Zheng Chenggong's Anti-Qing War

War background

Main entry:The Qing army enters customsLongwu regimeBoluoping Battle of FujianZheng Zhilong p>

In 1644 (the 17th year of Chongzhen, the first year of Shunzhi in Qing Dynasty), Chuang Wang Li Zicheng attacked Beijing, Emperor Chongzhen himself was hanged on the coal hill, and the Ming Dynasty perished. Then Wu Sangui, the commander of Mingshan Customs, led the Qing army into the customs and defeated Li Zicheng Stationed in Beijing City. The survivors of the Ming Dynasty then supported the king of Fu Zhu Yousong ascended the throne in Nanjing, and the following year (1645) changed the Yuan "Hongguang".

On May 15, 1645 (the second year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty, the first year of Hongguang), the Qing dynasty Prince Yu Duoduo led his army to the south, broke Yangzhou, and captured Nanjing. The prisoners were killed, and the Hongguang regime fell. After the collapse of the Hongguang regime, Zheng Zhilong held a heavy army and became the main military force on which Emperor Longwu relied. The brothers Zheng Zhilong and Zheng Hongkui supported the Emperor of Tang Dynasty Zhu Yujian in Fuzhou and became emperor in July 1645 (the second year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the first year of Hongguang). Soon, the king of Lu Zhu Yihai was also called "Jianguo" in Shaoxing, and the year was changed to "the first year of Lu Jianguo". Although the two regimes of Longwu and Lu Jianguo "are determined to recover," they contradicted each other and clashed constantly, each doing their own way. After the Longwu regime was established, Zheng Zhilong introduced Zheng Chenggong to Emperor Longwu. Emperor Longwu admired Zheng Chenggong's talent very much. Emperor Longwu bestowed the most respected Zhu surname on Zheng Chenggong and changed his original name to Chenggong. From then on, Zheng Sen's name became Zhu Chenggong. It is true that Zhu is called the national surname both inside and outside the imperial court, and ordinary people respectfully call him the national surname.

Since 1646 (the third year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the second year of Longwu), Zheng Chenggong began to lead the army. However, Zheng Zhilong, who really held the military and political power, had no intention to fight the Qing with all his strength. Even when the Qing army went south to Fujian, he ordered the Xianxia gate guard general Shi Fu (also known as Shi Tianfu, Shi Lang clan uncle) to withdraw the army to Fuzhou (the Longwu regime). location). This action caused the Qing army to encounter almost no resistance when it invaded northern Fujian. Qing dynasty scholar Hong Chengchou was a native of Nan'an in Quanzhou and a fellow township of Zheng Zhilong. Under the temptation he promised to give the kings of the three provinces, Zheng Zhilong decided to take his other sons north to surrender to the Qing Dynasty, despite the opposition of Zheng Chenggong, Zheng Hongkui and others. Zheng Chenggong dissuaded his father from failing, so he had to take some soldiers out of Kinmen. Zheng Zhilong thought that after he was sent to the Qing Dynasty, he could not only protect his family property, but also increase his ranks. Unexpectedly, the Qing army conquered Fujian coach Boluo to break the contract, not only took Zheng Zhilong and the philosophers to Yanjing, but also sent troops to attack the hometown of the Zheng family, Nan'an, southern Fujian. . Zheng Chenggong's mother, Tian Chuan, had moved from Japan to Nan'an and settled in Nan'an. Unfortunately, he encountered this catastrophe and committed suicide during the war. Zheng Chenggong became more determined to fight the Qing after learning of his mother's death. Success led his father’s old army to fight against the Qing Dynasty on the southeast coast of China and became one of the main military forces in the late Nan Ming Dynasty.

In August 1646 (the third year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the second year of Longwu), the Qing army conquered Pucheng and Xiapu; Emperor Longwu went out to Jiangxi, was captured by the Qing army in Tingzhou, and died on a hunger strike. The Nanming Emperor's Xuan was inherited by the Gui Wang Zhu Youlang, and the Yuan "Yongli" was changed.

After the demise of the Longwu regime, Zheng Chenggong evaded Kinmen, and then began recruiting troops from all over the coast, incorporating Zheng Zhilong’s old army, and raising thousands of troops in South Australia.

