System board

generally refers to the system board Board synonyms


Board, also known as a motherboard, installed on the mainframe computer, the computer is one of the most important basic component, the entire computer system It plays an important role. The level of quality motherboard manufacturer to determine the stability of the hardware system. Motherboard and CPU is closely related to every major upgrade of CPU, will inevitably lead to the motherboard replacement. Board computer hardware system is the core, the largest area is the mainframe a printed circuit board. Board main function is to transmit electronic signals, the preliminary portion of the chip is also responsible for some peripheral processing data. A host computer the various components are connected by the motherboard, the computer in normal operation of the control system memory, storage devices and other I / O devices must be done through the motherboard. Whether your computer's performance can give full play, the adequacy of the hardware functions and how hardware compatibility, etc., depending on the motherboard design. Motherboard some extent, the merits of a computer's overall performance, service life and functional scalability.P>

motherboard with an open structure. 6-15 has a large expansion slots on the motherboard for the control card (adapter) PC machine peripherals plug. It can be upgraded locally by the respective sub-microcomputer replacement of these cards, so that manufacturers and users have greater flexibility in terms of configuration models. In short, the board plays a pivotal role in the overall computer system. It can be said, the type and grade of the motherboard determine the type and grade of the entire computer system, affecting the performance of the performance of the whole board of the computer system.P>


is the so-called motherboard architecture according to general standard layout of the various components on the system board arrangement, size, shape, used to develop the power supply specifications, all boards manufacturers must follow. Board structure into AT, Baby-AT, ATX, Micro ATX, LPX, NLX, Flex ATX, E-ATX, WATX BTX and the like structures. Which, AT and Baby-AT motherboard structure is years old, has been eliminated; and LPX, NLX, Flex ATX ATX variant is more common in foreign brand of domestic still rare; E-ATX and W- ATX is used for server / workstation motherboards; ATX is the most common board structure, more expansion slots, PCI slots in the number of 4-6, most motherboards have adopted this structure; Micro ATX, also known as Mini ATX, ATX is a simplified version of the structure, is often said that "small plates", less expansion slots, PCI slots in the number of 3 or less, and more for the brand and with a small chassis; and the development of BTX is Intel the latest generation of board structure, but it is not yet popular to give up, continue to use the ATX.P>


is the core chipset motherboard, the motherboard that determines specifications, performance, and function substantially. We normally say "865PE motherboard, 865PE refers to the motherboard chipset. If the CPU is the heart of the entire computer system, then the chipset will be the torso of the entire system. For the motherboard, the chipset is almost determines the function of this board , thereby affecting the overall system performance of the computer to play, is the soul of the motherboard chipset. pros and cons of group performance chips, determines the level and quality of board-level performance because the CPU models with a wide range of different features , if the chipset is not well work with the CPU, it will seriously affect the overall performance of the computer, and even does not work.p>

Northbridgeb> and Southbridge < / b>p>

in the conventional configuration chipset, has been used with a south bridge chip and north bridge chip manner, they can be found on the motherboard of the specific position. in general, we on the motherboard, can be find a radiator near the CPU socket, the following is the Northbridge Southbridge generally far away from the CPU, often naked beside PCⅠ slot header is relatively large; north bridge chip is a system controller chip, is mainly responsible for CPU, memory, graphics, data exchange between the three, play a leading role in the chipset and Southbridge chips, the control of a number of high-speed devices, such as CPU, Host bus, etc. What motherboard supports CPU, support much-speed AGP graphics card, which supports frequency memory, Northbridge chip are determined. Northbridge chips tend to have higher operating frequency, so the heat is high mainly determined by the motherboard Southbridge chip features a variety of interfaces, PS motherboard / 2 mouse control, USB control, PCI bus, IDE and other chips (such as integrated sound card, integrated RAID card, integrated network card, etc.) on the motherboard, the property Southbridge chip control. with the development of the PC architecture, and now gradually CPU North Bridge functionality contained, its structure continue to simplify even longer exist in a chipset.p>

BIOS chipb>p>

BIOS (basic input / output system, basic input output system), full name is the ROM-BIOS, ROM is an abbreviation of a basic input / output system .BIOS actually cured to a group of computers to provide the lowest level of the most direct hardware control program for the computer, which is in communication software programs and hardware devices hub between layman's terms, BIOS is a "converter" or is the interface between the hardware and the software program, responsible for solving the immediate requirements of the hardware, software and press the hardware, operating according to specific implementation. from a functional point of view , the BIOS mainly includes two parts:p>

