The origin of place names
Hutong starts from Tiananmen Square East Road in the west and ends at Chongwenmen Inner Street in the east, with a total length of nearly 1.6 kilometers (3 kilometers in total including Xijiaomin Lane) is the longest alley in old Beijing. Dongjiaomin Lane was an embassy area in the old China. It was an alley in Dongcheng District of Beijing. In the old days, it was called Dongjiang Mi Lane because it was the place of transportation.
During the Yuan Dynasty, Dongjiaomin Lane and Xijiaomin Lane on the west side of the square were a connected alley called Jiangmi Lane. At that time, this hutong was named Jiangmixiang because of the Yuan Dynasty controlling the transportation of rice grains into the tax office and customs in Beijing, and thus became an important place for the transportation of grains from the south to the north.
The past and present of Dongjiaomin Lane (40 photos)In the Yuan Dynasty, outside the east wall of the imperial city, there was a waterway. In 1292, the Tonghui River was opened to connect the North-South Grand Canal. People unloading and selling grain on the spot in the Chuan Hutong area moored outside the city, thus forming a grain trading street. The southerner is called Nuomi, and the northerner is called Jiangmi. Over time, people simply call it Jiangmixiang. The names of Beijing Hutongs are often very practical, and you will know its meaning when you see the name. In the eighteenth year of Yongle, Zhu Di moved his capital to Beijing. Since then, Jiangmi Lane has become a long street in the city.
The chessboard boundary was built in the Ming Dynasty, and the original Jiangmi Alley was cut off into Dongjiangmi Alley and Xijiangmi Alley. In Dongjiang Mixiang, there are six Central Ceremony Departments, Hongyou Temple and Huitong Pavilion. However, it mainly receives envoys from four vassal states including Annan, Mongolia, North Korea, and Myanmar. Therefore, the Huitong Pavilion is also called Siyi Pavilion. In the Qing Dynasty, the Huitong Hall was renamed the Siyi Hall, and the policy was changed to allow foreign envoys to live here for forty days.
After China was defeated in the Second Opium War in 1860, according to the relevant provisions of the "Tianjin Treaty" signed between the Qing government and Britain, France, the United States, and Russia, the British envoy officially moved to Dongjiang Mixiang in March 1861. Prince Chun’s Mansion (named Liang Gong’s Mansion at the time, it was the residence of the seventh son of Emperor Daoguang, the mansion of the Prince of Iron Hat-melt); the French minister officially moved to the Anjun Wang’s Mansion (then named Chungong Mansion, which was owned by Wang Yuele of Anjun, the grandson of Nurhachi Residence); the American minister moved into the private residence of the American citizen DrS.SWilliam in Dongjiangmi Lane; and the Russian minister moved into the Russian pavilion of the Orthodox church built here in the early Qing Dynasty.
Subsequently, the embassies of various countries chose the area of Dongjiaomin Lane as their location. Before the Boxer Movement in 1900, there were embassies from France, Japan, the United States, Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Miji was used as the focus of the attack. There was a nursery rhyme saying "Eating noodles without vinegar, shelling Xishiku; eating noodles without sauce, shelling Jiaominxiang", the former refers to the roots of Xihuangcheng, Beijing. Xishiku Church, the latter refers to Dongjiaomin Lane. After the Boxer Movement in 1900, Dongjiang Mixiang was renamed Legation Street (Embassy Street) in accordance with the provisions of the "Xin Chou Treaty". It was officially renamed Dongjiao Minxiang on the map drawn by the Chinese side. It became the embassy area managed by each embassy. The Qing government The government offices on this street only retained the official, household, and ritual departments and the clan mansion, and all the others moved out. Later, there were foreign banks such as the British HSBC, McGary Bank, Russia's Dousheng Bank, Japan's Yokohama Shokin Bank, Deutsche Bank, CAB, and other foreign banks, and opened French post offices, hospitals, etc. Facilities and a large number of western-style buildings. This embassy area has been retained after the Revolution of 1911. Until the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War in 1937, the other embassies were handed over to the National Government except for Germany and Italy.
