"When I look at the world, I am a pessimist; when I look at the people in this world, I am an optimist."-Rogers (CarlRansomRogers ) (1902-1987) (Picture 1 is Rogers).
Before humanism, there are two dominant human nature theories in the field of psychology: one is Freud’s view, and people are mainly controlled by sexual and aggressive instincts; the other view It comes from behaviorism and goes to the other extreme. It treats people as larger and more complex mice—people, like mice, only respond to environmental stimuli without any subjective control. Both theories ignore some important aspects of human nature-such as free will and human value.
The theory of humanism is different from the theory of human nature. People should be responsible for their actions. We sometimes respond automatically to stimuli in the environment, and sometimes are subject to instinct, but we have free will and the ability to determine our own goals and directions of action.
Humanism is called the thethirdforce of psychology. In the 1960s, the background of individualism and personal freedom of speech was emphasized, which provided a foundation for the development of humanism. In 1967, Abraham Maslow, an important figure in humanistic psychology, was elected as the chairman of the American Psychological Association, which shows that the humanistic ideas of psychology have been accepted by everyone.
Czernyshevsky referred to his materialism theory as humanism, and named his philosophical work "Principles of Humanism in Philosophy". Chernyshevsky’s humanism opposes the division of the soul and the body into two separate entities, and opposes the idealistic view of the soul as the primary. But the person it refers to is only a natural person in the biological sense, an abstract, ordinary person, not a social person. He did not study people in relation to specific history and social practice, so he could not see the social nature of people.
In modern philosophy, the term humanism is used by some philosophers. For example, the German phenomenologist Schiller and the fascist theorist Craggs, humanism is a humanistic or character study that targets the unity of body and soul. Their "humanism" is a theory that promotes irrationalism and racism.
Five types of origin
First of all, in history, humanism is a philosophy and literary movement that originated in Italy in the second half of the 14th century and spread to other European countries. It constitutes modern Western culture. An element of the. Humanism also refers to any philosophy that recognizes the value and dignity of human beings, regards humans as the yardstick of all things, or takes human nature, human finitude and human interests as the theme. The former is a fundamental aspect of the Renaissance. Thinkers at that time re-incorporated man into the natural and historical world from this aspect, and explained man from this perspective. In this sense, humanism is one of the basic conditions for the scientific revolution in the 17th century, and to a certain extent, it is also a condition for the birth of "scientism". Fundamentalism since the 17th century and naturalism since the end of the 19th century do not oppose the humanism of the Renaissance. The humanist movement in history is opposed to supernatural beliefs and medieval Aristotelianism. Leaving aside historical humanism, we are now discussing contemporary humanism. People usually think that contemporary humanism is the "philosophy of the subject" (philosophy of the subject). Since philosophers have inconsistent understanding of "subject", in this sense, "humanism" is polysemy. If the philosophy derived from Descartes' "I think" and Kant's transcendental self are regarded as humanism, then Neo-Kantism is a typical humanism. Let’s not talk about whether individual Neo-Kantians belong to the philosophers in the humanistic trend. On the whole, Neo-Kantism inherited Kant’s foundation for science, especially natural science (Marburg school) and cultural science (Freiburg school). They work hard with the basic program, the self from which they start is general, non-experience and impersonal, which is fundamentally different from the empirical self emphasized by the humanists. Moreover, Neo-Kantianism pays special attention to the value of science, which is precisely the characteristic of "scientism", which is very different from the humanism that emphasizes personal value.
Secondly, as a school of "subject philosophy" or "consciousness philosophy", Husserl's phenomenology can also be called humanism. Like Kant, he took himself as the starting point and tried to lay the foundation for scientific knowledge. The difference is that he resorted to "essential intuition" and performed his work that constitutes objectivity in a descriptive way. Early anti-psychologicalism made him regard logical structure as "truth itself". Husserl's "I think" is different from Kant and is not impersonal, but what the transcendental foundation of objectivity requires is not a subject or subjectivity, but a pluralistic, intersubjective, atomistic foundation. Is this kind of foundation-laying theory humanistic? Yes, if we treat any "subject philosophy" as humanism. But humanism is characterized by the primacy of human beings, while Husserl gives a phenomenological "reduction" to everyday language and the "I" in daily life. He does not make a philosophical defense for people's demands. What he cares about is to make philosophy a strict science. In this way, idealistic phenomenology does not belong to the category of humanism.
