# vibration

## Basicconcepts

### Definition

Vibration(alsoknownasoscillation)referstoaprocessofstatechange.Thatis,thereciprocatingmotionoftheobject.

Inhighschoolphysics,thereareonlyfoursimplestmotionsthatcanbestudiedquantitatively(theformulamethod,drawingmethod,andlistmethodcanbeusedtogivedefinitevalues):uniformlyvariablelinearmotion,uniformlycircularmotion,Projectilemotionandsimpleharmonicmotion.

Complicatedsportscanbequalitativelystudiedbyrelyingonthesefoursports.

Ifyouinsistonquantitativelystudyingcomplexmotions,youwillalsorelyonthesefourtypesofmotionsforapproximateresearch.

Ofthesefoursimplestmotions,uniformlyvariablelinearmotionandprojectilemotionare"goneforever"motions,andtherelationshipbetweenthestateofmotion(position,speed)andtimeistopological(One-to-onecorrespondence)andnon-repeatable.

### Concept

Althoughvibrationphenomenaindifferentfieldshavetheirowncharacteristics,theyoftenhavesimilarmathematicaldescriptions.Itisonthebasisofthiscommonalitythatitispossibletoestablishaunifiedtheorytodealwithvariousvibrationproblems.Vibrationissuchabasicsubject.Itusesmathematics,physics,experimentsandcalculationtechniquestoexplorethemechanismofvariousvibrationphenomenaandclarifythebasiclawsofvibrationinordertoovercomethenegativefactorsofvibrationandmakeuseofitspositivefactorstobereasonable.Providetheoreticalbasisforsolvingvariousvibrationproblemsencounteredinpractice.

## Classificationofvibration

Deterministicvibrationisdividedintoperiodicvibrationandnon-periodicvibration.Periodicvibrationincludessimpleharmonicperiodicvibrationandcomplexperiodicvibration.Simpleharmonicperiodicvibrationcontainsonlyonevibrationfrequency.Thecomplexperiodicvibrationcontainsmultiplevibrationfrequencies,andtheratioofanytwovibrationfrequenciesisarationalnumber.Non-periodicvibrationincludesquasi-periodicvibrationandtransientvibration.Quasi-periodicvibrationhasnoperiodicity,andtheratioofatleastonevibrationfrequencytotheothervibrationfrequencyamongthemultiplevibrationfrequenciescontainedisirrational.Transientvibrationsarevibrationsthatcanbedescribedbyvariousimpulsefunctionsordecayfunctions.

Constantcircularmotionandsimpleharmonicmotion

Fromalong-termperspective(or"macroview"),itisperiodic,Repeatedly.Standinginaperiodoftime(or"microscopically"),itistopologicalandnon-repeatable.Therefore,thelattertwoexercisesaremuchmorecomplicatedthanthefirsttwoexercises.

## Simpleharmonicvibration

### Definition

Simpleharmonicvibrationcanberegardedasauniformcircularmotionthatdecomposesintwodirectionsorthogonal(thatis,perpendiculartoeachother)(thatis,Projection),themovementinanyonedirectionissimpleharmonicvibration.Itcanbeseenthatsimpleharmonicmotionismuchmorecomplicatedthanuniformcircularmotion.

Theprojectilemotioncanbedecomposedinto:anorthogonallinearmotionwithauniformspeedandanotherlinearmotionwithauniformspeed.Therefore,theprojectilemotionismuchmorecomplicatedthanalinearmotionwithauniformspeed.

Intheprocessoforthogonaldecompositionofuniformcircularmotion,theoriginalcentripetalforcewithconstantmagnitudebecomesarestoringforcewhosemagnitudeanddirectionchangeperiodically.Simpleharmonicvibrationiscomplexenough.Therefore,thevibrationisquantitativelystudieduptothesimpleharmonicvibration.

However,themicroscopicconditionsofvibrationthatweusuallyencounteraremuchmorecomplicatedthansimpleharmonicvibrations.Therefore,thetransitionfromstudyingsimpleharmonicvibrationtostudyingvibration,thermalvibration,etc.requiresinsight,imagination,abstractthinking,andlogicalreasoning.

### Features

Thecharacteristicsofsimpleharmonicvibrationare:1.Thereisanequilibriumposition(theonlypositionwherethevibratorshouldbestationaryafterthemechanicalenergyisexhausted).2.Thereisarestoringforcewhosesizeanddirectionarechangedperiodically.3.Singlefrequencyandconstantamplitude.

Thevibratorisanabstractionofthevibratingobject:Ignoretheshapeandsizeoftheobject,andusethemasspointtoreplacetheobjectforresearch.Thismasspointthatreplacesthevibratingobjectiscalledavibrator.

Thepositionofthevibratoratacertainmomentisrepresentedbydisplacementx.Thedisplacementxisthedistanceanddirectionofthe"positionofthevibratoratacertainmoment"obtainedbytakingtheequilibriumpositionasthereference(basepoint-datumpoint).

Whenwestudyuniformlyvariablelinearmotionandprojectilemotion,thereferencepointisselectedatthestartingpointofthemotion.Whenwestudyuniformcircularmotionandsimpleharmonicvibration,thereferencepointisselectedatthecenterofthecircleorattheequilibriumposition(fixedpoint).

Thereisanessentialdifferencebetweenthedeterminedquantityandtheconstantquantity.Whenstudyingthelinearmotionwithuniformspeedandtheprojectilemotion,thereferencepointisselectedatthestartingpointofthemotion.Thisisacertainamount,butnotnecessarilyaconstantamount.Especiallywhenweconductasegmentedstudy,theendofeachstageisthestartingpointofthenextstage.Wechoosethestartingpointofthemovementasthereferencepoint,whichcansimplifytheresearchprocess.Thisissubjecttotheprincipleof"simplifyingcomplexity"inphysicsresearch.Therefore,wedonothesitatetochoosedifferentreferencepointsatdifferentresearchstages.