(1) self-test and initializationp>

is responsible for initiating self-test and initialization of the computer, there are three specific parts:p>

POST (power on self test, abbreviated POST), immediately after power to the computer portion detects the hardware, the computer checks whether a good general full POST from The subject will include CPU, 640K base memory, 1M or more extended memory, ROM, motherboard, the CMOS memory, serial and parallel, video card, and a keyboard subsystem soft and hard tested once problems in the self-test, the system will be given of message or warning whistle.P>

initialized, including the creation of an interrupt vector, setting a register, some external device initialization and testing, a very important part of the BIOS setting, mainly some parameters set by hardware will be when the computer starts reads these parameters, and the actual hardware settings, and if not, will affect the start of the system.P>

Program guide for guiding DOS or other operating system. Start BIOS diskette or hard disk read start sector of the boot record, if not found, it is displayed on the display device without the guide, if the boot record control computer will find the boot record transferred by the operating system boot record into the computer, after the computer starts successfully, this part of the task of the BIOS is complete.P>

(2) Service processing and hardware interrupt handlingp>

These two parts are two separate elements, but closely related in use. Service handlers primarily for applications and operating system services, which are primarily related to the input and output devices, such as disk read, the output file to the printer and so on. To accomplish these operations, B1OS have to deal directly with the I / O device of a computer, it sends a command via the port, transmitting data to an external apparatus and receiving various data from them there, so that the program can depart from the specific hardware operations, and the hardware interrupt handler the processing requirements are a PC hardware, so the two parts are software and hardware services, grouped together, so that the normal operation of the computer system.P>

BIOS service functions by calling interrupt service routine to achieve, these services are divided into many groups, each with a dedicated interrupt. Such as video services, interrupt number 10H; screen printing, interrupt number 05H; disk and serial port services, such as interrupt 14H. Each group was further subdivided into different functions depending on the number of services. Applications which require the use of peripherals, what action only need to program using the appropriate command instructions can be, without direct control due to the CMOS and BIOS settings related to computer systems are closely related, so it is easy to confuse the two. Basically, CMOS RAM is a place to store system parameters, and the system BIOS setup program is complete parameter settings. So accurate statement should set the CMOS parameters through the BIOS setup program.P>

expansion slotsh3>

expansion slot on the motherboard, also known as "bus slot" is a host and external devices via a system bus link channel, used as a peripheral interface circuit adapter cards are inserted in the expansion slot.P>

primary interfaceh3>

hard disk interface: hard disk interface can be divided into IDE and SATA interfaces. On some models the old motherboard, two integrated multi-IDE port, typically located below the PCI IDE interface slot, the space from the memory slot is perpendicular (also sideways). And on the new board, IDE interfaces were reduced, or even no, instead SATA interface.P>

Floppy Interface: Floppy connector used, usually located next to the IDE interface, an IDE interface is slightly shorter than, the needle 34 as it is, the data lines are slightly narrower.P>

COM interface (serial port): Most motherboard provides two COM interfaces, COM1 and COM2, respectively, is connected to the role of external Modem serial mouse and other equipment. COM1 interface I / O address 03F8h-03FFh, interrupt number is IRQ4; COM2 interface I / O address 02F8h-02FFh, the interrupt number is IRQ3.P>

PS / 2 interfaces: PS / 2 interface relatively simple function, can only be used for keyboard and mouse. Under normal circumstances, the mouse interface is green, purple keyboard interface. PS / 2 interface transfer rate slightly faster than the COM interface, but after so many years of use, the vast majority of motherboards still equipped with this interface, but this interface supports mouse and keyboard less and less, most peripheral manufacturers are no longer the introduction of peripheral products based on this interface, the USB interface is the introduction of more peripheral products. But it is worth mentioning that, since the interface is very wide, so even when many users are also more willing to use through USB PS / 2-USB adapter plugged into the PS / 2, plus the life of each generation of keyboard and mouse They are very long, the interface is still very high efficiency, but in the near future, the USB interface is completely replaced by a very high possibility.P>

