Tibet Highway, and the Yunnan-Tibet Highway. The confluence of Tibetan highways is responsible for the pivotal role of connecting the east and west of the motherland. It has an irreplaceable role and status in military, political, economic, and cultural aspects. It is not only the "golden bridge" and "lifeline" for the Tibetan and Han compatriots to happiness, but also a link between the Tibetan and Han people, and it is the crystallization of the hard work and wisdom of the Chinese nation. It has extremely important economic significance and military value.

In the future: the southern line corresponds to the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, the northern line corresponds to the Chengchang Railway-Nachang Railway, and the north-south junction is the Bangda Town, Basu County-Qamdo-Tongdage Railway.

Road mileage

South Sichuan-Tibet Line: Chengdu 152KM Ya'an 214KM Kangding 270KM Litang 205KM Batang 105KM Mangkang 151KM Zuogong 204KM Basu 90KM Ranwu 119KM Bomi 216KM Linzhi 219KM Ghacha 150KM Zedang 180KM Lhasa.

Schematic diagram of Sichuan-Tibet Highway (2 photos)

Odometer along the Sichuan-Tibet Highway

Lhasa-(68)--Mozhugongka-(206)--Gongbujiangda -(127)-August 1-(19)-Linzhi-(127)-Tongmai-(89)-Bomi-(129)-Ranwu-(90)-Basu-(94 )--Bangda (divided into north-south line)

South line--(107)--Zuogong-(158)--Mangkang-(71)--Bamboo cage-(36)- -Batang-(165)--Litang-(143)--Yajiang-(74)--Xindu Bridge

North Line--(171)--Changdu-(228)-- Jiangda-(85)-Jinsha River Bridge-(24)-Dege-(112)-Mani Gange-(95)-Ganzi-(97)-Luhuo-(72)-Dao Fu

Meeting of North-South Line--(75)--Kangding-(49)--Luding-(168)--Ya'an-(147)--Chengdu

History< /h2>

Chuan-Kang Highway (1930s)

The Sichuan-Tibet Highway is the collective name of the Chuan-Kang Highway and the Kang-Tibet Highway.

2014 commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the opening of traffic video screen capture ( 8 photos)

The Chuankang Highway was built in the 1930s as an inter-provincial highway from Chengdu to Ya'an, the capital of Xikang Province at that time. After Xikang withdrew from the province, the two roads were called Sichuan-Tibet Highway.

The 1958 kilometers between Ya'an, Sichuan and Lhasa, Tibet, is transported by yak, which can only go back and forth once a year, and it takes more than half a year to travel on horseback.

In 1951, the Kham-Tibet highway from Ya'an to Lhasa was built.

The main part of the Sichuan-Tibet Highway (early 1950)

Chengdu-Lhasa Highway

The northern line and the southern line were generally constructed at the same time. Among them, the northern line was repaired first, and then the southern line (from Kangding) was repaired.

At the beginning of 1950, when the People's Liberation Army was ordered to march into Tibet to complete the historical mission of reunifying the mainland of the motherland, Chairman Mao Zedong instructed the troops to enter Tibet: "On the one hand, build roads on the other." With a high degree of revolutionary enthusiasm and tenacious fighting will, the 110,000 People’s Liberation Army, engineering and technical personnel, and migrant workers of all ethnic groups used hammers, steel drills, shovels and pickaxes to split the cliffs and subdue the dangerous rivers. In more than 4 years, the Sichuan-Tibet Highway has crossed the entire Hengduan Mountains, including Erlang Mountain, Zheduo Mountain, Queer Mountain, Sejila Mountain, and other 14 large mountains; across the Minjiang River, Dadu River, Jinsha River, Nujiang River, and Lhasa River Many other rivers; across 8 major fault zones, including Longmen Mountain, Qingni Cave, Lancang River, and Tongmai, overcome various difficulties. The hugeness and difficulty of the project are unprecedented in the history of road construction in the world. Throughout the construction of the Sichuan-Tibet and Qinghai-Tibet highways, more than 3,000 cadres, soldiers, and workers died heroically, and a generation of performance will last forever. Among them, more than 2,000 soldiers and civilians were sacrificed in the construction of the northern Sichuan-Tibet line.

When the Sichuan-Tibet highway was constructed, it was restricted by historical conditions, economic and technical levels, etc. The highway was constructed in a short time, with low engineering grade, and rough construction. The weather, topography and geological conditions are very complicated, and various mountain disasters erupt frequently, so traffic blocking and disconnection often occur.

Interruption of maintenance (1977-1984)

Before 1977, under the cooperation of the construction troops in Sichuan and Tibet and the 852 Brigade (the predecessor of the Armed Police Traffic Independent Detachment), some The road section was rebuilt in accordance with the old six-level technical standards of the highway, and some temporary bridges and culverts were built into permanent or semi-permanent buildings.