After the war

Kinmen raise troops

  • Accumulate strength

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    In January 1647 (the fourth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty, the first year of Yongli), Zheng Chenggong was in Xiaojinmen (today's Lieyu Township, Kinmen County), under the name "Uncle loyal and filial" Anti-clear. In July, Zheng Chenggong and Zheng Cai’s troops attacked Haicheng and failed. In August, Zheng Chenggong and Zheng Hongkui encircled Quanzhou Fucheng. Qing Zhangzhou deputy general Wang Jin led reinforcements, and Zheng army was defeated and retreated.

    In 1648 (the fifth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the second year of Yongli), Lu Ruoteng, governor of Nanming, Zhejiang, and others returned, Zheng Chenggong accumulated strength and attacked again. Zheng Chenggong’s generals mainly come from four aspects: one is the few generals who followed him in the army, such as Hong Xu and others; the other is the people with lofty ideals recruited from the coast of Fujian, such as Gan Hui from Haicheng, Lan Deng from Zhangpu, etc. ; The third is to follow Zheng Zhilong to the Qing and transfer to Tong Yangjia and Li Chengdong’s subordinates to attack Guangdong and Guangxi. In 1648, Li Chengdong returned to Fujian from Guangdong anyway, such as Shi Lang (then named Shilang), Hong Xishan, Huang Ting, etc.; fourth, the Qing was stationed in the southeast. The few generals on the coast who still think of their homeland have come back. Zheng Chenggong can generally treat these generals of different backgrounds equally, but he can only serve them. In particular, the military organization has been carefully reorganized to prevent the situation where the generals are self-employed and domineering. This is the resolute measure he has taken in summing up the lessons of the court since Hongguang and Longwu to tolerate traitors. It is precisely because of the establishment of extremely strict military organization and discipline that Zheng Chenggong has become a real commander in chief, rather than an imaginary leader.

    • Battle of Tongan

    1648 (the fifth year of Shunzhi in Qing Dynasty and the second year of Yongli ) On the 10th day of April, Zheng Chenggong led his troops to attack Tongan County, Fujian Province, including Hong Xishan and Gan Hui. Qing army deputy general Lian Biao and Guerrilla Zhe Guangqiu led troops out of the city to meet the enemy, and were defeated and retreated into the city. On the 18th, Zheng Jun arrived at the city. The Qing dynasty magistrates Zhang Xiaoling, Lian Biao, and Zhe Guangqiu abandoned the city with the remnants and fled. After Zheng Chenggong entered the city, he gave orders to Anmin, appointed Ye Yiyun as the magistrate of Tongan, and Chen Ding as the instructor. At this moment, Lin Cha, the commander-in-chief who was originally assigned to Guangzhou by Emperor Zhu Yu of the Tang Dynasty to establish the Shaowu regime, fled from Guangdong and reported that Guangxi, Huguang and other places supported the Yongli Emperor. Zheng Chenggong raised his hand and said: "I have a monarch who can serve!" Arranged the incense case and worshipped south, and from then on, he went to the Yongli Zhengshuo. He sent Jiang Yucan and Huang Zhigao from the bookstores of the Longwu dynasty to take a boat from the sea to Guangdong and report to the Yongli court about his anti-Qing situation along the coast of Fujian, expressing his willingness to cooperate with the east and the west under the leadership of the Yongli court. revival.

    In May, Zheng Jun besieged Quanzhou; in July, Qing Dynasty Jingnan General Chen Tai, Zhejiang and Fujian Governor Chen Jin, Fujian Admiral Zhao Guozuo, etc. turned to attack Tongan, Zheng Jun lost, defending generals, soldiers and civilians were killed and injured countless. Soon after the Qing Dynasty reinforcements arrived in Quanzhou, Zheng Chenggong went to break the siege of Quanzhou and returned to the sea in despair. In the same year, Jin Shenghuan and Wang Deren, the commanders of Jiangxi in the Qing dynasty, attacked the Qing in Jiangxi, and Li Chengdong, the admiral of Guangdong in the Qing dynasty, also voted for the Yongli regime, so that the anti-Qing and Ming powers rose sharply; it is a pity that the various anti-Qing forces did not have a tacit understanding with each other and were in their own hands. Most of them degenerate into local protests. Soon after, the Qing court suppressed the forces of Jin Shenghuan and Wang Deren in Jiangxi; the Guangdong Li Chengdong army also perished the following year.

    In 1649 (the sixth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the third year of Yongli), Zheng Chenggong changed the title of Yongli to Zhengshuo; Emperor Yongli canonized him as "King of Yanping" (the king of the county), and there have been people since then Call the success "Zheng Yanping".

