Northern landing battle

Battle Preparation

The League plan to defeat the German coalition for Africa, to capture North African strategies, and threaten Germany and Italy from the South Wings, decided to implement code in North Africa in the fall of 1942 "Torch" landing battle.

This is the first time in the history of war, the large-scale Tumi-sea landing of landing ships "by the ship", in the battle organization, equipment use, etc., Sicily landed in Sicily landing and Normand land. Experience.

Northern Non-landing Battle is held by the US Army, Eisenhower, the general command, the Ying Navy, the general commander of the Canning Antenity Navy. A total of 107,000 landing troops were taken by 16 airmaster ships, 7 battles, 9 cruisers, and a large-scale destroyer, a mine ship and a total of 650 landing ships.

Naudi in the battle ship has been composed of 3 special fleet: Eastern special mixed fleet is commanded by the Yinghai Army, and transports the beauty of Lai De Major General. Ying mixed troops went to the Algiers region to log in. The Chinese special mixed fleet is commanded by the Ying Navy to command Trobrich, and transport the US military commander of Freden Del to visit the Oran region; the western special mixed fleet is directed by the US Navy Major Houyt, and transports Barton's Major General Director. French Morocco landing.

The 1700 aircraft of the British Aircraftiers implemented a campaign for Based on Gibraltar. The above-mentioned landing area is stationed by the French Vichi government army, with a total force of about 200,000, with 500 aircraft. On October 22nd and 26th, the Eastern and Middle Special Fleets were sailed by the British.

On November 5, 1942, he passed the Gibraltar Strait to the East Airlines. After driving to the bodily landing, he turned to China Southern Airlines, and the upper land of the landing area was assaulted in each of the landing sites in the morning. Suddenness In the evening of the evening, Occupation of Algiers, 10th occupied Orange. Western special mixed fleet from October 23, from the United States to launch the United States, the Hang Du will meet in the air, frequently changed the direction, to reduce the goal and confuse each other, arrive at the transfer sea area on November 7th, on November 8th, attack on the morning On the 11th occupied Casablanca.

Battle Background

China Expeditionary Army

"Torch" combat is a code number of the US British Army offensive method, and the French North Africa includes the French Morocco. Algeria and Tunisia. First European Asia, due to the loss of North Africa battlefield, the British will promise to support 400 aircraft of the Chinese army to invest in North Africa battlefield. In April 1941, the United States has brought the aircraft that plans to deliver China to the US tenth aviation.

Northern landing battle

During the 6th, July 1941, Longmeir was invested in Tomblek in North Africa, directly from the British final defense, Alaman. The powerful US 10th air team urgently reserves the Mediterranean and North Africa, causing the Chinese Expeditionary Army to completely lose the air cover. Most of the 1800 aircraft provided by the British Army, most of the 1,700 tanks and 25,000 military vehicles were originally prepared to be used in China-Myanmar. The email protection of the North Africa battlefield is exchanged with the emailing of the Burma Battlefield. The Chinese soldiers use tragic failures to change the decisive victory of Montgomery's eighth group army in the North Africa battlefield.

Pacific War

December 8, 1941, the Pacific War broke the United States from a war's visitor to participants. The US Congress adopted a resolution and announced that Japan entered the war state. Churchill immediately flew Washington, with the support of the two countries. The strategic provisions developed by both parties: Germany is the main enemy, mainly battlefields in Europe, North Africa's strategic status, also placed prior to the China-Myanmar. Although the Churchill's mouth agreed to the proposal of the British, United States and Su 3 countries in Europe, but Churchill is more interested in the Mediterranean region. Because North Africa, the Middle East and Balkans directly related to the British colonial interests and forces range.

Victory key

Churchill believes that the capture of North Africa is the key to defeating the axis. When Germany launched an attack on May 10, 1940, the situation was increasingly critical, and the French government moved to Tur June 11. On the 14th, after Paris, he moved to the southern city of Bordeaux. On the 16th, the Paul Renault government collapsed, from the Betang Group Pavilion. Beibei signed a stop agreement with Germany and Italy on the 22nd and 24th, in the military unconditional surrender, and France has also been dismissed into two parts. The north is occupied by Germany, and the rest of the non-occupied area is ruled by the Government of Betang.