After 1978, the state suspended its investment in the renovation and reconstruction of the Sichuan-Tibet line, making it difficult for the roads with low technical standards and many diseases to withstand the increasing frequency,


Mountain disasters are increasing in scale and scope. From 1979 to 1984, the entire line was disconnected for more than 164 days a year on average, and in 1985 it was 270 days. By 1992, the entire line was disconnected for about 180 days a year. The Sichuan-Tibet highway was basically in a state of paralysis.

On December 25, 1984, to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway and the Sichuan-Tibet Highway, the Qinghai-Tibet Sichuan-Tibet Highway Monument was established in Lhasa to remember the glorious achievements and great sacrifices of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.

Rehabilitation (1985 to present)

In order to consolidate national defense and maintain stability in the border areas of Tibet, and strengthen the country’s economic construction, since 1985, the country has begun to repair the Sichuan-Tibet Highway.

In 1991, based on the use function and traffic volume forecast results of the Sichuan-Tibet highway, the state formulated the principle of "reasonable rectification of subregions", taking into account the limitations of investment and the particularity of disaster distribution characteristics. The plan has determined the establishment of a mechanized maintenance and protection team, strengthened road management measures, establishment of a road disease database and an early warning and monitoring system for the entire Sichuan-Tibet highway or key sections of the highway. In accordance with the above principles and measures, with the approval of the State Council and the Central Military Commission, in October 1996, the Armed Police Traffic Sichuan-Tibet Highway Mechanized Maintenance Detachment was established (in 2001, it was renamed the Armed Police Transportation Fourth Detachment in accordance with the spirit of the relevant documents of the Armed Police Headquarters), which is responsible for the geology of Tibet. The maintenance and protection task of the 782.5 km section from Zhuba cage to Dongjiu Bridge (K3359+000—K4129+500), which is the most complicated and most natural disaster. Before 1996, the maintenance funds issued by the state were about 3,000 yuan per kilometer on average. After excluding labor costs, there was very little left. It was impossible to arrange small and medium repair projects, major repairs, and rescue and disaster relief.

In 2012, the reconstruction project of the 102 landslide group of 318 National Road and the section from Tongmai to 105 was started. Tongmai No. 1 tunnel is located at Feishiya, Tongmai County, Bomi County, with a design speed of 40 kilometers per hour. Due to the special geomorphic characteristics, the surrounding rock in the tunnel is broken, the joints and cracks are developed, and the groundwater is abundant. It is prone to collapse, water and mud and other phenomena during excavation, which brings great difficulties to the construction. In this section, four tunnels were constructed at the same time as the Tongmai No. 1 tunnel. At about 8:50 on April 13, 2014, affected by the earthquake in Gongbujiangda County, Nyingchi Prefecture, Tibet, a 75-meter landslide occurred near the Tongmai Bridge on the Sichuan-Tibet Highway, causing temporary traffic on the National Highway 318 of the Sichuan-Tibet Highway. Interruption, no casualties. According to witnesses at the scene, about 300 vehicles and 1,000 people were stranded at the scene. After the second branch of Sichuan Road and Bridge Group organized construction personnel to step up rush repairs, the interrupted road was rushed through between 17:00 and 18:00, and traffic along the line resumed smoothly.

At about 9:30 am on October 18, 2014, the Sichuan-Tibet Highway in the Ranwu section of Qamdo, Tibet, where a mountain collapse occurred. The snow-proof corridor that fell onto the road due to damage was too large, and the road It is narrow, falling rocks constantly, rushing through work is blocked, and large equipment arrives at the site. The landslide caused nearly 70 vehicles and more than 200 people to stay here, and no casualties were reported. The mountain landslide destroyed the snow-proof corridor above the road, causing nearly 100 meters of roadbed to be covered. The height of the accumulation reached 8 meters, and the landslide amount was about 9,600 cubic meters. After the disaster, the Second Armed Police Traffic Team immediately formed a "rescue assault team", dispatched 2 excavators, 3 loaders, 3 dump trucks, and 2 troop carriers, and rushed to the disaster-stricken site to carry out rescue operations, but it was discovered after arriving at the scene. , The damaged snow-proof corridor that fell on the road is too large to be cleaned by large-scale machinery. The relevant machinery has arrived at the site, but because it is getting late and secondary disasters continue, to ensure the safety of construction personnel, the work of rushing through has been interrupted.

In 2014, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the opening of the Sichuan-Tibet Highway to traffic, the feature film was shown in "Xinhua News Agency’s Five Questions on the Construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway: When will it be able to pass through Lhasa".

Significance of speed

Before the Sichuan-Tibet and Qinghai-Tibet highways are opened to traffic, one round trip from Lhasa to Chengdu in Sichuan or Xining in Qinghai. Years (one way is several months). By 1989, the whole region had transported more than 10 million tons of materials into Tibet and 1.127 million tons of materials from Tibet, which greatly promoted the development of Tibet’s economic construction and the improvement of people’s lives. The long-term closure of Tibet has played an extremely important role in Tibet’s economic construction and national defense construction. The Sichuan-Tibet Highway only takes a few days, and the road conditions after the reconstruction only need three days one-way, which greatly shortens the travel time between Tibet and the inland.