USB interface: USB interface is now the most popular interface can support up to 127 peripherals, and can be powered independently, which is widely used. USB interface can be obtained from the motherboard to 500mA, support hot-swappable, truly plug and play. A USB interface can support low-speed access and high-speed USB peripheral, connected by a four-core cable, wherein the two positive and negative power supply, the other two data transmission lines. High speed transmission rate for the peripheral 12Mbps, the transmission rate is low-speed peripheral 1.5Mbps. In addition, USB 2.0 standard maximum transfer rate of up to 480Mbps. USB 3.0 has emerged and popularity in the motherboard.P>

LPT interface (parallel port): used to connect a printer or scanner. The default interrupt number is IRQ7, using 25 foot DB-25 connector. Operating mode there are three parallel port:p>

1, SPP standard operating mode. SPP-way transmission of data is half-duplex, the transmission rate is slow, only 15Kbps, but is widely used, generally set as the default mode of operation.P>

2, EPP enhanced mode. EPP bidirectional half-duplex data transmission, the transmission rate is much higher than the SPP, up to 2Mbps, there are many peripherals use this mode.P>

3, ECP type expansion mode. ECP bidirectional full-duplex data transmission, the transmission rate is even higher than the EPP Some, but not many supported devices. The use of LPT printer and scanner interface has basically very little, mostly using the USB interface of the printer and scanner.P>

MIDI interfaces: a MIDI interface card and joystick interfaces are common. Two pin interface used to transmit MIDI signals, can be connected to various MIDI devices.P>

SATA Interface: SATA stands for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment, based on industry-standard hardware serial drive interface), by Intel, IBM, Dell, APT, Maxtor and Seagate company co-sponsored the hard drive interface specification, IDF Fall 2001 conference, Seagate announced the Serial ATA 1.0 standard, formally announced the establishment of the SATA specification. SATA specification of theory external hard drive transmission rate increased to 150MB / s, 50% higher than the PATA standard ATA / 100, ratio ATA / 133 should be higher than about 13%, and with the development of the next version, SATA interfaces also be extended to a rate of 2X and 4X (300MB / s and 600MB / s). Its development plans, the future of SATA will also be improved interface transfer rate by increasing clock frequency, so the hard drive can also be overclocked.P>


under the circuit board, is a patchwork of wiring; above, was a clear division of the individual components: slot, chips, resistors, capacitors and the like. When the host is powered, current in an instant by the CPU, Northbridge and Southbridge, memory slots, AGP slot, PCI slots, and serial edge of the motherboard IDE interface, parallel port, PS / 2 interface. Subsequently, the motherboard will be identified according to the hardware BIOS (Basic Input Output System), and play the function of the operating system into the support system of the work platform.P>

major speciesh2>

Structural Classificationh3>

AT: standard sized motherboard, IBM PC / A machine named after the first use, some motherboard 486,586 AT adopted structural layout.P>

Baby AT: motherboard pocket size smaller than AT motherboard, hence the name. Many of the original machine first used this motherboard integrated motherboard architecture.P>

ATX: modification of the AT motherboard, the motherboard component of the optimized layout, better heat dissipation and integration, with the need to use special ATX chassis.P>

BTX: ATX motherboard is improved, which uses a narrow board (Low-profile) design, more compact layout of components. For the motion characteristics of the chassis inside and outside air flow, board layout engineers on board has been optimized design, the higher thermal performance and efficiency of computers, less noise, the motherboard has become easier installation and removal.P>

BTX at the outset developed in three sizes, namely, BTX, Micro BTX and Pico BTX. BTX width three kinds are the same, are 266.7mm, except that the size of the board and different extensibility.P>

Integration (All in one) Motherboard: integrated sound, display and other circuit cards generally do not need to be able to work with high integration and space-saving advantages, but there are maintenance inconvenience difficulties and disadvantages upgrade, used more in the original brand.P>

NLX: Intel latest motherboard structure, the biggest feature is the motherboard, CPU upgrade flexible and effective, eliminating the need for each launch a CPU must be updated motherboard design deformation structures in addition to some of the above board, such as Asus motherboard uses a lot of 3/4 Baby AT motherboard size structure.P>

  • classified by structural features of the motherboard can be divided based on the CPU board, based on the type of the motherboard, the motherboard adapter integrated circuit or the like. CPU motherboard-based integration is the preferred choice.P>li>

  • printed circuit board according to the process of classification can be divided into two-layer plate structure, the structure of four panels, six structural panels and the like; the product of a four-layer structure plates Lord.P>li>

  • have the surface mounting plate welding process and traditional process DIP component mounting board by soldering, and the classification process.P>li>