Third, M. Scheler's anti-formalism philosophy of value derived from the "philosophical anthropology" of phenomenology emphasizes that personality is the center of moral action, which seems to be consistent with humanism. But personalityism does not make people a yardstick of good and evil. Some personalityists understand that personalityism is a philosophy in which people make frequent protests against being reduced to concepts or levels of things and fully pay attention to contemporary cultural crises. This change in the purport of personalityism brings it closer to the direction of humanism. However, personalityists still do not pay much attention to the individual's ability to establish oneself, and pay more attention to the individual's ability to accommodate others and open to a value order. So personalityism is not completely humanism. But personalityism or spiritualism (centered at Boston University) popular in the United States is often called humanism.
Fourth, we have found true and complete humanism in Sartre’s existential philosophy. His book "Being and Nothing" is a concentrated expression of phenomenology, existential philosophy and humanism, and is a manifestation of the full development of humanism. Existentialists concluded: "There is no other world outside of the human world and the world of human subjectivity." Existentialism, as a typical humanism, is incompatible with naturalism.
Fifth, the methodological hermeneutics of Dilthey and his successors emphasizes that society and humanities require an understanding of text or social historical phenomena, and natural sciences use general laws to explain the phenomena studied. Obviously different. Understanding and explanation are two different scientific methods. Naturalism, however, insists on the continuity of scientific methods. All natural objects and phenomena, including humans, can be given scientific explanations by applying general laws, believing that this will lead to real scientific knowledge. In this way, methodological hermeneutics is opposed to naturalism. Hermeneutics is also incompatible with epistemological fundamentalism in denying the certainty of truth. Therefore, in the entire field of philosophy, early hermeneutics can be said to belong to the category of humanism, which is the opposite of scientism.
Humanistic psychology is an innovation in contemporary western psychology in the United States after World War II sports. After the establishment of the American-based Psychological Association in the early 1960s, this movement developed significantly. In 1971, an international conference was held in the Netherlands, and its influence extended to Europe and Asia.
Before humanistic psychology, a group of European psychologists and existential philosophers had very consistent views. They were dubbed "existential psychology" title. They developed their psychological theories based on the theories of famous existential philosophers Nietzsche and Sartre. These existential psychologists include Binswanger, Frankel, and Rollo May.
The focus of existential psychotherapy is to resolve existential anxiety, and to resolve individual panic and fear caused by the meaningless life of the individual. Treatment generally includes emphasizing free choice and establishing a system that can reduce emptiness and anxiety. And a troublesome lifestyle, cultivate a more mature attitude towards life.
Existentialist philosophy has profoundly affected the views of some American psychologists at that time. Carl Rogers is one of them. But at the same time Rogers also gradually realized that the early use of existentialism to do psychotherapy can not determine for patients what their problems are and how to solve them. Another affected person, Abraham Maslow, said that we need a scientific, more demonstrative psychology than existentialism to "think about problems that have been solved by non-scientists—religion, poetry, and values. , Philosophy and art."
Establishing a new school of psychology to understand human behavior has become the lifelong work of Rogers and Maslow-this is the embryonic form of early humanistic psychology.
So far, there is no universally recognized definition of humanistic theory in the world. This phenomenon was particularly prominent in the 1960s and early 1970s. At that time, everyone seemed to think that they were "humanistic" and tried to popularize their theories. As a result, humanism has become a popular theory, and it seems that it can cure all diseases. In recent years, since humanistic psychology is no longer as popular as it used to be, and the promotion of humanistic theories has decreased, many psychologists still believe that they belong to this genre. Although there is no clear standard to judge whether a method of psychotherapy belongs to the category of humanism, it is generally believed that the core content of humanistic psychology has four aspects:
(1) , Emphasize human responsibility;
(2), Emphasize "here and now";
(3), Look at the individual from the perspective of phenomenology;
( 4) Emphasize the growth of people.
Humanistic psychologists believe that psychology should focus on the study of human value and personality development. They both oppose S. Freud’s psychoanalysis to restore consciousness and experience As the basic drive or defense mechanism, it also opposes behavior and regards consciousness as a side phenomenon of behavior. Regarding the value of human beings, most humanistic psychologists agree with Plato and Rousseau’s idealistic views. They believe that human nature is good and evil is a derivative phenomenon under the influence of the environment. Therefore, humans can be improved through education, an ideal society It is possible. In terms of the basic theories and methodology of psychology, they inherited the tradition of W. Dilthey and M. Wertheimer at the end of the 19th century, advocating the correct treatment of the particularity of psychological research objects, and opposing the use of atomic physics and animal psychology. Principles and methods study human psychology and advocate holism instead of reductionism.