    Internal conflicts

    • War of Chaozhou

    1649 ( In October, Zheng Chenggong decided to send troops to the south in the sixth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the third year of Yongli. In addition to attacking the Qing army in southern Fujian, he also planned to conquer the villages along the road as a source of food. After more than a month, Zhangpu, Yunxiao and other places were captured from the Qing army, and Dahao, Xiamei and other villages were also suppressed. In November, Zheng Jun decided to transfer to eastern Guangdong after the attack on Anbuya. From Guan to Chaozhou, the sporadic uncooperative forces were conquered; in May of the following year, Chaoyang and many nearby cottages were conquered for the first time. Although Chaozhou defender Hao Shangjiu had been with Li Chengdong in 1648 (the fifth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the second year of Yongli) against the Qing Dynasty, he had attacked Shi Lang, Zheng Hongkui and other ministries, and also refused Zheng Chenggong’s request from the "Allied Forces" and attacked in the Zheng army. When Xinxuzhai sent troops to embarrass him, he had a long history of disagreement with Zheng Chenggong.

    In June 1650 (the seventh year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty, the fourth year of Yongli), Zheng Chenggong’s army arrived in Chaozhou, and sent troops to attack it on the grounds that Hao Shangjiu’s position was "unclear"; Hao Bu was defeated , Retired to Fucheng, Jieyang, Puning, Huilai and other counties all entered the hands of Zheng Jun. Soon, the Qing army invaded Guangdong again; Hao Shangjiu received the enemy back and abdomen. Zheng Jun’s siege of Chaozhou City failed for March, and morale was low, and faced with the problem of food and payment, he had to resolve the siege of Chaozhou in August and retreat back to southern Fujian.

    • Lost Xiamen

    1650 (seventh year of Shunzhi in Qing Dynasty and four years of Yongli) , Zheng Chenggong's uncle (a family brother) Zheng Cai and Zheng Lian's armies have Xiamen. After Zheng Chenggong returned to southern Fujian, in order to expand his strength, Zheng Lian used the excuse to impose extravagance in Xiamen and make the people unhappy; he adopted Shi Lang's suggestions and used plans to take Xiamen. During the Mid-Autumn Festival of the same year, Zheng Chenggong took advantage of Zheng Cai's departure from Xiamen to visit Zheng Lian in Xiamen. Zheng Lian did not defend himself and was assassinated. Soon, Zheng Cai learned about Zheng Lian’s death, and was even more afraid to confront Zheng Chenggong. When he returned to Xiamen, he handed over all the military power; Zheng Chenggong has since taken over most of Zheng Cai and Zheng Lian’s troops, and actually obtained Xiamen and Jinmen. As a base. In November of the lunar calendar, the two kings of Qingpingnan and Jingnan led tens of thousands of cavalry into Guangzhou; Zheng Chenggong sent the king to the south and ordered his uncle Zheng Zhiwan to stay in Xiamen. In December, Zheng Chenggong arrived in Jieyang, Guangdong, and met with Zheng Hongkui; after the two discussed, it was decided that Zheng Chenggong would continue to lead the army to the south to the king, while Zheng Hongkui moved to Xiamen to assist in defense. In the same year, King Lu came to Xiamen to seek refuge with Zheng Chenggong, accompanied by Zeng Ying and others from the cabinet, and was placed in Kinmen.

    In the first month of 1651 (the eighth year of Qing Shunzhi and the fifth year of Yongli), Zheng Chenggong arrived in South Australia. On February 25, the Zheng Army fleet encountered a storm near Yanzhou Port. Zheng Chenggong’s main ship nearly disintegrated and capsized. Almost all the equipment on the ship, including the kitchen stove, were lost. According to records, the ship was unable to prepare even food. , Zheng Chenggong himself even hungry for two meals. It wasn't until the wind and rain subsided the next afternoon that Zheng Chenggong's main and auxiliary ships were able to return to the shore to rendezvous with the fleet. This was the biggest danger Zheng Chenggong himself encountered at sea. Afterwards, Zheng Chenggong also rewarded the two pilots of the main and deputy Chinese military ships.