July 1st, the Government of Betang moved from Bordeaux to Vichi, which is called the Vish Government. The Vish Government has more than 80 ships in 500 aircraft in the French North Africa, and 500 aircraft, and there are more than 80 ships in the port of Turilant and French North Africa. French military officials in French North Africa were judged by the Vish Government. They believed that in 1940, it is legal to Hitler's life in accordance with the legal Betang government. On the contrary, they believe that the resistance movement of General David Lego and the French Communist Party leaders is illegal, so they regard them as enemies. Due to the Freedom France's movement leaders in the general leaders of Dai Gaulle, and the anti-English emotions of the North illegal country authorities have also strong.

Battle After "November 4, 1942, the transportation ship carried out from the United States port and the British port. After the meeting on November 5, the Gibraltar Strait will navigate to East Airlines. After driving to the northern part of the sea, it turned to China Southern Southern Airlines, there was no obstruction on the way, starting on November 7th at night: Western special mixed fleet in the region of Casablanca, the central special mixed fleet in the Orland region, Eastern special mixed fleet in Alias Bo, and reached a sudden change.

November 7, 1942, England, the southwestern Cornwall peninsula covered, a paint black, the sky falls from time to time. On the Light-controlled St. Ivar and the Pretonavik Airport, 39 C-47 transporters of the US military transport machine commanded by William Bentley, parked on the slide, the wing of each aircraft Below, a small soldier of the US paratrooper 503th regiment 2, they are waiting for boarding. Their goal is to capture the airports near Algeria Oran outside the 2413 km to carry out the "Torch" operation plan with the United States and the United States.

In the early morning of November 8, 1942, the British and Federation of the United States of America at the command of the Expeditionary Army, the 1700 combat machine covered 655 battleships and transportation boats, and escorting the army to start from Casablanca, Oran, Alias. A band is landing, the torch action is launched. The US-British army was an offensive north, and 13 divisions, 450 combat ships and transport vessels (including three battles, 7 airmarsels, 17 cruisers, 64 destroyers), compiled 3 specials in the western, central, eastern The fleet has a total of 107,000 people. From the US Army, Eisenhower was held at the General Command, the British Navy, the General Commander of the Canning Antenity Navy. The western special mixed fleet is directed by the US Navy. The US military who transports Barton will go to the French Morocco to land. The Chinese special mixed fleet is directed by the British Navy to command Trobridge, and transport the US military commander of Freden Del to the army. Landing in the Lan area; the Eastern special mixed fleet was directed by the British Navy, and transported the beauty of Wright Major General, and the Ying mixer landed in the Algiers region.

The Aviation Security of the Battle is responsible for the Western Air Force Command (Guaranteed Casablanca, Oran landing) and the Eastern Air Force Command (guaranteed Algiers), respectively (a total of 1700 aircraft). There are 6 strengthening teachers who have landed in the first echelon, including 2 armored tanks (a total of 3,500 Casablanca, 39,000 Oran, 33,000 Algiers). The landing troops received a command. If the enemy coast artillery and the ship do not open, it will not shoot. Allied landings only encounter slight resistance. On November 8th, I entered Algiers City, I entered Orland on the 10th, I entered Casablanca on the 11th. On November 10th, the French army in North Africa stopped against the British and American French Arms against the British American French. By December 1st, 25,3,213 people have landed in North Africa along with the second echelon. After the Allies occupied Algeria's major bases, they began to advance to Tunisia. By November 25th, they have been close to the closer to the biser, and they were robbed by the German army. The fascist commander uses the Allies who have not invaded Tunis from the sea, and sent airborne soldiers on November 11th, occupying two bases of Posea and Tunisia, which greatly increased the difficulties of further action in North Africa in North Africa. On November 8-13, 1942, the Allies lossed 2225 people. The French died 490 people (including the damas people in the residents). The League Navy and Air Force hit the sinking of 9 ships, 10 submarines, 14 other vessels.

paratrooper combat

American paratroopers

Together with the United States, the British landing force combines the African Africa, the Allied Command decided to use the English, the United States Middle Road contingent seizes airports and important targets in the Germans. However, the US-British countries have not yet been prepared to put a lot of empty soldiers into combat: US military's 82nd airborne division and the 101st airborne staff have been adapted from the 82nd Motorculator and the 101r-year division in August 1942. When receiving the task, I started to enter the 6th week of training; while the British Army Airborne 1st teacher was prepared as 3 trips, but only one brigade was trained, and the other 2 brigade was forming. To this end, the Airborne Forces that the Allies can provide only have a US paratroopers' 503th group of the 2nd camp of the British First Airborne Master.