The following is a brief summary of the main points of humanistic psychology:
1, Human responsibilities;
People themselves are ultimately responsible for what happens. This is the basis of humanistic personality theory. It can explain why we often say "I have to", such as "I have to go to work", " I have to take a bath", "I have to listen to the boss's dispatch" and so on. In fact, we don’t have to do these things. We can even choose not to do anything. At a given moment, behavior is just everyone's own choice.
Freud and behaviorism describe people as being unable to control themselves. Humanistic psychologists, on the contrary, regard people as active builders of their own lives, free If you can’t change yourself, it’s just because of physical limitations. The main goal of humanistic psychotherapy is to make clients realize that they are capable of doing what they want, but, as Fromm said, having a lot of freedom is terrible.
2, At this moment;
There are always many nostalgic or unable to extricate themselves from the past in life. They often reminisce about the good old days, or It is the repeated experience of past awkward encounters or painful loss of love. There are also some people who are always planning for the future, regardless of their immediate life. From the perspective of a humanistic psychologist, daily nostalgia or daydreams make you lose N minutes of time. You should have enjoyed these N minutes to breathe fresh air, to enjoy the sunset or to do more meaningful things. matter.
According to the humanistic point of view, only by living as we are, can we become truly perfect people. Only by living at this moment can people fully enjoy life. Humanistic psychologists will often warn you that "today is the first day of your remaining life."
3. The phenomenology of the individual;
Humanistic psychology believes that no one knows himself better than you. They encourage themselves to overcome the temporary difficulties they encounter.
4. Human growth;
According to the viewpoint of humanistic psychology, it is not the whole life to satisfy all needs immediately. When people's immediate needs are met, they will not feel satisfied or happy, but to get satisfaction or happiness is to always actively seek development, which is the "self-improvement" of people. Humanistic psychology believes that unless difficulties hinder us, we will continue to move towards this state of satisfaction.
The humanistic therapist allows the client to overcome difficulties and continue to grow.
As a movement of humanistic psychology, it was jointly initiated by many psychologists with similar views, mainly including personality psychologist Allport, Murray, Murphy; New psychoanalysts Horney and Fromm; Existential psychologist May; Organismist Goldstein; Developmental psychologists Biller and Burgenta; Comparative psychologist And social psychologist Maslow; psychological counselor and education reformer Rogers, etc. Among them, Maslow, Rogers and May are recognized leaders of this movement.
The rise of humanistic psychology has a long brewing process. The study of American personality psychology, new psychoanalysis, and organism theory in the 1920s and 1930s was an early theoretical preparation. Allport pointed out that man is a unity constituted by the interaction of many factors. Every adult is different from others and treats the world in his own unique inner harmony. This view is directly opposed to the behaviorist theory that excludes conscious experience. Based on personality theory, Allport later became a key figure in founding the Department of Social Relations at Harvard University, which created the conditions for the separation of humanistic psychology and experimental psychology in the college. Murray and Murphy also published important personality theories during this period. They combined the biological and social factors of personality and laid the foundation for the development of humanistic theory. Horney and Fromm disagree with Freud's exaggeration of the role of sexual factors , Regarding the social problems caused by the development of American industrial society as social factors that lead to mental disorders is one of the main differences between humanistic psychology and traditional psychoanalysis. The publication of Goldstein's "On the Organism" in 1939 is considered to be the cornerstone of the main theory of psychology, namely the theory of self-actualization. For the first time, he discussed self-actualization from the exertion of the organism's potential, using empirical evidence from psychology. Research has strengthened this concept originally proposed by philosophy.
The first batch of representative works on systematic discussion of humanistic psychology were published successively in the 1940s and 1950s, among which are: Maslow’s "Theory of Human Motivation" (1943), "Motivation and Personality" (1954); Rogers' "Patient Center Therapy" (1951), "On Human Growth" (1961); and "Existence: New Perspectives in Psychiatry and Psychology" edited by Mei "(1959). Maslow proposed that human needs and motivations are a hierarchical structure, and the emergence of high-level motivations depends on the satisfaction of low-level needs. He also used comparative psychology data to demonstrate that basic needs and motivations, whether low-level or high-level, are instinctive or similar in nature, that is, they have a tendency to spontaneously pursue satisfaction, while high-level needs and motivations such as friendship and cognition , Aesthetic and creative satisfaction, that is, the realization of human value or the self-realization of human nature. Rogers demonstrated the inherent constructive tendency of people with his experience in psychotherapy and psychological counseling. He believed that although this inherent tendency can be hindered by environmental conditions, it can be induced by doctors' unconditional care, empathy, understanding and active induction of patients. Remove obstacles and restore mental health. He also applied this theory to education reform, emphasizing the importance of establishing a close relationship between teachers and students and relying on students' self-direction ability in education. May introduces European existential psychology and existential psychotherapy into American-based psychology, and believes that although people's situation is tragic, it can lead to a brighter future through the cultivation of courage, the overcoming of anxiety, and the choice of self.