  • classified by CPU socket as Socket 7 motherboard, Slot 1 motherboard.P>li>

  • classified by the memory capacity, such as a motherboard 16M, 32M motherboard, 64M motherboard.P>li>

  • classified according to whether the plug and play, such as motherboard PnP, non-PnP motherboard.P>li>

  • by the system bus bandwidth class, such as a motherboard 66MHz, 100MHz motherboard.P>li>

  • classified by data port, such as SCSI motherboard, EDO motherboard, AGP motherboard.P>li>

  • classification by expansion slot, such as motherboard EISA, PCI motherboard, USB motherboard.P>li>

  • classified by the manufacturer, such as ASUS motherboard, Gigabyteb> motherboard.P>li>ul>


    Intel: Socket386, Socket486, Socket586, Socket686, Socket370 (810 motherboard, 815 motherboard), Socket478 (845 motherboard, 865 motherboard) , LGA 775 (915 motherboard, 945 motherboard, 965 motherboard, G31 motherboard, P31 motherboard, G41 motherboard, P41 motherboard, G43, P43 motherboard, G45, P45, X38, X48), LGA 1156 (H55 motherboard, H57 motherboard, P55 motherboard , P57 motherboard, the motherboard Q57), LGA 1155 is divided into 6 and 7 series two series (lines 6 motherboard: H61 motherboard, the motherboard H67, P67 motherboard, the Z68 motherboard; 7 based motherboard: B75, Z75, Z77, H77 .), LGA 1366 (X58 motherboard), LGA 2011 (X79 motherboard). Since 2013 Intel introduced new 22nm Haswell specifications CPU, Ivy Bridge LGA 1155 escalated into the LGA 1150.P>

    AMD: Socket AM2 \ AM2 + (760G motherboard, 770 motherboard, 780G motherboard, 785G motherboard, 790GX motherboard), AM3 \ AM3 + (870G motherboard, 880G motherboard, 890GX motherboard, 890FX motherboard, 970 motherboard, 990X motherboard, 990FX motherboard), AM4 (B350 motherboard, B450 motherboard, B550 motherboard, X370 motherboard, X470 motherboard, X570 motherboard, A320 motherboard, A520 motherboard, A300 motherboard, X300 motherboard, PRO500 motherboard), FM1 (A55 motherboard, A75 motherboard) , FM2 (A55 motherboard, A75 motherboard, A85 motherboard).P>

    often a CPU with a still further divided, such as the Pentium motherboard, there can support multiple Pentium (P55C, MMX claim onboard dual voltage), support Cyrix 6x86, AMD 5k86 ( are Pentium class CPU, a motherboard requires better heat dissipation) and the like distinction.P>


    ISA (Industry Standard Architecture): Industry Standard Architecture bus.P>

    EISA (Extension Industry Standard Architecture): extended standard architecture bus.P>

    MCA (Micro Channel): Micro Channel bus.P>

    Further, in order to solve the "bottleneck" problem transfer rate between the CPU and the slow-speed peripherals, there are two local bus, they are:p>

    VESA (Video Electronic Standards Association ): video Electronics standards Association local bus, referred to as VL bus.P>

    PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect): local peripheral component interconnect bus, referred to as a PCI bus. 486 use more VL motherboard bus, the motherboard plurality Pentium PCI bus.P>

    Following PCI has developed a more peripheral interface bus, they are:p>

    USB (Universal Serial Bus) Universal Serial Bus.P>

    IEEE1394 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1394), commonly known as "FireWire (Fire Ware)".P>

    Product developmenth2>

    Board PnP function PnP the BIOS mating with PnP operating system (e.g., Win95) to help users to automatically configure the peripheral hosts, so that "Plug and Play."P>

    Energy Saving (green) generally function Energy Star (Energy Star) flag, and automatically enters a sleep waiting state when the host user does not use at boot time, and each CPU in the meantime reducing the work member consumption.P>

    This is not a new motherboard jumper motherboard, the motherboard is the further improvement of PnP. On such motherboard, and even the type of CPU, operating voltage and so no need to use the jumper switch, are automatically identified, only slightly adjusting the software. After Remark that on the CPU in the motherboard undetected. Previous board 486 generally do not have the above functions, the motherboard is equipped with more than 586 PnP, and energy efficiency can also be part of the original brand by the control board mains-off, to achieve further intelligence on / off, which is compatible motherboard on very rare, but certainly is a future direction of development. No jumper board will be in the other direction motherboard development.P> computer motherboard fault types and causes of



    can be learned by the above analysis principle, more complex computer motherboards, lead to failure during use a higher rate, the failure phenomenon is more complex and the point of failure is more dispersed, mainly in the following forms.P>