Dongjiaomin Alley (55 photos)Dongjiaomin Alley, a quiet and ordinary street extending eastward from the south side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, with small western buildings standing side by side, and big tree branches swaying, "1992 The wooden sign designated here as a patriotism education base in the year was hung high on the gray wall of the side street. At the turn of the century, Beijing formulated a plan to protect the historical features of Dongjiaomin Lane as a whole to warn the world not to forget the national shame.
During the Yuan Dynasty, Dongjiaomin Alley and Xijiaomin Alley on the west side of the square were a connected alley called "Jiangmi Alley". At that time, this hutong had the tax office and customs that controlled the transportation of rice grains into Beijing in the Yuan Dynasty, and thus became an important place for the transportation of grains from the south to the north, hence the name Jiangmixiang. In the Ming Dynasty, the chessboard boundary was built and the original Jiangmi Alley was cut off into Dongjiangmi Alley and Xijiangmi Alley. In Dongjiang Mixiang, there are six of the Ministry of Rites, Hongyou Temple and Huitong Pavilion. However, it mainly receives envoys from the four vassal states of Annan, Mongolia, North Korea, and Myanmar. Therefore, the Huitong Pavilion is also called "Siyi Pavilion." In the Qing Dynasty, the Huitong Museum was renamed the Siyi Museum and the policy was changed to allow foreign envoys to live here for forty days.
Dongjiaomin Lane was originally the seat of the "Five Houses and Six Departments" during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. During the Qianlong and Jiaqing Periods of the Qing Dynasty, there was a "Guesthouse" for foreign envoys to live temporarily. After the Opium War (1840), the British, Russian, German, and French embassies were successively established in this area. After 1901, they were changed to Embassy Street. 11 countries including Britain, the United States, and France established joint administrative agencies in the lanes, and also opened "Citibank of the United States", "California Bank of France", "HSBC Bank of the United Kingdom", "Maskin Bank of Japan", churches, hospitals and many other places. This period of history has left many western buildings of different styles, which also attracted Many people from overseas.
On August 14, 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded Beijing, starting the biggest catastrophe in Beijing’s history, and Dongjiaomin Lane was also doomed. The Hubu silver bank in the alley alone was robbed of three million taels of silver by the Japanese invaders; the rare treasure of Dongjiaominxiangtai Hospital, the bronze man of acupuncture and moxibustion, was robbed; the "Yongle Dadian" and "Siku Quanshu" in Yuhexi Hanlin Hospital The rare books were also destroyed. The "Xin Chou Treaty" designated the Dongjiaomin Alley area as "Embassy Boundary" and renamed Dongjiaomin Alley as "Embassy Street." iron gate.
In 1901, the Qing government was forced to sign the "Xin Chou Treaty" with the great powers, and Dongjiao Minxiang was further plunged into deep suffering. In the past, the powers occupied less than one-twentieth of the entire Dongjiaominxiang area, and the local administrative power was still owned by China. However, according to the "Xin Chou Treaty," the great powers swallowed the entire Dongjiaominxiang area in one bite. Chinese people were not allowed to live and set up government offices. The administrative power was completely vested in the embassy, and the Chinese government had no right to intervene. They arbitrarily changed the original street names in China, renamed Dongjiaomin Lane to Embassy Street, Chang'an Street to Italy Street, and Taijichang Toutiao Hutong to Hede Road... The great powers also forced the Qing court to grant garrison privileges. For a time, Dongjiaomin Lane became a barracks of great powers.
The Revolution of 1911 broke out. The Dongjiaominxiang ministerial mission unanimously supported Yuan Shikai's stealing the fruits of the revolution. In 1915, Yuan Shikai sent representatives to sign the "21 Articles" in a building of the Japanese Embassy, in order to find Japan's support for him as emperor, and further betrayed national interests.
After the end of the First World War, the Paris Peace Conference vetoed China, as a "victorious country", requesting the revocation of Germany's interests in Shandong, abolishing the "Twenty-one Articles" and the proposals of countries' aggression in China. On May 4, 1919, more than 3,000 students in Beijing protested at Tiananmen Square. After the meeting, the parade was filled with indignation and submitted a letter of protest to the embassies of various countries in Dongjiaomin Lane.
