Functionist architecture

Historical Level

The 1980s-90s, an architectural genre generated, considers the form of architecture to obey its functions. Chicago School Architect Sali Wen Procure the slogan of "Form obedience function", and believes that "the function is constant, the form is constant". Sandli believes that architectural design should be inwardly and must reflect the consistency of architectural forms and use functions. This is completely different from the school's institute as a traditional model, regardless of the traditional model, regardless of the functional characteristics. Originally, the function of the building is one of the important views of modernist construction, but later some people regard it as absolute creed, plus a kind of functionalism that appears at the same time, thus excluding The artistic law of the building itself will inevitably cause confusion to functionalism itself.

After the 1950s, functionalism gradually tidally disappeared, and he continued to teach Le Cobsye, which has always emphasized building function. However, there is no doubt that the development of functionalism has played an important role in promoting the development of modern buildings.

Ideological background

1. The formation of cultural nationalism

The second half of the 19th century, the capitalist world has generally occurred economic crisis, and the United States is no exception. The 19th and 20th centuries, the US society reform movement is the reflection on the American industrialization and urbanization. Because accompanied by industrialization and urbanization, due to the rise of large enterprises and the production of monopoly organizations, production to capitalization and socialization will inevitably produce new social contradictions. The progress of the reform era is from the upper level of the United States, mainly in the middle class and intellectuals.

Horatio G Reenough accepted the idea of ​​Italian architectural theorism Carol Ladoli, advocating organisms in architecture and nature, same functionality Basic, they are formed in internal development. In 1852, Glino published its work "form and function", continuing building to emphasize the importance of function from the natural law, and called on the American architects should create more advanced, representative buildings. The development of the Times, and should not only be satisfied with the artistic concepts of Europe.

II. Establishment of Pragmatism Philosophy

Another important ideological root cause of functionalism is a practical philosophy of native. The most fundamental power generated by practical philosophy comes from the industrialization process of the United States, the United States, the United States. The US large-scale industrial revolution is ripe in just decades, and the internal organizational structure of the company, the management method and production of efficiency and production scale are far more than European old capitalist countries. This leading advantage will push the United States. The position of the world's first strong country. Practical philosophy is actually a summary of American intellectuals to the country's industrialization road.


mainly has two functionalism and manufacturers of functions.

With the development of modernist architectural movements, the functionalist thinking is a moment in the 1920th to 30th. The function of the building is one of the important views of the modernism, but later someone regarded it as an absolute creed, known as "functionist". They believe that not only the form of building must reflect the function, performance function, building plane layout, and space combinations must be based on functions, and all of all different features should also be expressed separately. For example, as a building structure and beams must be clearly visible, the building inside and outside the building, clearly expressing the function of the frame support the roof roof. Functionists praise machine aesthetics. They think the machine is "organism", which is different from other geometries, which contains internal functions, reflecting the beauty of the times. Therefore, some people compare buildings and cars, think that the functional building is a pod building, and its geometric body can show beautiful shape in the sun. They determine that functionalism will automatically produce the most beautiful form.

There have been another functionalist in the 20 ~ 30 years, mainly some of the manufacturers and engineers. They believe that the economy "affordable" is a functional building, which will automatically produce beautiful forms. These extreme thoughts exclude the artistic law of the building itself, and will only cause confusion to functionalism itself.

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