World as a will and appearance

Content Introduction

"As the world of will and appearance" comprehensive elaborated the philosophical concept of Shushuba Huayi's meaning, the book is divided into four parts: First, the world is the beginning of the appearance "The main research suits from the object of law, experience, and scientific objects, which constitute a world of appearance; second, the world is the first state of will, mainly studying the object of will, which constitutes a will of the world The third is the "world as a representation", the content is about the object of philosophy and art, which constitutes a concept of the concept; the fourth is the "world as the will again", mainly studying the affirmation and negation of life means, it constitutes A world of ethics. These four parts reflect the evolution process of understanding the ontology, the artistic discussion, and then to ethics.

Works directory

first version World as a will and appearance

Second Edition

Third Edition Sequence

The first world is seen as a representation

obey the prominent item

experience and scientific object


The second world is the first state of the will


The third world is a group icon again

Independent Comprehensively Before the Law Into

Plato's concept art object

The fourth world is the will again?

When reaching self-awareness, the affirmation of life will and denies

Appendix Kant Philosophy Critical Criticism

Uncle Huasheng Flat and big events

Creative background

1813 Salt Huahua will submit the paper to the University of Jena, a doctoral degree. The following year, he moved to Dresden and began to think about the inherent conflict in human nature, and in love with the philosophy of Indian, this is the third important source of his philosophical idea. In Dresden's 4 years (1814-1818), Uncle China completed its main work "as the world of will and appearance."

Works' thinking

The first article

Uncle Huahua admitted his philosophical idea to the inheritance of Kant's philosophical idea. "The World as the World", "The world" world as a prominent theory "is also a critical argument on Kant's philosophy. First, he promoted the subjective concept of "the world is my appearance". The appearance refers to the world that appears in front of you, or it can be called a phenomenon. Therefore, the objective world should be associated with some kind of tangible or subjective world. Also, the time and space of the specified phenomenon, and the "adequate reason" with causal "sufficient reasons" is existing in a sense of consciousness. Just, in this case, because the world as a look is subjective, it is just an aspect of the whole world, and there are still many different aspects of the world. This is the "comfortable thing" said by Uncle Hua, ie, human beings cannot know, it is impossible to understand. However, Shu Bourn China criticized Kant's thoughts. He believes that the self-owned things are not unable to understand, but a "will". Therefore, it can be obtained that the world is will.

The second part of "The World is the first in the world", and discusses the objectiveization of will. The will here is not a rational will, is a "survival will" embodied as a physical activity associated with rationality. Uncle Baotao believes that the objective will be a human body. Uncle Baotao believes that this relationship with the body is suitable for all existence. He advocates that life phenomena and physical phenomena are an unconscious will. For example, digestion, blood circulation, secretion, growth, regeneration, etc. The life and plant activity of the body is guided by will activities. In addition, these behaviors such as animals nesting, spider webs are also the case. Even physical phenomena is no exception. If the water goes to the low, the magnet pointer always points to the stubbornness of the Arctic direction, the iron filings are rushing to the magnet, the two poles of the current is fierce again, and these activities are also willing. Guide. Such will is a blind will of life, so it is an endless thing for humans. Therefore, people's desires will never be satisfied, and survival is a painful process.

Third Part I / H3>

Part 3 "The World as a Text Re-Theory" discusses the objectivity of rationality and art. Rationality refers to the ideal world depicted by Plato. That is to say, in the field of art, rationality can exceed the time, space, and causal rules, and intuitively feel. In particular, music, it is a kind of copy of the will itself, called the highest shape of art. This kind of art is noble, it removes the subjective or objective elements of people, and will free people from all the pain caused by the desire of will. However, there will be problems: the freescent of art gives people very little and short-lived. Therefore, it is about to discuss the freight of morality.

The fourth part of the "World as the will again" discusses non-transient constant ethics. The pain of survival, refers to morality as part of survival, and will suffer pain with others, this is the so-called sympathy. People will try to understand the pain of others through sympathy. That is, even in this case, it can only be achieved by others. Here, it means that people do not get the final release from the pain of survival, the only way to fundamentally deny the "survival will" itself. If you want to achieve thorough release, people can only implement "abstains". The abstines advocated by the uncle Hua, refers to the abstinence in Buddhist truth. Uncle Huawang once said that the self-abandonment of will is the birth of the truth. Only the truth is the ultimate goal of morality and holy, in order to make people a thorough relief from the world.

The work affects

Uncle Huawei is bracked, and the full-minded Europe has brought the seeds of new beliefs. His philosophy opened a new era, Nietzsche after reading his "World as a will and the appearance", he was strongly shocked, and he lifted the "survival will" of uncle to "Superman will".

Uncle Huawa clearly proposed the inheritance as the viewpoint of philosophical subject, which has a great impact on the later generation philosophers.

Author's introduction

Arthur Shu Bourn (1788-1860), the founder of Germany, the founder of the philosophy, aesthetics. Basic in Poland but a banker family. He has a small arrogance, lonely, with a point of neurotic. In 1809, he got a doctor in the University of Got Tingen, and the philosophy of rehabilitation. In 1819, I published an important work "as the world of will and appearance, marking the vertices of their ideological development. In 1822, he was hired as a professor in Berlin, with Hegel to compete for the public. Although his philosophy is cold, he is very conceited, and firmly believes in the final victory of the truth. In 1836, the papers published "The Wills in Nature" to maintain his will learn. After 1853, his philosophy attaches great importance. He is a pioneer of new life philosophy, from the non-physiological aspect to seek new way of philosophy, and put forward the survival will. Uncle Hua also has works such as "two basic questions in ethics".

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