    In March 1651 (the eighth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the fifth year of Yongli), Zheng Jun arrived at Guangdong Daxing Institute (now Huidong, Guangdong). On the other hand, the governor of Fujian Zhang Xuesheng of the Qing Dynasty learned that Zheng Chenggong's main army had gone to Guangdong, and Xiamen's defense was loose. He seemed to have the opportunity to take advantage of it; he ordered Ma Degong and Wang Bangjun to take advantage of it to attack Xiamen. Ma Degong held Zheng Zhibao in Nan'an and ordered him to surrender the ship and ferry the Qing army to Xiamen, and successfully defeated Zheng Jun on the sea. In the face of the Qing army's attack, Zheng Zhiwan, who was in charge of Xiamen's defense, was timid before fighting, and only took care of transporting his belongings to a private boat and fleeing; this made it easy for the Qing army to break through Xiamen and looted the Zheng family's savings and equipment. Due to the sudden incident, Madam Dong and Zheng Chenggong's eldest son Zheng Jing had no time to escape the sea with the ancestral tablet. After the Qing army succeeded in the sneak attack, they did not intend to stay in Xiamen to fight Zheng Jun, so they returned to the interior with the spoils. At this time, Zheng Hongkui, who rushed to Xiamen to support, happened to be besieged by Ma Degong's troops returning home, but Ma Degong threatened to kill his mother and brother (Zheng Zhilong). In desperation, he had to let Ma Degong go. Soon, Zheng Chenggong learned of the attack on Xiamen in Guangdong; he originally insisted on continuing to go south to the King of Qinqin, but in the end, because the generals wanted to return and cried, he had to go back to Xiamen. After regaining Xiamen, Zheng Chenggong held accountability and decapitated his uncle Zheng Zhiwan, who had fled from fighting. Zheng Hongkui, who had let go of Ma Degong, surrendered his military power and retired to Baisha, Dongshi Town, without having to deal with political affairs. In the fifth month of the lunar calendar of the same year, Zheng Hongkui's general Shi Lang once again surrendered to the Qing Dynasty.

    Stalemate situation

    • The Battle of Zhangzhou

    1652 ( In the ninth year of Shunzhi of Qing Dynasty and the sixth year of Yongli) on the first lunar month, Qinghai Chengshou General He Wenxing surrendered to Zheng Chenggong. In February, Zheng Jun attacked Changtai, and the Qing Dynasty dispatched Chen Jin to lead an army to rescue; the two armies fought on Jiangdong Bridge. Zheng Chenggong relied on his familiarity with the terrain of southern Fujian, and arranged many ambushes near Jiangdong Bridge, defeating Chen Jin, annihilating most of the Qing army, and winning the Jiangdong Bridge battle. Soon after he captured Changtai. After conquering Changtai, Zheng Chenggong assembled an army to attack the Zhangzhou city and surrounded it. In April, in order to break the siege of Zhangzhou, the Qing Dynasty recruited a hundred ships to invade Xiamen, and Zheng Chenggong must rescue him. Zheng Chenggong sent Chen Hui, Zhou Rui, etc. to lead more than a hundred warships to attack, Yu Chongwu defeated the Qing army and won the Chongwu Campaign. Zheng Jun made a great victory at sea, so the pressure on Zhangzhou City was not slightly reduced; however, Zhangzhou's defenders were also quite tenacious, making the situation of siege of the city lasting for more than half a year. After a few months, the water and food in Zhangzhou City were exhausted, and countless soldiers and people starved to death. It is said that at that time, soldiers and civilians in the city competed for food, and even those who had food at home would not dare to cook, because once they were found to have smoked their homes, they would be robbed. It is also said that the tragedy of people eating human flesh occurred. Eat, the people will die out of ten, and the soldiers and horses will be wiped out." In September of the same year, the Qing army general Gushan Ezhen Jinli led an army of 10,000 people to Fujian and entered Quanzhou Prefecture; Zheng Chenggong ordered the lifting of the siege of Zhangzhou to wait for the enemy. Zheng Chenggong placed his troops in Jiangdong and wanted to ambush Jinli Army in the same way as Chen Jin was defeated. However, Jinli Gushan saw it through. The two armies started a melee. Zheng Jun admired Huangshan, Liwu Town Chen Feng, and You Xianfeng Town Liao Jing Guo Ting, Qin Dingzhen, and Hong Chengchong, the guard Youzhen, were killed in the fierce battle. After losing the battle, Zheng Jun could only retreat to ensure the safety of Haicheng and Xiamen. The Qing army took advantage of the victory to recover the four counties of Nanjing, Zhangpu, Pinghe, and Zhao'an.