    (1) does not trigger a fault. Computer does not trigger a fault mainly for the computer does not start correctly. This type of failure is due to a power failure caused by ATX, the motherboard is also possible that due to the failure of the trigger circuit occurs to cause a computer motherboard does not trigger a fault.P>

    (2) black screen failure. I.e. computer monitor does not respond black. Symptom computer, the computer black screen are among the most common faults, its common causes in three ways: memory or graphics card failure, CPU failure, improper installation of the motherboard.P>

    (3) crash failures. Computer crash failure mainly for recurrent or blue screen of death. Mostly due to software failure or computer hardware failure leads to this type of failure. For example, Lu and BIOS master computer monitoring system, the resulting detection result display computer crash phenomenon is due to the regular CPU temperature is too high.P>

    (4) can not access the system failure. This type of failure manifestations is not properly guided step by step system, which induce failure because the file system, it may be a computer hard disk failure. For this type of failure, the use of a system reload or reinstall the hard drive solution.P>

    is in the repair process as soon as possible to clear the fault and to develop effective maintenance program, to categorize the above symptoms.P>

    (1) based on whether fixed Symptom classify the fault into the phenomenon of stability and instability failure fault, where the fault is due to the instability of aging of components, performance or contact failure causes the chip logic function is affected, showing an unstable state. Such as I / O slots aging, resulting in deformation of the situation of poor contact occurs between the card and the slot, eventually leading computer show error unstable state. While the stability is due to the fault is a short circuit, circuit component failure or open circuit function caused by malfunction under relatively stable performance.P>

    (2) classified according to the scope of the failure phenomenon, the overall failure phenomenon into localized failure and failure, wherein the global failure refers to the normal operating state of the system, since the phenomenon results in system failure the complete loss of function, such as a clock generator will further damage the entire system can not run. The locality failure refers to the failure phenomenon causes partial system function does not work properly, functions other than failure to work properly, such as print control chip motherboard failure, although online printing function is not working, but does not affect other functions of the computer use.P>

    (3) were based on the degree of influence Symptom classification Symptom into the independence of faults and fault correlation, wherein the correlation failure means that there is a fault association with other types of faults, the actual performance occurs for the common control section of the computer motherboard respective functional faults, such as soft, hard board abnormal operation of the subsystem, in this case, the control function of the control card exhibits a relatively disengaged state, this failure mainly in peripheral data transfer control board section. Independence failure refers to the phenomenon of damage caused by failure of the motherboard which is responsible for stand-alone chip functions occur.P>

    (4) were based on the fault type classification source, the fault phenomenon into bus fault, component failures and power failure, which refers to a bus fault control of the bus fails, or the occurrence of the bus itself fault. Component failure Inheritance refers motherboard circuit chip resistors and capacitors, and other components fail. Power failure refers motherboard +3.3 V, + 5 V, + 12 V power supply and signal PowerGood failure.P>


    reason for the above fault type computer motherboard, a great impact on the normal operation of the system, the motherboard of the host computer as a core component, can lead to the above symptoms are also multiple species diversity, the main causes of failure include the following three aspects.P>

    human factorb>p>

    PC itself provides a convenient support for the users leisure and work, the user as a main contacts computer, during use, since the its own non-professional, non-standard operation led to the phenomenon of frequent, resulting in decreased performance of the motherboard, resulting in motherboard failure. For example, when installing the device, installation location or the error associated with the motherboard and other components in contact, it will lead to failure to some extent on the motherboard.P>

    environmental factorsb>p>

    When the board is running or stored, due to the external environment, the performance of the motherboard will be a certain degree of change, the main cause of the malfunction can be divided into two types: First, in case of a lightning strike or power supply unstable, causing board failure, it belongs to a force majeure; Second, due to the motherboard in the ambient temperature, static electricity, dust, humidity and other reasons, cause the motherboard chip is damaged during operation.P>