In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek established the National Government in Nanjing. After 1928, the embassies of various countries moved to Nanjing one after another, but the site of Dongjiaomin Lane remained unchanged.
On December 24, 1946, American soldiers Pearson and others stationed in Jiaomin Lane in the east raped Shen Chong, a female student of Peking University. The Kuomintang ignored the strong protests of the people across the country and handed the principal offender to the United States for its own disposal. The offender returned The United States was "acquitted" and released.
On January 31, 1949, when Peking was peacefully liberated, Mao Zedong ordered that he must pass through Dongjiaomin Lane when entering the city. The Chinese People's Liberation Army was fully armed and passed through Dongjiaomin Lane.
On January 6, 1950, the Beijing Military Control Commission issued a notice, solemnly announcing that all the land occupied by the imperialist barracks in Beijing will be recovered and all its buildings will be requisitioned. Some countries that have established normal diplomatic relations with New China continue to establish embassies in Dongjiaomin Lane. Beginning in 1959, in accordance with the arrangements of the Chinese government, the embassies of various countries have moved outside Jianguomen in the eastern suburbs. The history of the establishment of the embassy in Dongjiaomin Lane has since ended. In this year, the Chinese Revolutionary History Museum was built on the west side of Dongjiaomin Lane. On the playground of the former embassy area, the buildings of the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade Cooperation, the Ministry of Public Security, the National Light Industry Bureau, and the National Textile Industry Bureau have been erected. The capital hotel has been built in the former German embassy area. Playground, built Dongdan Park and Dongdan Stadium.
After 1949, it was still used as the embassy area. The embassies of the Democratic Republic of Germany, Hungary, Myanmar and other countries that established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China continued to use the old buildings here until they moved to Sanlitun outside Chaoyangmen in 1959. The first embassy area.
During the "Cultural Revolution", due to its historical peculiarities, this place was once again shocked. The street name was changed to "Anti-Imperial Road" and many Western-style buildings were destroyed.
Since the 1980s, with the development of Beijing’s urban construction, the buildings in Dongjiaomin Lane have also been impacted. The old sites of HSBC, Jardine Matheson, and Russia Pavilion have been demolished due to widening of roads; Deutsche Bank It was demolished in 1992; the former site of the Japanese embassy was changed to the Beijing Municipal Government; many high-rise buildings and modern buildings were built on the street, and the style of the whole street was greatly damaged. To Dongjiaomin Lane, you can still see part of the remains of a bunker, you can also see the "Hard Road" sign, you can also see some fragments of the boundary wall, and you can also see the horse tie ring in the remaining British barracks stables. See the underground cell in the German barracks.
Dongjiaomin Lane is a cultural relic protection block in Beijing. It is protected by the cultural relics department.
Scenic Spots in Lane Area
Dongjiaomin Lane Attractions (23 photos)The embassy complex of Dongjiaomin Lane is located in Dongjiaomin Lane, Dongcheng District, Beijing. It was formed in 1901 By 1912, it was a European-style block integrating embassies, churches, banks, official residences and clubs. Existing buildings include the French Embassy, the Austro-Hungarian Embassy, the Belgian Embassy, the Japanese Embassy and the Embassy, the Italian Embassy, the British Embassy, Shoji Bank, Citibank, CAB, Russian Chinese Bank, International Club and French Barracks. Existing buildings are kept in their original state to maintain the eclectic style popular in Europe and the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century. The moldings and pilasters were built with clear water bricks, the brick arch voucher plus the verandah, the wooden angle purlin, and the iron slope roof.
The embassy complex in Dongjiaomin Lane is the only remaining Western-style building complex in Beijing from the beginning of the 20th century. It is also the physical remains of the imperialist invasion of China and the educational base for patriotism.
The Catholic Church
The Catholic Church of Dongjiaomin Lane, also known as St. Michael’s Church, French Church, is located at No.13 A, Dongjiaomin Lane, Dongcheng District, Beijing. It is a two-story Gothic building built in 1901. Style building. The Catholic Church in Dongjiaomin Lane is famous for its exquisite angel statues above its main entrance.