    • Battle of Haicheng

    After the defeat of the siege of Zhangzhou, Zheng Chenggong ordered his troops to guard the sea Cheng, he returned to Xiamen in 1653 (the tenth year of Shunzhi in Qing Dynasty and the seventh year of Yongli). Zhang Mingzhen, the Hou of Dingxi, suggested that, taking advantage of the opportunity that the main force of the Qing army under the Jinli ruled south was concentrated in Fujian, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, he should lead the former Lu Jian Guozhou Division north to the Yangtze River, "pound his confidant", and put the Qing side in advance and retreat. The dilemma of unfounded evidence. Zheng Chenggong agreed to this suggestion and may have provided some ships, food and equipment. This autumn, Zhang Mingzhen, Zhang Huangyan and others led the navy to go north to Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    In April, Jinli mobilized amphibious officers and soldiers to prepare to attack Haicheng County and Zhongzuo Institute (Xiamen). On the 28th, the Qing army under the command of Jin Li camped at Zu Shantou and set up an attack on Haicheng. On the first day of May, Zheng Chenggong's troops arrived in Haicheng. On the 4th day of the Lunar New Year, Jin Li mobilized hundreds of guns to bombard Zheng's position with concentrated firepower, and most of the Zheng's guards of Aihui and Muzha were damaged. The next day, Chen Kui of Houjin Town and Yezhang of Houchong Town saw that passive beating was not the way to go, and demanded to take the initiative; Zheng Chenggong agreed with their opinions. Seeing Zheng Bing leaving the camp, the Qing army immediately responded with intensive guns. Zheng Chenggong ordered to retreat and stick to it. The Qing army continued to bombard with blunderbuss, and the new fortifications such as the fortifications built on the edge of Zhenyuanzhai were razed to the ground.; The Zheng army soldier lost the barrier, and the officers and soldiers were panicked. Zheng Chenggong ordered the excavation of the hideout, and at the same time boosted morale. In order to further strengthen the determination of the soldiers, Zheng Chenggong personally braved the intensive guns to board the towering enemy platform to observe the enemy's position. He judged that the Qing army was about to launch a full-scale offensive after firing guns for two days. That night, he sent He Ming, Hong Shan, etc., the magical towns, to bury a large amount of gunpowder by the river where the two armies were squatting.

    After nightfall, the Qing army continued to blast. Five drums on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month, Jin Li ordered the use of air cannons to cover, sending green camp soldiers to lead the battle, followed by Manchu soldiers, fill the river and climb the fence swarming, reaching the city, arrows like rain, trying to ascend the city in one fell swoop. After dawn, Zheng Chenggong saw that most of the soldiers crossed the river. He immediately ordered He Ming and others to light the fuse. The gunpowder buried along the river erupted at the same time. Gan Hui took the opportunity to sweep the army, and the remaining Qing army ran away in embarrassment. Seeing that the defeat was determined, Jin Li hurriedly ordered the soldiers to force the civilians to carry artillery and flee back to Zhangzhou overnight. The victory of Zheng Chenggong's Haicheng Battle dealt a heavy blow to the Qing army of the Jinli Ministry and restored the morale caused by Zhangzhou's defeat.

    After the Battle of Haicheng, Jin Li was recalled to the capital by the Qing court. The Qing and Zheng were once again at a stalemate.

    The Qing court recruited surrender

    In 1653 (the tenth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty, the seventh year of the Yongli calendar), in the fifth lunar month, after the Qing army's two defeats, the emperor of Shunzhi named Zheng Chenggong as "Haicheng" "Public", Zheng Chenggong did not accept. In August, the two sides negotiated a peace with the Baoen Temple in Anping, Quanzhou Prefecture, and Zheng Jun was able to suspend his troops to raise food and wages and rectify a little bit. In November, Emperor Shunzhi once again issued an edict, and promised to place soldiers in Quanzhou Prefecture, but Zheng Chenggong did not accept it.

