About Bai Sassard's Historical Origin, has always had a lot of sayings. Due to the long history, the lack of information, the history of music is more confusing. From the sources of species, it can be roughly divided into 3 categories:
ancient literature records
"Lijiang Guanzhi" compiled by Qing Qianlong (1743) has such a record: "All kinds of people, all songs, songs, music, is called 'Daile'. zither, flute, 琵琶The instruments are also known as the Han. It also has the name of "Yixiao", "a book", "parasitic grass", and it is the first to be the first one. "
this is the earliest known Records of Bai Sassoon Records, thinking is from in-generation. Similar to this method, there is also the record of "Lijiang County" in the late Qing Dynasty: "Reality Yuan Taiki Revolution", his music is said to have Hu Qin, zither, flute, and there are "north and south", "Huang Order "," a book "," parasitic grass "and other names. And the owner invites the music of the music, the name is 'Daile', the tangle, sad moving. It is also sent to send it. "It can be seen that Bai Sandy has been used as a sorrow in the Qing Dynasty.
According to the "Yunnan Series · Sir Mr. Poet Banknotes · Banknotes" said: "This song is created from the people. When the wood is Sheng, Yongning is coming, and the wood is located Sand is to wait,. The folks have made this song, the ancient cloud 'north sandstone'. 'Sweet pear' people, Dianti ... "Mr. Yun Xiao (1827-1887) It is obviously different from the above-mentioned second book.
This type of statement is more, mainly two types. It is one of the gifts that Bai Sandiao gives the Naxi's leader Aliang (one said as a wooden day).
Southern Song Dynasty Zongbao First Year (1253) Mongolian constitutional ordered his brother, that is, the later Yuan Shizu Dubei Qi Qi Dali, Naxi leader Aliang welcomed the Mongolian soldier in Yiba River. .
Soon, Kubsi will break the Dali. On the occasion of the north, for Thanks to Alright, he seals him as "teahamist people", and also gives a lot of gifts. Among them, it includes half team music and half scores.
Dubei Hui Nanzheng's story is clearly recorded in Naxi Zongzi, Ming Dynasty. But in the records about the gift, there is no mention of music. The second is to make the princess of the dragon girl. According to legend, Mu Tianwang wanted to swallow the Westward countries, marry the daughter's prince's prince to the prince. The dragon girl learned that this news will write a letter and brought the letter to the Dufu in the dog's neck.
The prince knew that after this conspiracy, he led the soldiers to attack Lijiang; but was defeated by Mu Tianwang. Wumeiwang is about to imprison princess Yulongting in Yulong Lake. After the princess died, people cherished the fragrance of Bai Sand in the commemoration of her.
So Baisha Xiangle has a kind of monthly cold wind and cold rain, the soul, often has a lot of emotions and sadness and sorrowfulness. This is a beautiful story, but also in the family song "a book", "Princess", "Barefoot Dance", "Aliygge", etc. into the storyline.
Contemporary Scholar Research
Mr. Mao Ji Zeng, such as Beijing Scholars, he went in 1962. Lijiang conducted a field visit. According to the survey information, he believes that Baisha's cultivation may be sent to Lijiang when the Yuan Duang Mang army enters the army. Since a part of the Mongolian soldiers will settle in Lijiang for a long time, this music is accompanied by them.
It is based on the description of the two passbooks, as will be as follows: 1. Some Mongolian soldiers stay in Lijiang is a fact. Nowadays, there is a name of a village in the local translation of "The Village of Mongol's lives", and some localities also referred to as descendants of the Mongolian. 2. Playing Bai Sandy Time music work Mongolian buildings, while other civil performance art have no such custom.
3. There is a kind of "Su Gu" in the band of Baisha, and its shape is basically the same as "fire" in the history of Yuanha. The neighborhood of Lijiang and other places in Yunnan have no This instrument.
In addition, Mr. Huangtou, Yunnan scholar, believes that Bai Sassard's beautiful sound is not only a "yuan people", but specifically, it is about the Kunqu in Lijiang in Yunnan in the Ming Dynasty. Its basic form is the north and south.
Huang Mr. Huang mainly has been adopted from the comparison of the name, music form and accompaniment characteristics and the combination of other historical analysis. For example, there is a "South Northern", "Yingqing", "Ying Yuli", "Passionate Grass", "One Flower", and the Kuns' Characteristics in the melody. Structure mode in Baisha Xiangle's set of sets of cascades are consistent with Kunqu's tunes.