    Component Quality Factorsb>p>

    components is an important part of the computer motherboard, the motherboard itself stability of the quality of the system is the most important security conditions, if the quality of the computer motherboard components occurs, the overall function of the motherboard will not be achieved, or part of the functions of premature failure during operation, the system fails to boot and run, an error occurs during POST phenomena.P>

    Maintenance Methodsh2>

    board failure often manifested as the system failed to start, no display screen, can sometimes start and sometimes not start and so difficult to visually determine the failure phenomenon. When the fault board for inspection, the general "look, two, three Wen, four touch" service principle. It is to observe symptoms, listen to the alarm sound, smell if the smell, touch some components are hot and so on. Here are some common motherboard repair methods, each method has its own advantages and limitations, generally use a combination of several methods.P>

    cleaningh3> Method

    This method is generally used to solve the problem caused by the motherboard does not work on the motherboard due to too much dust, dust electrostatically, available brush to remove dust on the motherboard. Further, generally connected with the external card number on the motherboard, the finger part of these cards may be oxidized, resulting in poor contact with the motherboard, this problem can wipe the surface of the oxide layer eraser.P>


    The main use "see, touch" technique. In case of power off to see whether the components in the correct connector, capacitors, resistors is good contact pin, whether each member surface burning, cracking phenomenon, each foil board if there burn marks. At the same time, you can hand to touch the surface of some chips to see if there is a very hot phenomenon.P>

    alternative methodh3>

    When some phenomena can not determine whether the fault is caused by a member which, when the member can be suspected by replacing troubleshooting method. Suspected member can get up again good computer, but also can be a good means to malfunctioning computer up again. Such as: memory capacity error or not in self-test, this method can be used to determine the real culprit of malfunction.P>


    motherboard bios use self-checking system, to be negative by the test card board failure.P>

    heating and cooling methodh3>

    heating and cooling process also has a strong targeted, focused in a board failure due to the motherboard components caused by poor thermal stability. If the motherboard maintenance personnel suspected cause of a rise in temperature more suspicious member, a touch method can be used at this time, the hand feel when temperature changes can obviously be related to forcibly cooling member cooling method used. After cooling to corresponding parts, the computer will open, if the degree of reduction or even disappearance of computer failure, it can be determined motherboard failures are caused by the components, and maintenance personnel can be as long as the replacement thereof. In general, heating and cooling needs motherboard maintenance staff has a wealth of experience as a basis for troubleshooting and to guarantee service quality and efficiency.P>


    in the maintenance of computer motherboards, is one of the important service extrusion method, but has a strong targeted for checking solder balls normally array chip is packaged and major problems of air welding. If the computer can not boot due to a fault, then the motherboard maintenance personnel can use the method of extrusion, extrusion of Southbridge appropriate efforts. In this same time, but also on the motherboard power test, if the computer is not turned on at this time, then the fault is not caused by the motherboard Southbridge; if connected to the power supply after the computer can boot and to work properly, then the problem Southbridge, Southbridge air welding i.e., time as long as the computer for disassembly, re-solder the motherboard Southbridge maintenance work to complete failure of the system board. All in all, the use of extrusion of highly targeted, therefore, can not be widely used in the repair computer motherboard failure, but when necessary, extrusion can still play an important role.P>

    diagnostic card and motherboard replacement methodh3>

    Board diagnosis using basic input output system motherboard, and computer motherboard failure automatically self-test procedure, while also being able to automatically detect fault the results are displayed in code. Maintenance personnel board failure diagnostic card motherboard manner fault detection, maintenance steps can be simplified effectively, saving a lot of maintenance time, but since the code presented in the form of failure, it is necessary to have a high maintenance staff of professional quality, accurate determination motherboard the reason the location of the fault. Alternatively simple method, but may require a longer time to failure is determined that the problem, i.e., instead of using the normal components of the computer motherboard member, if a replacement component to normal operation after the computer motherboard, the motherboard is described fault occurs in this position, in order to carry out targeted maintenance. But in fact, it needs to be based on the use of diagnostic card motherboard replacement method, replacement method of reducing the technical content, more by virtue of the motherboard maintenance personnel experience. Therefore, very often not professional maintenance staff used this way, but combining it with the motherboard diagnostic card, quickly and accurately determine the fault problem computer motherboard.P>

