signed a reason
Soviet-Japanese relations strained for a long time. As early as the beginning of the establishment of Soviet power in Russia, Japan, together with other imperialist powers to interfere Soviet revolution. The spring of 1918, Japan sent troops to Vladivostok in the Russian Far East (this is China), seizure of Russian Far East coastal areas, and actively participate in the fall and winter of 1919 against the Soviet Union's "Fourteen countries expedition," trying to nascent Soviet regime nipped in the bud being. Although the Soviet Union and Japan in 1925 in the Northern Warlords government in the capital of China's semi-feudal society under Beijing established diplomatic relations, but, as the Soviet Union for its invasion of China disorder Japan has not changed anti-Soviet stance, but intensified with an enemy of the Soviet Union created many disturbances. In 1927, Japanese Prime Minister Tanaka throws after a notorious "Tanaka Memorial" to accelerate the pace of preparation of Chinese aggression. In 1931 Japan launched the "September 18" Incident occupied the entire northeast, friction with the Soviet Far East border guards frequently occur, Kwantung Army continues to create tension, provoke border clashes in 1935, occurred 106 times, the first three months of 1936 , there is 22 times. 1937 "77" after the Japanese Aggression War against China, the Soviet Union took the support of Chinese anti-Japanese stance, to give a full and extensive assistance in military, economic and diplomatic. Japan in 1938 ~ 1939 to the Far East border of the Soviet Union launched many large-scale military operations, to test the actual situation of the Soviets, in order to enter in preparation for the North. Although the two sides on the Soviet Union in October 1939 signed a truce agreement, but because of long-standing grudges, conflicts may erupt at any time again.
1940 In the summer, Western Europe, mainland China and Nazi Germany blitz, Japan decided to seize the opportunity to enter the South West sphere of influence in Asia and the Pacific. In order to implement the strategic south, strengthening the Japan Palit, meaning collusion at the same time, actively seeking to adjust the relationship between the Soviet Union, in order to consolidate security in northern and prompted the Soviet Union to stop aid to China, to achieve an early end to the "China Incident" purposes. At this point, faced with the threat of Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, to get rid of things at risk by the enemy on the one hand support the Chinese War of Resistance to Japan bound hand and foot; on the other hand sought and Japan signed a treaty to protect the security of the eastern border. Since July 1940, under Japan's initiative to start talks between the two countries. Negotiations was suspended in late August. After Germany, Italy and Japan signed a treaty of alliance axis, the Japanese government has committed to negotiate the Soviet Neutrality Pact, proposed by Japan, "Japan-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact program." And only use the built-US Army as its new ambassador to the Soviet times, accelerate the pace of Japan-Soviet negotiations. October 30, 1940, called on Molotov Jianchuan, the Japanese government submitted draft of the "Japan-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact program." November 18, 1940 the Soviet Union put forward a draft "draft-Soviet Neutrality Pact" and ancillary protocols. In mid-December, the negotiations has been further interruption.
1941 March-April, the Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka (Japanese: ma-tsu お ka yo u desu ke) visit to Europe in an attempt to help the German and Italian forces to promote the Japan-Soviet relations again improvement. Before and after passing through Moscow, with the Communist Party (Bolshevik) league general secretary of Stalin (Russian: Сталин), People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Molotov (Russian: Молотов) talks, an agreement April 12, formally signed the next day about this. A total of four treaty, valid for 5 years, the main contents are: the parties to ensure the maintenance of peace and friendly relations between the two countries, mutual respect for territorial integrity and inviolability; one Contracting Party to become a target country or several countries of the war when a third party, the other remained neutral throughout the course of the conflict. And agreed temporarily to sign the Protocol in Northern Sakhalin subsidiary rights transfer. Signed on the same day, the two sides also issued a statement: "The Soviet Union guarantee respect Manchukuo: territorial integrity and inviolability (Japanese ma san shi ゅ u ko ku), and Japan to ensure respect for the Mongolian People's Republic: territorial integrity and inviolability (Russian МонгольскаяНароднаяРеспублика) This is clearly unwarranted interference in China's internal affairs, but also on the "Sino-Soviet non-aggression treaty," the serious breach. since then Soviet aid to China gradually reduced.
