ENIAC, the world’s first electronic computer, covers an area of 170 square meters, weighs 30 tons, consumes about 150 kilowatts, and can perform 5000 times per second Operation. Used by the US Department of Defense for ballistic calculations.
Electronic computers are also called computers. But why are electronic computers called computers? This is because as a tool for information processing, electronic computers have partially replaced the functions of the human brain. Especially after the 1970s, the appearance of microprocessors made the application of electronic computers more and more widespread. Computers not only play an increasing role in the traditional scientific computing field, but also have a wide range of applications in other fields. It has spread across all areas of human life, can help people deal with office matters, and can help leaders at all levels formulate and Implementing scientific decision-making can help experts from all walks of life work. Many tasks that require human brain thinking can be replaced by computers, and computers have become an important helper of the human brain.
Computers can be divided into digital computers and analog computers according to the nature of the variables handled. Generally speaking, the computer refers to the digital computer; according to the basic mechanism of the computer architecture, it can be Divided into: Neumann architecture computer and non-Neumann architecture computer; according to the scale (referring to the comprehensive scale including function, volume, etc.) of the computer system, it can be divided into: supercomputer, mainframe, medium Minicomputers, workstations, personal computers (microcomputers, laptops, palmtops, single-board computers), etc.; according to the geographical scope of interconnection between computer systems, it can be divided into: stand-alone systems, computer local area networks, computer remote networks, etc.; according to computer systems The degree of resistance to harsh environments can be divided into: general-purpose computers, hardened (semi-hardened) computers.
In addition, the type of computer can be divided according to whether the instruction flow and data flow in the computer are single or multiple. This is the Flynn classification. According to Flynn's suggestion, the computer architecture can be divided into four categories: SISD (single instruction, single data stream): execute instructions serially; MISD (multiple instructions, single data stream): use different Instruction to process a single data, this scheme seems to be very impractical; SIMD (single instruction, multiple data streams): multiple processors are used to perform the same instruction operation on different data at the same time; MIMD (multiple instructions, multiple data Stream): Autonomously perform different operations on different data with multiple processors.
Since the birth of the first generation of computers, computer technology and industry have been in a stage of rapid development. Computer science has become a subject with rapid development, strong penetration and far-reaching influence. The computer industry has developed into a strategically significant industry worldwide. The degree of development of computer science and the computer industry has become an important indicator to measure the overall strength of a country.
The world's first electronic computer is a giant: it weighs more than 30 tons, covers an area of about 170 square meters, and contains 18,000 electronic tubes. It was born on February 14, 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania.
During World War II, both sides used aircraft and artillery to violently bombard each other’s military targets. To be accurate, you must accurately calculate and draw a "shooting chart". After checking the table to determine the angle of the muzzle, the projectile can be fired in the center of the target. However, each number needs to be calculated thousands of times to get the four arithmetic operations. A dozen people can use a mechanical computer to calculate it for a few months to complete a "chart". In response to this situation, people began to study the use of electronic tubes as "electronic switches" to increase the computer's computing speed. Many scientists participated in experiments and research, and finally made the world's first electronic computer, named "Eniak".
In the mid-1940s, the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, led by Molic and Eckert, developed a ballistic trajectory calculation for the Aberdeen Ballistic Research Laboratory of the U.S. Army Ordnance Department "Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator" (ENIAC for short). This computer called "Eniac" covers an area of 150 square meters, has a total weight of 30 tons, uses 18,000 electron tubes, 6,000 switches, 7,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 500,000 wires, and consumes 140 power. Kilowatts, 5000 additions per second can be performed. This behemoth was unveiled in the United States on February 15, 1946. The advent of this computer marked the beginning of the computer era.
The predecessor of the computer was something called an "adder" which was invented by a French mathematician "Bryce Pascal" and then gradually improved... it can do addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The "differential machine" of the four arithmetic operations.
In 1801 AD, the Frenchman Joseph Jacquard invented the use of Punched cardboard cards. This introduces two important concepts for the future development of computers:
First, information can be coded on punched cards...that is, writing programs
2. Information It can be stored on the card, and when these cards are combined in a series, they can be used as a series of instructions, that is, a program.