Dongjiaominxiang Catholic Church is a lately constructed church in Beijing, and its location was formerly within the scope of the French consulate. After the signing of the "Xin Chou Treaty" in 1901, the number of Europeans who settled in Beijing and lived in the embassy area of Dongjiaomin Lane increased significantly. These expatriates requested that nearby churches be built for religious activities. After consultation with the French bishop Fan Guoliang and the French consulate in China, the French consulate transferred the land, funded by the French Embassy, and the French priest Gao Jiali was responsible for the construction of the Dongjiaominxiang Catholic Church in the current location. The construction work in the later period was transferred to the Frenchman Zhan Liguo. In 1904, the church building was completed and officially opened. After the opening of the church, Dongjiaominxiang Catholic Church mainly serves foreigners in China. The priests and auxiliary clergy of the main church are all French nationals and are managed by the French Church.
After 1949, the Catholic Diocese of Beijing took over the buildings and real estate of the Dongjiaominxiang Catholic Church. The Dongjiaominxiang Catholic Church was placed under the management of the Beitang. In 1958, due to changes in government policies, the Catholic Church’s activities were restricted and the Dongjiaominxiang Catholic Church was closed. The building and real estate were confiscated by the government and placed under Taijichang Primary School. The church became the primary school’s auditorium, and the building suffered some damage to a certain extent.
In 1986, Taijichang Primary School was completely moved out of the Catholic Church in Dongjiaomin Lane, and the church was returned to the Beijing Church. The church reopened on December 23, 1989. On October 20, 1995, the Dongjiaominxiang Catholic Church was listed as a cultural relics protection unit in Beijing.
Compared with the four Catholic cathedrals in Beijing: the South Church, the North Church, the East Church and the West Church, the Dongjiaominxiang Catholic Church has a short history and small scale, but the architecture of the Dongjiaominxiang Catholic Church is small and exquisite, and it is also Beijing There are few Catholic churches in the city that have not been completely destroyed and rebuilt.
The existing church building covers an area of 2656.4 square meters. The main building is in a typical Gothic style. It is two stories high and faces the south from the north. The east and west sides are wide with three rooms, and the north and south are fourteen rooms deep. The interior of the church is made of wood. The structure has a rib-shaped arch at the top, supported by a column, and tiled corridors on the floor. The east and west sides of the church are decorated with glass windows custom-made in France, but when the church was occupied by Taijichang Primary School as an auditorium, most of these windows were Broke. Above the main entrance of the church is the statue of St. Michael, the patron of the church. He is the chief angel who protects the people of Israel in the Bible. He is regarded by the church as the guardian angel of the people of the New Testament. The statue of this angel is exquisitely carved with clear details ; Angel statues and exquisite glass windows are the two most eye-catching highlights in the Dongjiaomin Lane architecture.
In addition to the main Gothic church building, there is a western-style two-story building on the north side of the church, which is the residence of the priest of the church. There are ten brick bungalows on the east side of the church. The layout uses the format of Beijing's traditional residential buildings, but the doors and windows have arched voucher structures, which is a combination of Chinese and Western styles.
Existing buildings remain basically the same. Most of them are offices of state agencies. There are Beijing Public Security Bureau, Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, China Youth Travel Service, The guest house of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Xinqiao Hotel, Hongdu Fashion Company, etc.
The German Embassy was established in 1862. It is located in the south of Dongjiaominxiang Road and the west side of the north entrance of Hongchang Hutong, separated from the French Embassy. The street is opposite. After 1900, Guangcheng Wood Factory and a large number of nearby houses were occupied, embassies were expanded and barracks were established. After the First World War, Germany was defeated and its barracks were used by the Netherlands.
The Chinese government took back the concession of Dongjiaominxiang:
On January 6, 1950, the Beijing Military Control Commission issued a notice declaring: “(1) Some foreign countries used unequal treaties in the past. The so-called “garrison rights” in Beijing occupy the ground and build barracks in Beijing. The property rights of this land are now due to unevenness