    In 1654 (the eleventh year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the eighth year of Yongli), Zhang Mingzhen, Hou Dingxi, saw that the Qing army had concentrated on Fujian, and the defense of Jiangsu and Zhejiang was bound to be empty; so he asked Zheng Chenggong The division, led a hundred warships northward, and took the Jiangnan area. Zhang Mingzhen's army from the Northern Expedition attacked along the Yangtze River and reached Jinshan Temple, threatening Nanjing City; In February, the Qing government sent another envoy and Zheng Chenggong, promising to give Xinghua, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, and Chaozhou the four prefectures; Zheng Chenggong refused again on the grounds that "there are too many troops and horses, and there are not enough places in the provinces." In August, Qing sent envoys to discuss again; Zheng Chenggong's own brothers Zheng Du and Zheng Yin were also among the envoys. Zheng Chenggong claimed that "the Qing Dynasty had no sincerity" and said that "I have not received an edict for a day, and my father is honored in the Dynasty", and once again rejected the conditions proposed by the Qing Dynasty and insisted on resisting the Qing Dynasty. Li Dingguo, king of Xining of the Southern Ming Dynasty, contacted Zheng Chenggong, hoping to join forces to attack Guangdong from the east and the west, so that the Ming dynasty would converge; Zheng Chenggong sent Lin Cha and Zhou Rui to the west, but the appointment with Li Dingguo was delayed for some reason. As a result, Li Dingguo fought alone. Although Zhaoqing was restored, he was defeated outside Guangzhou and returned. Li Dingguo originally had great expectations for joining Zheng Chenggong in the Northern Expedition, and even helped Li and Zheng to marry to consolidate the alliance; but because Zheng Chenggong repeatedly frustrated his military period and missed major events, Li Dingguo was quite disappointed. In the same year, Liu Guoxuan, the deputy guard of Zhangzhou in the Qing Dynasty, surrendered to Zheng Chenggong and led Zheng Jun into Zhangzhou's capital city. Zhang Shiyao, the general town of Zhangzhou, saw that the situation was gone, and all the following officials surrendered to Zheng Jun. In December, the Zheng army divided its troops and attacked, taking down the counties of Tong'an, Nan'an, Hui'an, Anxi, Yongchun, and Dehua, and the army entered Xinghua.

    In 1655 (the twelfth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the 9th year of Yongli), because Emperor Yongli and Zheng Chenggong were far apart, Zheng Chenggong was specifically allowed to set up six officials and officials such as Chayan, Propaganda, and Trial to facilitate administration At the same time, he is allowed to appoint official positions, military attachés can reach a rank, and civilian positions can reach six chiefs. Every time Zheng Chenggong paid homage to officials, he invited Ningjing King Zhu Shugui and other Ming dynasty clan to observe the ceremony to show respect for the system. Zheng Chenggong also renamed Xiamen (then the center-left institute) as "Simingzhou" and built a martial arts pavilion to personally supervise the training of officers and soldiers. In September, the Qing dynasty General Dingyuan and Prince Zheng's empire led a 30,000 army into Fujian, and together with the Qing army stationed in Fujian, they prepared to attack Xiamen. Zheng Chenggong consolidated the defenses of Kinmen and Xiamen. At the same time, the dispatched department will lead the boat division to attack in two ways, one north to Zhejiang and the other to Guangdong, making it difficult for the Qing army to be both head and tail. Zheng Jun went to the north to win consecutive battles and invaded Zhoushan. Although Zheng Jun went to the south to capture Jieyang, he was defeated by Qing reinforcements and suffered heavy casualties.

    In April 1656 (the thirteenth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the tenth year of Yongli) in April, Jidu mobilized various naval divisions to attack Xiamen, and was severely attacked by the Zheng army in the sea area around the head. The Qing army was defeated and returned. Zheng Jun won the battle of Quanzhou. In December, Zheng Chenggong's troops again won the Battle of Huguoling in northeastern Fujian.

    Three into the Yangtze River

    In 1654 (the eleventh year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the eighth year of Yongli), Zhang Mingzhen and Zhang Huangyan, the Dingxi Marquis of the Southern Ming Dynasty, led their troops to attack the mouth of the Yangtze River three times. In January, the Nanming Army sailed up the river and reached Guazhou and Jinshan near Zhenjiang. In April, the Nanming Army entered the Yangtze River again until Zhenjiang and Yizhen (now Yizheng, Jiangsu), one step closer to Jiangning. In December, Zhang Mingzhen and others led more than 400 ships to reach Yanziji in the north of Jiangning city. The Qing army was prepared early, and after a fierce battle, the Ming army retreated to Chongming Island. The third "exploration" of the Yangtze River did not achieve great results. However, Nanming adopted a maritime attack in which the enemy advances and retreats, and the enemy retreats and advances. The Qing army is completely in a disadvantageous posture of passive beating, and there is no alternative.

    In order to consolidate the defense of Jiangning and other places, in 1655 (the twelfth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the ninth year of Yongli), the Qing court moved the "killer weapon" stored in the warehouse in Jiangning-the red cannon for installation. To the fort in Zhenjiang. The Qing government had not anticipated that a larger-scale battle on the Yangtze River was about to come.