After that, a man appeared: in history we call him the "father of computers"—Charles Babbage
He made a more powerful machine , Called the Analytical Engine, this machine is very similar in concept to modern computers.
These inventions are tools used to assist calculations. They do not have the function of memorizing and storing data, so they cannot be called "computers"
Until 1946, Mochiley in the United States and Eckert invented the first-generation computer—ENIAC,
The first-generation computer is as large as two classrooms, which is much different from the current commonly used computers.
At that time, computers used integrated circuits composed of vacuum tubes to realize calculations, and the storage medium of the memory was a punched card.
So, the invention of the computer is the result of the joint efforts of a group of researchers, but the mathematician von Neumann’s design ideas played a key role in it, so von Neumann was Known as the father of modern computers.
Domestic computer development (1965-1972)
In 1965, the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences successfully developed China’s first A large-scale transistor computer: 109 B machine; the 109 B machine was improved, and the 109 C machine was launched two years later. It played an important role in the trial production of the two bombs in China and was praised by users as a "meritorious machine." The North China Institute of Computing Technology has successfully developed 108 machines, 108 B machines (DJS-6), 121 machines (DJS-21) and 320 machines (DJS-8), and produced them in five factories including the 738 factory. From 1965 to 1975, the 738 Factory produced more than 380 second-generation products including 320 machines. Harbin Military Industry (the predecessor of the National University of Defense Technology) successfully launched the 441B transistor computer in February 1965 and produced more than 40 in small batches.
The computer development of domestic small and medium-sized integrated circuits (1973-early 1980s)
In 1973, Peking University and Beijing Cable Power Plant and other units cooperated in the successful development A large general-purpose computer with a computing speed of 1 million operations per second. In 1974, Tsinghua University and other units jointly designed the DJS-130 minicomputer and successfully developed the DJS-140 minicomputer to form the 100 series of products. At the same time, with the North China Computing Institute as the main base, 57 units across the country are organized to jointly design the DJS-200 series of computers, and also design and develop the DJS-180 series of super minicomputers. In the late 1970s, the 32 Institute of the Ministry of Electronics and the National University of Defense Technology successfully developed the 655 and 151 respectively, with speeds in the million sub-levels. In the 1980s, China's high-speed computers, especially vector computers, had new developments.
Domestic VLSI computer development (mid-1980s to present)
Like foreign countries, China’s fourth-generation computer development also started with microcomputers . At the beginning of 1980, many units in China also began to use Z80, X86 and 6502 chips to develop microcomputers. In 1983, the Sixth Institute of the 12th Electronic Department successfully developed the DJS-0520 microcomputer compatible with the IBM PC. Over the past 10 years, China's microcomputer industry has gone through an extraordinary path.
Achievements in China
In 1958, the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences successfully developed China's first small electronic tube computer 103 (type Bayi), marking the birth of China's first electronic computer .
In 1965, the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences successfully developed the first large transistor computer 109B, and then launched the 109C machine, which played an important role in the two bomb tests;
1974 In 1984, Tsinghua University and other units jointly designed and successfully developed a DJS-130 minicomputer using integrated circuits, with a calculation speed of 1 million times per second;
In 1983, the National University of Defense Technology successfully developed a calculation speed of 1 million times per second. The billion-times Galaxy-I supercomputer is an important milestone in the development of high-speed computers in China;
In 1985, the Computer Management Bureau of the Ministry of Electronics Industry successfully developed the Great Wall 0520CH microcomputer compatible with IBM PCs.
In 1992, the National University of Defense Technology developed the Galaxy-II general-purpose parallel supercomputer with a peak speed of 400 million floating point operations per second (equivalent to 1 billion basic operations per second). The four-processor vector machine of the memory, and its vector central processor is self-designed using small and medium-sized integrated circuits, and has generally reached the international advanced level in the middle and late 1980s. It is mainly used for medium-term weather forecasting;
In 1993, the National Intelligent Computer Research and Development Center (later the establishment of Beijing Shuguang Computer Company) successfully developed the Shuguang-1 fully symmetrical shared storage multiprocessor, which was the first time in China A parallel computer designed and developed with a general-purpose microprocessor chip based on a very large scale integrated circuit and a standard UNⅨ operating system;
In 1995, Sugon launched the country’s first large-scale parallel processor (MPP). ) The structure of the parallel machine Dawning 1000 (including 36 processors), the peak speed is 2.5 billion floating-point operations per second, and the actual operating speed has reached the high-performance level of 1 billion floating-point operations per second. Dawning 1000 is similar to the massively parallel computer architecture and implementation technology introduced by Intel Corporation in the United States in 1990, and the gap with foreign countries has narrowed to about 5 years.
