Tianjin Treaty

Background introduction

In 1856, the UK excuses Guangdong watermaster captures the pirates of the Chinese ship "Yaro" in Guangzhou, and sent troops to attack Guangzhou. French excuses, Catholic God, Malays, was killed in Xilin, Guangxi, and also sent troops. In 1857, the British and France formed a coalition, and Guangzhou was captured.

In 1858, the British and French fleet was supported by the United States and Russia, and he attacked the big mouth. Daxi fort is lost, and the British and French coalition will enter Tianjin. The Qing government sent an imperial minister Guiliang, Hua Salina and Russian, US, Britain, and the representatives of the "Tianjin Treaty" respectively. In the same year, the Tsar Russia forced the "瑗珲 Treaty" in General Heilongjiang to sort.

Signing Process

Tianjin Treaty is Qing Xianfeng Eight Years (1858) Second Opium, France, Russia, the United States forced Qing Government's Issue Treaty Signed by Tianjin .

Eighth year (May 20), the British and French coalition forces captured the guns, and the white river was trapped, and the Tianjin was incedited. The Governor of Zhili, Tan Ting, scared the soul, and advocated complete surrender. On the 12th, he said to Xianfeng Emperor: "Stattering things, obeying the same", "can't fight, not easy, don't care," 14th, the British and French coalitions arrived in Tianjin City, British, Law The evolution informs the government to send the two members of the company to come to Jinjin, otherwise, first take Tianjin, then attack Beijing, within two days, listen to echo. On the 16th, the Qing government hurriedly sent a university 桂 良 (1785-1862), the Ministry of Tsui Shangshu Lu Salina (1806-1859) was the whole minister, and the Tianjin to the English, the legacy. In the 18th, the Toykin, Glo took the gun boat to Tianjin, Pi Yating and the Marcelian Russian ship "Ameli Ga". Immediately after the Qing government, the minister of the imperialism must have the name of "full power is cheap", otherwise we still need to enter Beijing. On the 20th, the Qing government hoped Guiliang and Huedanna cheaper, and from the right to Twenty-three days, in the past two days, Guiliang, who arrived in Tianjin, Hua Salina, gave a meeting in the city Nanhai Guang Temple. Since then, in the process of negotiation, the Type Gold and Garo respectively appointed Witoma (1818-1895), Li Thailand (1832-1898) and Mi Shisu for actual negotiations, which is based on Li Tailor. He is the British staff of Shanghai Customs, and there have been frequent contact with Chinese officials, which acts as the Chinese translation and counselor of the British French coalition. During the negotiation process, he took the spokesperson of the victory, and he was strong, and the attitude was quite horizontal. He did his thoughts on Guiliang. In the negotiations, the highest ruler headache is the headache in Beijing, an increase in the port of China, and the foreigners have to travel into the mainland. Because these will affect the Qing Dynasty feudal monarch authoritarian rule. Therefore, Xianfeng Emperor has repeatedly bargaining, refuses to make a step. Sometimes I even think of it is not allowed, "the use of Wu". Guiliang, Hua Salina's hardship of Xianfeng is very understanding, but they are afraid of the enemy, and they are called Xianfeng. "The war is not lost". Since the Qing Dynasty feudal ruler is the most fear of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, not foreign aggressors. Therefore, in the foreign war, the force is not the main force, but the long army. So, then in the stress of the British and Federation, eventually had to surrender.

Signing time

"Sino-Russian Tianjin Treaty": June 13, 1858

"China Tianjin Treaty": June 18, 1858 < / p>

"Chinese and British Tianjin Treaty": June 26, 1858

"China French Tianjin Treaty": June 27, 1858

Treaty content

"Sino-Russian Treaty"

During the second opium war, the Sand, the British French coalition forces captured the big, incerting, Beijing, to mediate as named, to lure the Qing Dynasty and the signing Inequality treaty.

June 13, 1858 (Xianfeng eight years in May 3) 12 models.

The main contents are: (1) Russia in Shanghai, Ningbo, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Guangzhou, Tainan, Qiongzhou and other ports, parking boats, if other countries have opened their ports along the sea, they are subject to Russia Take it; (2) Russia expanded its trade in the original China Land, and the Russian businessmen I have been using the goods, this silver is more widowed; (3) Russia set up a consulate in all trade ports in China, Russians enjoy consuls The right to referee; (4) Russian Orthodox priests freely mission; (5) Sino-Russian party sects to survey the "Overdened Boundary"; (6) Russia enjoys the most favored State treatment.