Since the 1980s, the humanistic movement has deepened. Its internal self-actualization theory with Maslow and Rogers as one side and the self-selection theory with May and other existential psychologists as the other. After Maslow’s death, May and Rogers began a public debate on the issue of human nature. He disagrees with Rogers's statement that evil is caused by the environment. He believes that both evil and good exist in human nature and are human potentials. Failure to face the problem of evil has a deep and harmful impact on the humanist movement.
In addition, the self-actualization theory, which represents the mainstream of humanistic psychology, also has different development trends. The Rogers school still insists on research centered on individual psychology, but some others have begun to study transpersonal psychology, exploring how individual consciousness transcends itself and merges with the wider world.
Finally is the construction of methodology. Maslow once pointed out that traditional scientific methods are not enough to solve the complex problems of human psychology. Humanistic methodology does not exclude traditional scientific methods but expands the scope of scientific research to solve humans who have been excluded from psychological research in the past. Issues of beliefs and values. At the end of the 1970s, there was an attempt to strengthen humanistic psychology with scientific methodology. The representative was Ritchick. He believed that the introduction of teleology into psychology by humanism was to replace the old paradigm with a new paradigm, but it must Only by strengthening the scientific nature of humanistic psychology with dialectical methods and rigorous logic can this transformation be completed.
Humanist psychologists have not only experienced a period of vigorous development of the socialist system in the world, including the victory of the Soviet Union in the anti-fascist war and the establishment of post-war China and Eastern European socialist countries, but also saw the society The problems that have arisen in the development of socialism, especially the problems of Stalin in the Soviet Union and the problems that have arisen in our country’s anti-rightist movement.
While this left-wing humanist advocated Marx’s humanitarian views, he also had doubts and worries about whether the system implemented by the socialist countries at the time could promote the realization of full humanity.
Although most humanists generally do not discuss the issue of social systems, they emphasize human dignity and value, and the development of personality and individuality. They advocate that social reform, management, education, and psychotherapy should be Based on good interpersonal relationships.
When mankind is advancing towards the 21st century with vigorous steps, if we look back at the past, everyone will be surprised at how much the world has changed today. But what about the changes within the person himself?
People's cognitive ability has obviously improved a lot, and people seem to be extremely smart. This is mainly manifested in the fact that people have a much clearer understanding of the outside world. However, the understanding of people's internal problems seems not so clear. People lack scientific understanding of their own feelings and virtues, and lack the ability to control their blind impulses. Even the tricksters of contemporary humans will inevitably make big mistakes. The changes within the person themselves are far from satisfactory compared to the changes in the external world.
The internal construction of human beings mentioned here is what we usually call the construction of human spiritual civilization. It used to be a problem discussed in philosophy, ethics and social sciences, and now it has also become a problem discussed in psychological institutions, especially humanistic psychology.
Currently the most effective humanistic therapy is:
Help seeker-centered therapy is also translated into client-centered therapy, visitor-centered therapy, It is the main representative of humanistic psychotherapy. Humanistic psychotherapy is a new type of psychotherapy that emerged in the 1960s. Its guiding ideology is the humanistic psychology that emerged in the United States after the Second World War. This therapy was not created by an outstanding leader of a school, but was practiced by some people with the same viewpoint, including patient-centered therapy, existential therapy, and Gestalt therapy.
Among the various schools of humanistic therapy, the client-centered therapy pioneered by Rogers has the greatest impact and is a major representative of humanistic therapy. The client-centered therapy believes that under normal circumstances, any person has unlimited growth potential that is positive, progressive, and self-affirming. If one's own experience is blocked, or the consistency of one's own experience is lost, suppressed, or conflict occurs, which weakens or hinders one's growth potential, it will be manifested as mental illness and difficulty in adapting. If a good environment is created so that he can communicate and communicate with others normally, he can realize his potential and change his maladaptive behavior.