Chengge Guir's requirements, the 203th issue of the 203th regiment in 1942 was arrived in the UK in the autumn of the sea, and the first empty minister of the British army was built. After the camp arrive, it will be trained in the Salisbury Plain. US paratroopers were jumping from the side door from the C-447, while the British paratroopers were only trained on the Whitley bomber because there is no transport machine. So when the British paratrooper saw the paratrooper, it was envious from the side door feeding from the C-47 plane. Since the British bomber cannot be used for combat airborne, the British umbrella troops have to re-carry out training from the side door skydiving from the C-47 aircraft. Nervous training has not ended, and the first paratroopers of the Britain have accepted the task of fighting in North Africa.

Airborne combat

November 7, 1942 21 At 21:00 on the airport, the 203th chassis of the 503th group of the 203th group of the 203th group, finally boarded the oil The C-47 plane started the flight of the farthest flight during World War II. After all the planes are suited, the team is highly edited by 300 meters over the Cornwall, and the British Royal Air Force's "fire" model and "wave" fighter, in the dark To Gibraltar. When the flying formation arrives at Bis, it is a fighter to return to the escort. Then, the crew of the C-47 aircraft continued to fly forward by the pilot's estimate. Because the weather is deteriorated, the airflow over the Bay of Bis is unstable, and the aircraft is very powerful in the sailing.

East Road contingent After Algiers landed, November 9th, the British paratroopers' 1st tour of the British paratrooper, 312 people in the paters Corven's Command, by England Transporter The C-47 plane of the 51 brigade flew straight to the Grometic Airport, and took off again after the airport was found. On the afternoon of the 10th, the British paratrooper arrived in Algiers, Mesong Brown Airport, which was prepared to attach the border of the Tunisian border with the assistance of the British 6th commando, due to the aircraft machinery failure and bad weather. 4 planes were lost during the way.

US military paratrooper camps after North Africa, November 10, I received the task of capture the Eastern Tebyasa Airport in Algeria. La Va was the biggest effort in the Tower, and the parachute used when the Lomer's umbrella drop was reached and repaired. On the 14th, a 300-top parachute can be used, and 350 people are ready to perform new tasks. By air reconnaissance and asking local Arabs, La V was found to be 16 km north of Bessi Airport, there is a more easy to capture Ukherus Barne Airport, the airport is also the base of German transport aircraft and fighter. Finally, Laffer decided to take the Eskus Lebano airport as a target.

Airport mission

The first parachute soldier in the UK accepts the task of the Sumek El Appaa Airport in Tunis. Because of this, the two airborne troops are close, in order to facilitate synergies, Laff's paratroopers battalion will accept the command of Britain Vlaville. However, because there is no suitable contact method and communication equipment, Flaville's first group army command does not know anything about the airborne plan. Therefore, the paratroopers and commanders must solve their difficulties. The time of attack is scheduled to be November 15th, and the boarding airport is Mesong Brownhouse. US Military Umbrella Camp and British Tour of the British Tour of the 1st Umbrella camp on November 15th at 7:30 on the C-47 plane, in 2 escort from the "fire" style and "Hurricane" fighter formation, to each Attack target fly.

The aircraft of the British umbrella first camp is flying along the coast, but because the weather suddenly deteriorates, the visibility is extremely poor and is forced to return. 20 aircraft riding a US military camp forced flights in the inland mountains close to the coastline under complex meteorological conditions. At 9:45, the US paratrooper camp flew to the target, and the umbrella was implemented. A group of French troops in Guard Airport not only didn't resist, but also warmly welcomed the guests. La Hou gave a collection of troops, ie, got in contact with General Clark in Algiers, and got his order, advance to Tunisia. On the 16th, the coastal coastal, the sky is sunny, the British paratrooper is led by Hill Middle School, and then takes 32 C-47 aircraft take off from Mesong Brown Airport, implemented in Sumeke Appa Umbrella land. They were also welcomed by the French army as the US military. Hill has sold some public cars and leads his battalion to advance 64 kilometers, and join forces to attack Beja. After a fierce battle, the British paratrooper captured Beja and he kept back to the ground offensive force to reach.

Battle Influence

Marine transportation

Due to the implementation of North Africa landing, the Allies master some important strategic bases in North Africa, thus creating a successful completion of the North African Bank Advantageous conditions have enabled Western Allies to transport sea transport from the Atlantic Ocean through the Suez Canal. This bureau is the first time in the history of war, the large-scale Tumu landing of the landing ship "by the ship", which provides experience in the game campaign, such as the Camouli, and Normandy.

Valuable experience

The Airborne operation of the US-British French coalition in North Africa is the first time by jointly compiled airborne troops. Since the preparation is more rush, lack of synergy, US-British French parachute

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