    Motherboard typical fault repair techniquesh2>

    Graphics no alarmh3>

    Motherboard BIOS damageb>p>

    motherboard's BIOS interior contains a lot of important hardware data, if the BIOS is damaged, is likely to lead directly to system paralyzed and unable to function properly. Motherboard BIOS damage is due to the role of CTH caused by the virus, when the viruses CTH computer motherboards, hard board immediately lost data, emergency repairs in this case, can check the integrity of the hard disk data in order to identify whether the BIOS failure. If there DEBUG card in the computer motherboard, the BIOS may DEBUG indicator determines the effective surface of the card board BIOS is normal. In the detection process, if the module is not found in the BIOS BOOT damage, but still can not display properly activate the display, then the alarm will sound the PC speakers; BOOT module if the BIOS is corrupted, the power supply and the like and a hard disk to normal operation, CPU fan also can operate normally, but the board still has not started, in this case, usually troubleshoot rewrite the BIOS through a programmer.P>

    motherboard capacitors damageb>p>

    Before servicing computer motherboards, need to carefully check the motherboard capacitors clear whether the explosion occurred or ripped. Board during operation, the voltage is too high or if the ambient operating temperature is too high, the capacitance is very prone to bubble or a liquid drip phenomenon, resulting in a significant reduction in capacity of the capacitor, the phenomenon of severe loss of capacity or even, at this time no longer capacitance normal filtering the load current of the AC component will be a large number, such as a CPU and memory, will be affected by the occurrence of abnormal operation. After the clear damage motherboard capacitor, this failure can be eliminated by way of replacing the capacitor.P>

    Motherboard protect themselves lockedb>p>

    Most motherboards on the market at this stage have automatic detection protection function, which will lead to its operation in the process when the power supply voltage abnormality occurs, the CPU overclock, overvoltage, etc., the motherboard will automatically lock and stop running. Board self-protection lock specific performance of the motherboard does not start. For this failure phenomenon, it can be processed for discharge CMOS, followed by its power-up operation. You may also be opened while the motherboard power, press the RESET button is released directly locking the motherboard.P>

    alarm sound cardh3>

    long and two short cards issued chirping, the failure may be loose or damaged card. For such a typical failure, you can simply open the chassis, will re-install the graphics card. Before installing the need to scrutinize the AGP slot, which clearly whether there small foreign body, will lead to any direct plug-in cards can not be put in place. For motherboards have a voice alarm system, the need to carefully identify the content of the voice prompt, accurate to find the point of failure based on the content and troubleshooting. After complete installation if the card does not stop the alarm sound, then the graphics chip may be damaged and need repair or replace the card. If the self-test after passing the beeper from sounding when turned on, but the monitor can not display images correctly, replace the graphics board to the other, but it can run properly, then there is the phenomenon of the card is not compatible with the original computer motherboard needs to be replaced immediately graphics.P>

    Memory alarm sound emittedh3>

    alarm sound characteristics of memory is kept issued a "Didi" sound, this failure is more common, the main cause of the malfunction is bad memory. The memory is not standardized, since the thin memory, when the memory is plugged into the memory slot, a certain gap may be left; poor memory Goldfinger process causes a memory fault is an important reason, if the cheat表面的镀金不良,使用一段时间后,氧化层逐渐增厚,进而会导致内存接触不良;若内存插槽质量不合格,导致簧片与内存条金手指的接触不良,也是引发内存报警的一大原因。针对此种故障类型,可使用橡皮清洁内存条金手指,并将内存条移除,重新插接,还可采用热熔胶将缝隙填满,改善氧化现象。需要注意的是,在移除与插接内存条的过程中,一定要将主机的电源线拔掉,避免意外烧毁内存。


    以华硕 P3B-F 主板为例,它可以有效监视 CPU 的温度,采用一根 2Pin 的温控线,连接到 CPU 插槽旁边位置的 JTP 针脚上。在使用过程中突然发生蓝屏现象,重启后,光驱及硬盘自检通过后显示器却不亮了,造成这种现象的一般原因为主板上的温控线脱落且与主板接触,促使主板自动进入了保护状态,并拒绝了继续加电命令。现阶段,针对 CPU 的发热量较大的情况,多数主板都为其提供了温度监控及保护装置,一般来说,若CPU温度过高或与主板连接的温控系统发生故障,会直接影响主板进入自动保护状态,并拒绝加电启动或发出报警提示。针对此种故障现象,重新连接温控线后重启电脑即可。需要注意的是,若主板不能正常启动,也未发出报警提示,则需要明确主板的温控装置是否处于正常状态。

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