Maslow, American psychologist, pioneer of the third generation of psychology, Jew. He proposed a humanistic psychology aesthetic that combines psychoanalytic psychology and behaviorist psychology. His main works are "Motivation and Personality", "Exploration of Existential Psychology", "The Realm of Human Performance" and so on. He has no monographs on aesthetics, and his aesthetic thoughts are integrated in his psychological theory.
Maslow’s humanistic psychology provides a psychological basis for his aesthetic theory. The core of its psychological theory is that people can meet multi-level needs system through "self-realization", achieve "peak experience", rediscover the value of people rejected by technology, and realize perfect personality. He believes that human beings as an organic whole have multiple motivations and needs, including physical needs, safety needs, belonging and love needs, self-esteem needs and self-realization needs. Among them, the need for self-realization is transcendence. The pursuit of truth, goodness, and beauty will ultimately lead to the shaping of perfect personality. Peak experience represents the best state of people.
"Motivation and Personality" (1954 )
"Explorations in Existential Psychology" (1962)
"Scientific Psychology" (1967)
"The Realm of Human Performance" 1970
American psychologist. Born on January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, USA. In the early years, he majored in agriculture, and later turned it into history. He graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1924 and entered the Concord Theological Seminary in New York the same year. Later transferred to Columbia University Teachers College to study clinical psychology. He received a master's degree in 1928 and was hired to work in the Children's Laboratory of the Rochester Association for the Prevention of Child Abuse. In 1930, he served as the director of the office. In 1931, he obtained a Ph.D. degree from Columbia University outside of work. In 1940, he became a professor of psychology at Ohio State University. In 1945, he transferred to the University of Chicago to teach. In 1957, he returned to his alma mater as a professor of psychology and psychiatry in Wisconsin. From 1962 to 1963, he served as a researcher at the Advanced Research Center for Behavioral Sciences, and later worked at the Western California Institute of Behavioral Sciences and Harvard University. He was the president of the American Psychological Association from 1946 to 1947, and the president of the American Association of Clinical and Abnormal Psychology from 1949 to 1950. He also served as the first president of the American Academy of Applied Psychology. In 1956, he was awarded the American Psychological Association's Outstanding Scientific Contribution Award.
Rogers also brought an important impact on educational psychology, and his views are generally praised as humanistic views in educational psychology. He also developed the theory of experiential learning, which is opposite to what he calls cognitive learning.
Main works include: "Counseling and Psychotherapy: Recent Concepts and Practices"; "Client-Centered Therapy: Practice, Application, and Theory"; "Therapy, Personality, and Interpersonal Development in a Patient-Centered Framework" "Relationship"; "Free Learning"; "Individual Formation: My View on Psychotherapy"; "Carl Rogers on the Understanding Group"; "The Essence of Rogers' Works". Rollo May was born in Ada, Ohio, in 1909. He experienced a rough childhood, his parents divorced and his sister suffered from mental illness. His educational experience led him to enter Michigan College with a major in English and Oberlin College to obtain a bachelor's degree (BD). He taught books in Greece for a period of time. During 1938, he entered United Theological Seminary to obtain a bachelor's degree in theology. In 1949, he entered the Teachers College of Columbia University to obtain a doctorate in clinical psychology. Rollo May is the founder and senior member of Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center (Saybrook Graduate School Research Center) in San Francisco. In the last few years of his life he lived in the San Francisco Bay of Tiblanca, where he died in October 1994.
From 1934 to 1936, he worked as a student psychologist at Michigan State College. Later, he improved the United Theological Seminary in New York and studied the existential philosophy that was prevailing at the time, aiming to explore the meaning and value of life. He graduated in 1938 with a bachelor's degree in theology. During this period, he first accepted existentialism from the German Protestant theologian Paul Tillich, and later the two established a deep friendship. Since then he has served as a student counselor at the City College of New York and studied psychoanalysis. Opened in 1946 to work in private psychotherapy, and furthered his studies at Columbia University. During this period, Mei was dying of tuberculosis and had to stay in a nursing home for three years, but the disease became a turning point in her life. In the face of death and reading all over the world, May especially indulges in the works of existential religious thinker S. Kierkegaard. After being discharged from the hospital, he entered the White College to study psychoanalysis, and met Sullivan, E. Fromm and others, and had close contacts. During his illness, he intensively studied the anxiety discussed in psychoanalysis and existentialism. After recovering from illness, he put forward a thesis on "The Meaning of Anxiety" and received the first Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Columbia University in 1949. Since then, he has served as a researcher at the New School of Social Sciences in New York, and lectured at Harvard, Yale, Princeton and other universities in the name of a visiting professor, and served as a training and chief analyst at White College. Mei devoted his life to introducing existential psychology into the United States until he died of illness.