    Disadvantages in the army

    In 1658 (the fifteenth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the twelfth year of Yongli), the Qing army concentrated its main force in the Yungui area to encircle and suppress the Yongli regime of the Nanming Dynasty. The defense in the southeast area was relatively empty. . Zheng Chenggong expected that Jiangning's defenses were weak, so he decided to use this favorable opportunity to attack Jiangning with all his strength, and in August he led a fleet from Zhoushan to the north. However, Zheng Chenggong's fleet had been active in the waters of Fujian for a long time and was not familiar with the waters of Zhejiang. In addition, due to unexpected circumstances, the fleet was hit by a typhoon when sailing to the waters of Yangshan (now Dayangshan Island in Zhoushan, Zhejiang). From the ninth to the eleventh of August, the storm has never stopped.

    In the face of unfamiliar seas and unexpected typhoons, Zheng Chenggong’s fleet fell into desperation. The ships were vulnerable in the huge wind and waves, some were buried directly in the belly of the fish, some drifted around, and some ran aground on the coast of the mainland. Zheng Jun's officers and soldiers and their family members suffered heavy casualties. More than 8,000 people died from drowning alone, including Zheng Chenggong's concubines and three sons. This violent typhoon prevented Zheng Chenggong from going north, and temporarily resolved the crisis faced by the Qing army.

    The Northern Expedition failed

    Main entry:Zheng Chenggong Northern Expedition Battle of Nanjing

    • Preparations for the Northern Expedition

    On April 19, 1659 (the 16th year of Shunzhi in Qing Dynasty and the 13th year of Yongli), Zheng Chenggong passed more than half a year after the difficulty of Yangshan It was heard that the Qing Dynasty dispatched a three-way army to attack the Yungui Yongli regime in February of the first year, and Zheng Chenggong made another large-scale northern campaign. On May 13th, Zheng Chenggong once again led his army to go northward from the coast of Zhejiang. At this time, Zheng Jun had more than 3,000 large and small ships, more than 100,000 soldiers and horses, and 8,000 iron men. He first captured Dinghai (present-day Zhoushan, Zhejiang), wiped out the Dinghai Division of the Qing army, burned more than 100 ships, basically wiped out the Qing army's maritime power, and relieved the worries of marching into the Yangtze River. In June, in order to contain the Qing army's three-way siege against the Yongli regime of the Southern Ming Dynasty, Zheng Chenggong and Zhang Huangyan cooperated to lead a 170,000 amphibious army of the 83rd Battalion and expedition to Nanjing in the north.

    • Siege of Nanjing

    Zheng Chenggong’s Northern Expeditionary Army marched on both land and water. Soon after, they captured Jiaoshan and Gua. State, captured Zhenjiang, an important gateway to the Yangtze River, and its counties. On June 26, the striker of Zheng Chenggong's department arrived in the suburbs of Nanjing, and on July 12, the siege of Nanjing was completed. At the same time, Zhang Huangyan led his army along the river, occupying 22 counties in four prefectures, including Taiping, Ningguo, Chizhou, and Huizhou. The Qing court knew that all the dynasties were shocked.

    The emperor Shunzhi was furious, panicked, and threatened to order his own conquest. On the eighth day of July, Emperor Shunzhi ordered his minister Da Su as General Annan to reinforce Jiangnan. During the period when Zheng Chenggong was under the army, the air in Nanjing was tense.

    • The Qing army counterattacked

    Lang Tingzuo burned down the houses near the city wall outside Nanjing and burned All residents within ten miles of the city moved into the city. Secondly, post notices to calm the people's hearts, send troops to rigorously investigate and visit, put an end to internal responses, and severely punish perpetrators of robbery and disturbance. Finally, we stepped up to store food and grass, purchase weapons, and collect and repair ships. In addition, the oars, ropes and other items were added and repaired, and the rudder and sailors were recruited to prepare for the future water and land counterattack.

    At this time, when Zheng Chenggong was paying homage to Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, he also let the soldiers drink to celebrate. He was dazzled by the momentary victory. The war dragged on for a month. The Qing military governor Lang Tingzuo, who was trapped in the city of Nanjing, seized the opportunity of the Zheng Jun generals to celebrate Zheng Chenggong’s birthday, "drink and remove armor," and slack their fighting will to command the Qing army to advance on land and water. In 1659 (the 16th year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the 13th year of the Yongli period), on July 24, the highest commander of the Qing army in Nanjing, Kakamu, made a mixed formation of the Eight Banners Army and the Green Camp. , Went out of the city and made the final battle with Zheng Jun, while Jiang Guozhu, governor of Jiangsu, sent troops to help. The specific attack directions are as follows: The first Qing army besieged the main force of the Shogunate Mountain Zheng army from six directions: northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, and northwest. The second Qing army attacked the Shogunate Mountain from the west. The third Qing army attacked the Mufu Mountain from the north, and waited for the opportunity to burn the Zhengjun ships on the Yangtze River and cut off the way back to the river. The fourth Qing army, starting from the waterway, led by the admiral Guan Allegiance, attacked the ships on the Zheng Jun river.