Baisha's beautiful music sadness, lingering, mainly "He Wei", "a book", "Thome", "Aili Gogji "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" The tunes of Baisha's cultivation are mostly feathers, including five-channel seven-sound order, six-sound order, individual parts to use five-sound order.
There are also rhythm in Bai Sandy, soft style, soft and more fluent, and the melody is more fluent. In the other folk music of the Yuanqu and Han nationality, there is also a "one book" with the same name, "a book" in Baisha, a book, is very likely that the Yuan people's homes. From the music form, it is soft and graceful with the southern song in the Kunqu; on the other hand, the frequent RE-DO-LA and LA-SOL-MI syndrome, which frequently appears, and vaguely Divided the style of the northern grassland music.
Bai Sandy's curved structure is flexible, and it is not an endless. It can be used to play seven parts into a complete large set of curls; it can be used separately, independently. In music, there is an intrinsic organic connection between each part. This is because of the two important music in the two important music of "", "a book", after a variety of development changes, it is used in the various parts.
Band and Musical Instrument
Bai Sandy's band is combined by the Naxi instrument, which also reflects the phenomenon of multi-ethnic cultural integration. The instrument can be divided into three instrument groups according to the performance method: one is blowing the tube instrument, there is a shaped paste, the flute, Bobo.
Among them, the flute is the main instrument, and Bobo is a Naxi unique bamboo musical instrument. Second, the instrument, the main guns, 琵琶, Su Gu, etc. The zither is almost no longer used. Su Gu is also called "Hu Dial", like "not thinking". Thirdly, the stringed instrument, only two cases, its shape similar to the Han Huqin.
Bai Sand's band is not fixed, depending on the use of applications and the owner's rich and poor, it can range from 3 to more than 10 people. Its most common compilation is 8 groups and 4 people. In the performance, the band's arrangement has certain rules: The band must be located on the right side of the Lingtai, after the curtain. The player arranged in turn, the elderly before, and then young.
Like the funeral music of other nations, the funeral of Naxi has also had a fixed ceremonial specification. Baisha's band is responsible for organizing leadership by an elderly person, and performing in accordance with the prescribed rituals. At the same time, each ceremony is equipped with the corresponding song. The funeral of Naxi is generally divided into 3 days. The order and music playing 3 days are different.
The customs of the Naxi people, home When someone passed away, the lantern of a white paper was hang in front of the door, said that the family had to do funeral. On the afternoon of the first day, 3 tributes were given before the deceased.
When the second tribute, the band played "Heart". After the tribute, you must recite the essence. The band is playing "a book." At this time, relatives and friends came to hang, and the band played "Heart".
is also called a memorial, is the most important thing in the funeral One day. The most beginning is "landing". When this ritual is carried out, the band play "Princess Cry". In the next ceremony, the band played "a book". On the occasion of the children of the dead, the band played "Heart".
afternoon, relatives and friends are sitting together, listening to Baisha, with music to pin the mourning of the king. Generally, "He", "a book", "Sans Siji", "Aliyggee" embellished together.
at night, the performer stood into a horizontal row, facing the Lingtai, sing "Element". Subsequently, the performance "bow sword dance" and "bare feet dance", the performer is dancing around the table, and every dance will sing to the deceased.
then, so continuously. According to the customs of the Naxi, if the deceased is a man jumps 9 times, if the deceased is a female, only 7 times. At the time of dance, the band is accompanied by a "a book".
sent to the spirit. At the time of walking, the player followed it before. Its track is "Heart" and "a book". Bai Sand's band is not used to send the spirit to the tomb, and you can go home in the half road. At this point, Baisha's three-day funeral music is over.
Before liberation, the tracks played when the band participated in the funeral activities, and there were strict regulations, which can be said that Bai Sasso is funeral, and there will be failed to be in folklore due to the change of funeral customs. The tracks and rules played during the full performance, and the events played during the event.
With social progress, Baisha Xiangle has no longer existed in the form of folk customs, but is gradually penetrating into a wide and frequent social event with self-entertainment performance form. Regardless of the place where the house, holiday celebrations, religious etiquette, mass gatherings, etc. can be found.