In the history of psychology, May is a bridge between existentialism and humanistic psychology. In his book "Existence: New Aspects of Psychiatry and Psychology" published in 1958, the German philosopher M. Heidegger's existentialism was introduced to the United States for the first time, thus establishing his existential psychotherapy on the one hand. The system, on the other hand, laid the foundation for the future development of humanistic psychology. Mei’s contribution to psychology lies mainly in the following two concepts he advocated:
1. Free will’s view of human nature’s nature of human nature, Mei, like other humanistic psychologists, Emphasize free will and oppose determinism. May believes that everyone is born with the innate potential to grow into a person, and everyone will work hard to show their talent potential in order to achieve self-realization. However, human beings are different from other creatures. Other creatures grow up by natural conditions, but human beings can become human by their own choices. An oak tree seed contains the potential to grow into a big oak tree in the future. Once it reaches the ground and roots, it will naturally grow into an oak tree as long as the growth environment is appropriate. Human growth is not the case. The reason why a person becomes a person is not based on natural conditions, but on his own choice. But in this way, even if the environment is similar in the human world, there are still big individual differences in the growth of each person. Mei believes that despite the nature of human nature, in reality, personal choices may not be appropriate, and they may not be satisfactory after the choice. Therefore, people will inevitably feel pain due to improper choices during their growth process. The purpose of psychotherapy is to help the person understand himself and make a new choice.
2. Freedom and Anxiety In 1950, based on his doctoral thesis, he published the first psychology monograph "The Meaning of Anxiety". For the first time, the book systematically proposed the concept of general anxiety (general anxiety), which is intended to make the term anxiety transcend the limitations of the proper nouns of psychopathology, and introduce it into the category of general psychological phenomena, in order to describe the impact of modern technological development on the whole of mankind. How the radical change of life situation leads to the psychological and emotional problems shared by modern people. May observes that the key to the inner emptiness of modern people is that the old ethical power of love and will has been severely frustrated. In May's psychological thoughts, anxiety and freedom are the two core concepts. He believes that in reality, when individuals make free choices according to their own conditions, the individual's potential will be fully developed, which means that free choice is a prerequisite for individual self-realization. This idea is consistent with that of Maslow and Rogers, the main leaders of humanistic psychology.
Humanistic psychology and traditional Chinese culture, in the comparative study of Chinese and Western cultures, the prevailing view is to emphasize the differences in the historical development of Chinese and Western cultures. But judging from the common nature of mankind, and judging from the fact that both philosophy and science are aimed at seeking truth, is there any convergence in the development of Chinese and Western cultures?
Some scholars in my country and the West have also pointed out this point. Differences and similarities have important implications. Only when there are differences, it is necessary for both parties to learn from each other; only when there is a common ground can there be a common foundation, and only then can the confidence and desire to learn from each other be strengthened.
From the same nature to the later differentiation and then to the contemporary convergence, this seems to be the inevitable development rule of human civilization as a whole.law. Therefore, mutual learning between different human cultures is not only necessary but also inevitable.
This law has been reflected in the development trend of contemporary Western humanistic psychology. Humanistic psychology is a new development of western traditional culture. It has different traditions from ancient Chinese culture. However, with the development of Western civilization to this day, its convergence with ancient Chinese culture has become more and more obvious. This has become an important trend in the development of contemporary human civilization.
There are many brilliant works and ideas in ancient Chinese culture. Among them, Laozi’s Taoist thought "Tao De Jing" and Confucius's Confucian thought "The Analects" enjoy high reputation in the world.
It can be seen from the comparison that there are not only some viewpoints in the contemporary Western humanistic psychology training theory that are similar to those in ancient Chinese culture, but also the overall structure of the disputes between various schools of human nature caused by it. It also seems to be a contemporary reprint of the controversy of a hundred scholars of ancient Chinese philosophy.
This is certainly not to say that the development of contemporary Western psychology is following the old path of our traditional culture. We must not only see the convergence of the development of human civilization, but also see the differences in the development of Chinese and Western civilizations. But the difference is the difference in the same, and the same is the convergence in the difference.