"Sino-US Tianjin Treaty"

June 18, 1858, during the Second Opium Warfare, the US Embassy in China used the British and French coalition to attack the big, into Jinjin, Beijing Machine, camouflage mediation, lushing the Quality of the Government, Guiliang, Hua Salina, signed "China-US Tianjin Treaty" (also known as "Sino-US Friendship Treaty)). "Sino-US Tianjin Treaty" 30 models. The main contents are:

1. The Qing government is subject to the United States.

two, increase the Huzhou (later change Shantou), Taiwan (Tainan) is a portal.

three, Jesus teaches the master free to mission.

four, determine the right to referee.

5, expand the most favored State treatment, that is, the Qing government gives the privilege of other countries, "Whether it is concerned about the seas, trade, political affairs, and the United States," integration is ".

After a week, the Chinese and English, Zhongfa Tianjin Treaty has achieved all the privileges of all the invasion of the precedent plunder.

"Chinese and British Tianjin Treaty"

"Chinese and British Tianjin Treaty" is also known as "Chinese and Sunday". The UK forced the Government to establish an inequality of inequalities in the Second Opium Warfare. Xianfeng Eight Years (1858) June 26, Qingqi Dihaliang Guiliang, Hua Salina and the British full-responsive representatives of Yinjin in Tianjin. Total 56, with "special strip". The main contents are:

(1) British public makes it in Beijing, and has a consulate of the consulate in the port, adding Niu Zhuang, Dengzhou, Taiwan (Tainan), Chaozhou, Qiongzhou, Hankou, Jiujiang, Nanjing, Zhenjiang is a trade port;

(2) Jesus teach, Catholic priest is free to mission;

(3) British get travel to the mainland, trade;

< P> (4) British merchant ships can travel in the Yangtze River;

(5) Chinese and British sects held a meeting in Shanghai, revised tariffs;

(6) China The UK is 4 million yuan for silver;

(7) determines the consular retrocessure rights and the most favored state treatment.

"Middle French Treaty"

During the second opium war during June 27, 1858, after the British French coalition was captured, the Tianjin, Qing government is a specialist Guiliang, the Ministry of China, Shangshu, Squarna, and France, representatives, Glo, signed the city's alliance under the city today - "China-French Tianjin Treaty" (original "and the charter"). A total of 42 models. Another "and comparative reciprocation". Main content:

1, French EMB station in Beijing, set consulates in the port.

II, an additional Qiongzhou, Chaozhou (later change Shantou), Taiwan (Tainan), freshwater, Dezhou (rear smoking desk), Nanjing for the port of the port.

Third, the Catholic priest got into the mainland free to mission.

four, the French can travel in the Mainland, can rendezvous in the trade port, set up a church, hospital, school, graveyard, warehouse, etc., China's local officials should severely punish the Chinese people who destroy the legal persons .

5, China and countries agree to tax lines, customs tax, tons, pass tax, entry and exit tax, France can be "stunned".

six, the French boy can be parked in various portions of China.

7. Determine the right to remedies and the most favored countries.

eight, China gives France to pay 2,000,000 silver.

"Sino-British trade chart, the treatment of the Treaty"

November 8, 1858, during the second opium war, Qingqi Due to the minister of the minister, the Ministry of the Ministry Investigating the Solites of Yingli, I signed the "Sinot Treaty of the Sino-British Funds" in Shanghai, as the supplement to the "Tianjin Treaty", with a total of "customs tax". Main content:

1. Customs hire English to help tax;

two, the customs will value the import and export goods on time value of 5 百 5 百 百;

three , Foreign goods sales in the Mainland or Ying Shang acquired the land export from the mainland, only 1.5% of the Naisa taxation, no navigation gold tax;

four, "foreign medicine" (opium "(opium) allows import trade, each 100 pounds of imported tax 30 two.

Since then, China Customs Administrative Management The main power of the British is half a century; sinful opium trade officially legalization; China's business, handicrafts are more serious. The loss of customs autonomy is one of the signs of China's semi-colonialization.

History affects

"Tianjin Treaty" is another serious damage to China's sovereignty, making Russian, US, Britain, and a series of aggression privileges. It provides conditions for the UK through its embassy of China's central government and local governments, and make the aggression of British capitalism expanded to the South China, Yangtze River Basin and Northeast, closer to the origin and import of export goods. Marketing, there is a great damage to China's social economy to China's social economy is more conducive to their ingredients to China's dumping goods and plundering China.

Related Articles