In 2016, the 318 National Highway Gaoersishan Tunnel opened to traffic, shortening the mileage by more than 20 kilometers; the 317 National Highway Queershan Tunnel, which opened to traffic in 2017, broke through the natural bottleneck of the Sichuan-Tibet North Line. It only takes more than ten minutes for vehicles to cross the Queer Mountain.

On December 25, 2019, on the occasion of the 65th anniversary of the opening of the Sichuan-Tibet Highway to traffic, the inauguration ceremony of the "Two Roads" Spiritual Memorial Hall ("Memorial Hall") of the Tibet Autonomous Region was held in Lhasa, at the first line of the grassroots maintenance section Witnessed by nearly a hundred people, including employees, national model workers in the transportation industry, and individual representatives, the "National National Unity and Progress Education Base" was officially unveiled in the memorial hall.

Southern Sichuan-Tibet Line


Southern Sichuan-Tibet Line was officially opened to traffic in 1958. The southern line starts from Ya'an and separates from National Highway 108, crosses Erlang Mountain to the west, crosses the Dadu River, Yalong River, Jinsha River, Lancang River, and the upper reaches of Nujiang River, and enters by the Zhubalong Jinsha River Bridge via Yajiang, Litang and Batang. Tibet, and then arrived in Lhasa via Mangkang, Zuogong, Bangda, Basu, Ranwu, Bomi, Nyingchi, Mozhugongka, and Dazi. Compared with the northern line, the places where the southern line passes are mostly densely populated areas. There are mountains and valleys along the route, and the scenery is more beautiful, especially the Nyingchi area known as the south of the Yangtze River in Tibet. However, the Tongmai area on the southern route is relatively loose, and mudslides and landslides are prone to occur. The southern Sichuan-Tibet line from Chengdu to Lhasa has a total length of 2,142 kilometers, passing the highest point of Mount Mila at an altitude of 5,014 meters, and passing through Litang County, which is known as the "High City of the World" and has an altitude of more than 4,000 meters.

West Sichuan Plateau

The section from Chengdu to Ya'an on the South Line runs from the Western Sichuan Plain to the low hills of the basin, all of which are expressways. Ya

Scenery along the Sichuan-Tibet Highway (30 photos)

The section from An to Kangding is located on the western Sichuan plateau, that is, the lower margin of the southeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially in Tianquan County, Ya’an. Erlang Mountain, known as the "First Risk Highway", gradually rises in terrain, and the mountains and rivers tend to be distributed longitudinally along the north-south line. Erlang Mountain is about 3,500 meters high. After the tunnel passes through, it is no longer known as "natural danger". However, after crossing the mountain, on the section of the Wasi River between Luding and Kangding, the asphalt pavement is often flooded and washed away by the swelling river during the rainy season. Mudslides.

Zheduo Mountain

When you leave Kangding, you will cross the Zheduo Mountain which is 4290 meters above sea level. This mountain is the geographical dividing line, the west is the plateau uplift zone with the Yalong River, and the right is the alpine valley zone with the Dadu River. Zheduo Mountain is a traditional dividing line between Tibet and Han. There are significant differences in population distribution, production, and living conditions on both sides of the mountain. The Dadu River Basin is in a transitional zone in terms of ethnicity and cultural form.

The Sichuan-Tibet Highway Atlas (4 photos)

is mainly distributed in the Tibetan tribe known as "Jiarong". Its area extends north to the large and small Jinchuan area in Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province.

In the past, Zheduoshan didn't know the difficulty of the Sichuan-Tibet highway. The mountain pass here is 4298 meters above sea level, the road surface is very narrow, landslides are common, and winter rains and snow are constant. Nowadays, the reconstructed Sichuan-Tibet Highway is no longer the hard and dangerous of the past, and the road is flat and spacious. Due to the strong cutting of the Minjiang River, Dadu River and other water systems, the geomorphology of the Zheduo Mountain line has large terrain elevation differences, dense ravines, mountains and ridges, dense forests, and a mild climate, with typical subtropical temperate and humid valley characteristics.

East of Zheduo Mountain has a subtropical monsoon climate. It is basically located in the rain screen belt of West China. The vegetation is dense, rainy in summer and snowy in winter. Surface water and rivers have obvious erosion and cutting effects on mountains and roadbeds. Zheduo Mountain is an area where the western sub-frigid monsoon climate and the plateau continental climate intersect. The climate is mild and cold, and there is a lot of rainfall. The gentle slopes are grass, the valleys are forests, and there are snowy peaks and alpine lakes.

The line from Zheduo Mountain to Batang is about 4000 meters above sea level. From east to west, there are gentle mountains such as Jianziwan Mountain, Gaoersi Mountain and Haizi Mountain.

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