In 1997, the National University of Defense Technology successfully developed the Galaxy-Ⅲ tens of billions of parallel supercomputer systems. It adopts a scalable distributed shared storage parallel processing architecture and consists of more than 130 processing nodes. The peak performance is per second. 13 billion floating-point operations, and the system's comprehensive technology reached the international advanced level in the mid-1990s.
From 1997 to 1999, Sugon launched the Sugon 1000A, Sugon 2000-I, Sugon 2000-Ⅱ super servers with cluster structure in the market, and the peak computing speed has exceeded 100 billion per second. For sub-floating point operations, the scale of the machine has exceeded 160 processors.
In 1999, the Shenwei I computer developed by the National Parallel Computer Engineering Technology Research Center passed the national acceptance and was put into operation at the National Meteorological Center. The system has 384 arithmetic processing units with a peak computing speed of 384 billion operations per second.
In 2000, Sugon launched the Sugon 3000 super server with 300 billion floating-point operations per second.
In 2001, the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences successfully developed China’s first general-purpose CPU-the "Longson" chip
In 2002, Sugon launched the "Longteng" server with completely independent intellectual property rights. The Longteng server uses the "Longson-1" CPU, the dedicated server motherboard jointly developed by Sugon and the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Sugon LINUX operating system. This server is the first domestic product to fully realize its own property rights. Security and other departments will play a major role. In 2003, the Dawning 4000L super server with trillions of data processing passed the national acceptance, once again setting the historical record of the domestic super server, bringing the domestic high-performance industry to a new level.
On April 9, 2003, it was launched by Suzhou National Core, Nanjing Panda, SMIC, Shanghai Hongli, Shanghai Belling, Hangzhou Silan, Beijing National Integrated Circuit Industrialization Base, Peking University, Tsinghua University The "C*Core (China Core) Industry Alliance" formed by 61 integrated circuit enterprises and institutions was announced in Nanjing, seeking to work together to build a complete industrial chain of China's integrated circuits. On December 9, 2003, the "Shenteng 6800" supercomputer, the main node of the national grid undertaken by Lenovo, was officially developed. Its actual calculation speed reached 4.183 trillion operations per second, ranking 14th in the world with an operating efficiency of 78.5%.
On December 28, 2003, the "China Chip Project" achievement report meeting was held in the Great Hall of the People. China’s "Starlight China Chip" project developed and designed the 5th generation of digital multimedia chips. % Of the market share occupies the world's number one computer image input chip.
On March 24, 2004, at the executive meeting of the State Council, the "Electronic Signature Law of the People's Republic of China (Draft)" was passed in principle, marking that China's electronic business has gradually entered the legal track.
On June 21, 2004, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy announced the latest list of the top 500 global computers. The supercomputer "Dawning 4000A" developed by Sugon Computer Corporation ranked tenth with a computing speed of 8.061 Trillion times.
On April 1, 2005, the Electronic Signature Law was formally implemented. The "Electronic Signature Law of the People's Republic of China" was officially implemented. Since then, electronic signatures have the same legal effect as traditional handwritten signatures and seals, and will promote and regulate the development of electronic transactions in China.
On April 18, 2005, "Loongson II" was officially unveiled. China’s first general-purpose high-performance CPU "Loongson II" with independent intellectual property rights developed by the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was officially unveiled.
On May 1, 2005, Lenovo completed the acquisition of IBM PC . Lenovo officially announced the completion of the acquisition of IBM's global PC business. Lenovo has become the world's third largest PC manufacturer with annual revenue of approximately US$13 billion after the merger and annual sales of approximately 14 million personal computers.