Inasimpleharmonicvibration,theamplitudeAisthemaximumvalueofthedisplacementx,whichisaconstantquantity.

Theshortesttimerequiredforthevibratortoreturnfromacertainstate(positionandvelocity)tothatstateiscalledaperiodT.Thevibrationofthevibratorinaperiodiscalledatotalvibration.The"number"oftotalvibrationofthevibratorinonesecondiscalledfrequencyf.

TheperiodTisthetimeofonefullvibration,andthefrequencyfisthenumberoffullvibrationsinonesecond,soTf=1(equivalenceformula1ofthefourequations)

Thefrequencyω(pronounced[oumiga])isthecentralanglecorrespondingtoonesecond.Thecentralanglecorrespondingtoafullvibrationis2π(thatis,360degrees).Thisborrowedtheconceptofuniformcircularmotion.Inauniformcircularmotion,ωiscalledtheangularvelocity.Whenauniformcircularmotionisorthogonallydecomposedintoasimpleharmonicmotion,theangularvelocityisconvertedintoacircularfrequency.(Somepeoplecallthecircularfrequencytheangularfrequency)

Obviously,ω=2πf(equivalenceformula3ofthefourequations),(theanglecorrespondingtothetotalnumberofvibrationspersecond)

ωT=2π(equivalenceformula2ofthefourequations)(theanglecorrespondingtoeachfullvibration)

Finally,definethenumberoffullvibrationsperminuteas"rotationspeedn".Obviously,n=60f(fourTheequivalentformula4)

OfthefourquantitiesofT,f,ω,n,oneisknown,andtheotherthreeareknown,sothesefourmutuallytransformableformulasarecalled"fourEquivalent".

Aslongastheobjectreciprocatesperiodically,itisvibration.Forexample,whenplayingaball,itsv-tdiagramcorrespondstothesawtoothwaveinelectricalengineering,soitisalsovibration.Somepeoplesay:"Theballhasnoequilibriumposition,ortheequilibriumpositionisnotatthecenterofsymmetryofmotion,soitcannotbeconsideredasvibration."Thosewhosaythat,certainlydidnotlearnelectricalengineeringwell.

ThereisabranchofmathematicscalledFourierintegral,whichcandecomposeanyvibrationintoseveralsimpleharmonicvibrations.Thefrequencyofthesesimpleharmonicvibrationsisanintegermultipleoftheoriginalvibration,andthemainfrequency(fundamentaltone)oftheoriginalvibrationistheminimumfrequencyofthesesimpleharmonicvibrations.

Otheroctave(overtone),theamplitudeismuchsmallerthanthefundamentaltone.Therefore,thisconstitutestheconceptof"timbre"ofnon-harmonicvibration.

TheprocessbywhichthehumaneardistinguishesthesoundingbodyistheprocessofusingFourierintegralspontaneously,automatically,andinstinctively,whichisveryclever.

Becausethefrequencyofthesoundisdeterminedbythesoundsource,nomatterhowthesoundwavepropagatestoourears,westillaccuratelyidentifythecharacteristicsofthestartingsoundbody.

## Mechanicalvibration

### Definition

Mechanicalvibrationisthereciprocatingmotionofanobject(orpartofanobject)neartheequilibriumposition(thepositionwhentheobjectisstationary).Therearedifferentclassificationmethodsformechanicalvibration.Accordingtothecauseofthevibration,itcanbedividedintofreevibration,forcedvibrationandself-excitedvibration;accordingtothelawofvibration,itcanbedividedintosimpleharmonicvibration,non-harmonicperiodicvibrationandrandomvibration;accordingtothecharacteristicsofthestructuralparametersofthevibrationsystem,itcanbedividedintolinearvibrationAndnonlinearvibration;accordingtothecharacteristicsofvibrationdisplacement,itcanbedividedintotorsionalvibrationandlinearvibration.

### Applicationofvibrationinthemachineryindustry

Theapplicationofvibrationinmachineryisverycommon.Forexample,inthevibratingscreeningindustry,thebasicprincipleisbasedontheheavyhammerinstalledattheupperandlowerendsofthemotorshaft.(Unevenheavyhammer),whichconvertstherotatingmotionofthemotorintoahorizontal,vertical,andinclinedthree-dimensionalmotion,andthentransmitsthismotiontothescreensurface.Ifyouchangethephaseangleoftheupperandlowerweights,thedirectionoftraveloftherawmaterialscanbechanged.

## Thehazardandprotectionofvibrationtothehumanbody

1.Vibrationsourcesencounteredinproduction

(1)Rivetingmachine,Pneumatictoolssuchasrockdrillsandwindshovels;

(3)Diesellocomotives,ships,motorcyclesandothertransportationvehicles;

(4)Tractors,harvesters,threshersandotheragriculturalmachinery.

Second,theimpactofvibrationonvarioushumansystems

(1)Changesinelectroencephalogram;changesinconditionedreflexlatency;sympathetichyperfunction;instabilityofbloodpressure,arrhythmia,etc.;Theskinsensoryfunctionisreduced,suchastouch,warmth,pain,especiallyvibrationsensation,whichappearsdullattheearliest.

(3)Decreasedgripstrength,abnormalelectromyogram,musclefibrillation,muscleatrophyandpain,etc.

(5)Thehearingchangescausedbyvibrationarecharacterizedbyhearinglossinthe125-250Hzfrequencyband,butintheearlystage,thehearinglossisstilldominatedbythehighfrequencyband,andthenthelowfrequencyhearinglossoccurs.Vibrationandnoisehaveacombinedeffect.