    • The Northern Expedition fiasco

    The Qing army bombarded the Zhengjun camp with artillery, and then proceeded directly In charge, the cavalry also dismounted and fought on foot. In less than half a day, Zheng Jun’s camps were broken by the Qing army one after another, and the rest of the troops broke up to the river. Zheng Jun’s navy commanded Huang An’s troops to resist desperately while covering the retreat of the defeated soldiers and their families who had fled from the shore. They rescued thousands of Zheng soldiers who had jumped into the river and fled back from the water. In the fierce battle, Zheng Jun's navy lost more than 500 ships of all sizes. But they eventually withstood the Qing army's water offensive and covered the remnant army's retreat to the ship, avoiding the tragedy of annihilation of the entire army.

    Zheng Chenggong led the troops back to Kinmen and Xiamen in a hurry. Zhang Huangyan was isolated and helpless and also retreated to eastern Zhejiang. The Northern Expedition finally failed.

    The result of the war

    In 1660 (the 17th year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and the 14th year of Yongli), the Qing Dynasty appointed Luoto to General Annan, together with Shangshu Cheke, the Minister of Internal Affairs Dasu, and the capital. All in the same way. Lotto and Jingnan King Geng Jimao joined forces to attack Kinmen and Xiamen, making it difficult for Zheng Chenggong to gain a foothold.

    After the failure of the Northern Expedition in Nanjing, Zheng Chenggong was seriously injured and faced with the problem of insufficient rations; in order to solve the problem of the army’s logistics supplies, Zheng Chenggong decided to follow He Bin’s suggestion to regain Taiwan occupied by the Dutch colonialists island.

    War Evaluation

    Zheng Chenggong’s battle against the Qing Dynasty was the most glorious climax of Zheng Chenggong’s anti-Qing warfare since he started his army. At this time, the important elites of the Qing army were all cast in the southwest battlefield. If Zheng succeeded in conquering Nanjing, his strategic victory is expected to change the future trend of China's historical development. However, although Zheng Chenggong, who had bases in Kinmen and Xiamen, did his best to launch the Northern Expedition, he failed. The most outstanding generals were killed, and the capital for another Northern Expedition was lost. The failure of the Northern Expedition made the most powerful army of Zheng Chenggong in Nanming fail to seize the opportunity to recover Nanjing and completely lost the last chance to recover the Han regime. However, Zheng Chenggong turned to develop on the sea, regained and vigorously developed Taiwan from the hands of Dutch colonists, and became a national hero highly respected by both sides of the strait.

    After the war

    Main entry:Zheng Chenggong recovers TaiwanQing Dynasty Unity WarThe Battle of Penghu

    Not long after Zheng Chenggong retreated to Xiamen, the Qing army followed suit. In the following two years, the Qing army launched several campaigns against Xiamen. Although Zheng Chenggong was repelled by Zheng Chenggong, the anti-Qing situation was not as good as each day.

    In 1661 (the 18th year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty, the 15th year of Yongli) the Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty came to the throne. On March 23, Zheng Chenggong personally led 25,000 soldiers and hundreds of warships. Departing from Bay, passing through Penghu, unexpectedly landed at Lu'ermen and Heliao Port. After nine months of hard fighting, the colonial governor Kuiyi was forced to sign the surrender on December 13 of the same year. Zheng Chenggong made a sacrifice to the mountains and rivers, and issued an order to open up the Dongning Kingdom and establish the Zheng family. He owns the land in southern Taiwan and part of the eastern part of Taiwan.

    After Emperor Kangxi ascended the throne, in order to maintain national unity, Shi Lang was appointed admiral of the Fujian Navy and unified Taiwan by force in the 22nd year of Kangxi (1683). After regaining Taiwan, the Qing Dynasty established one government and three counties in Taiwan in the 23rd year of Kangxi (1684), which belonged to Fujian Province. Since then, Taiwan and the mainland have been unified, and their administrative system has been unified with that of the mainland. The establishment of the Taiwan Government has strengthened Taiwan’s ties with the mainland, promoted Taiwan’s development, and consolidated the motherland’s southeast coastal defense.

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