Russian Treaty (2 Zhang)1941 Nian 4 22 afternoon, Yosuke Matsuoka and his party arrived back in Tokyo report on Japan-Soviet negotiations on the government stronghold of the joint meeting held at 9 pm April 24, 1941, the Privy Council by Japan Soviet-Japanese neutrality Pact, the emperor immediately granted Huai. April 25, 1941, the supreme Soviet of the Bureau also approved the Soviet-Japanese neutrality Pact. on the same day, the Soviet Union Japanese government representatives in tokyo exchange treaty ratification, announced the formal entry into force of Soviet-Japanese neutrality Pact.
ROC Foreign Minister Wang Chong-hui released the next day after the signing of Japan-Soviet treaty statement pointed out: the four northeastern provinces and Mongolia is China's territory, is illegal Manchukuo, the Chinese government will never recognize Soviet neutrality Pact, and the Chinese government people will never admit a third country prejudice to any decision that the territorial and administrative integrity of China, the Soviet Union and Japan issued a joint declaration to China absolutely null and void.
"Soviet-Japanese neutrality Pact" on the impact of World war II war development has played a a major role. but even after the treaty was signed, the two sides are still wary of each other. Although the importance of the Soviet Union Soviet neutrality Pact, and did not guarantee the Far East border security lies in the neutral treaty. it also adopted a series of strengthening the defense of the Far actual measures in the second half of 1941, the Soviet Union in the Far East set up a new thirty-mechanized army, fifty-ninth and sixty-ninth tank divisions motorized infantry division. to June 22, 1941 Soviet-German war broke out on the eve of the Soviet Union the Far East Army has 1,737 aircraft, long-range bomber expansion of the fifth Army, the Soviet Pacific fleet ships with nearly 300 Soviet troops in the Far East has remained at more than 50 million people. It is this strong defense force, Japan dare infringe on the Soviet Union during World war II, the Soviet Union long time to maintain a large number of troops in the Far East (now the Russian Far East), this is a big support for the Soviet Union. during the battle of Moscow, in the Soviet Union was reliable when the case of intelligence support, mobilize some troops from the Far East to support the western front, and the final victory of the battle of Moscow played an important role.
to April 5, 1945, the Soviet government in Eastern Europe, after battlefield victory was declared at the request of the allies: in view of Japan to help the German anti-Soviet war, the Soviet Union and its allies with the United States and Britain at war, treaty of neutrality has lost its meaning, one year ahead of the abolition of Moloto. husband in Moscow summoned the Japanese ambassador to the Soviet Union Sato, an official statement announced that the Soviet government. soon statement, the Soviet Union officially
declared war on Japan.treaty text
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, the deep wish to consolidate peace and friendship between the Soviet-Japanese diplomatic relations between the two countries, wishes to have decided to conclude a treaty of neutrality, Therefore, both parties appoint their own representatives: the appointment of the Chairman of the USSR supreme Soviet Council of people's Commissars of foreign Affairs people's chairman Vyacheslav Molotov Wei Ache, appointed by His Majesty the Emperor of Japan awarded the Knight One God-chapter, Japanese foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka and won a Chapter four and so on and so on Rising sun Knight with gold kite chapter, in the Soviet Union Extraordinary and plenipotentiary of Japan Jianchuan US sub-lieutenant, as their representatives, representatives of both parties read each other credentials, are in good condition and properly, immediately agreed as follows:
the first Contracting States to ensure the maintenance of peace and friendship between the mutual diplomatic relations, mutual respect for territorial integrity and the sanctity of each other;
If the second party to become a State party or several third countries when hostilities object, the States parties to the other party, that should always observe neutrality during the conflict;
Article treaties in force from the date of approval of the Contracting States to take effect, valid for five years. In the year before the expiration of the two sides declared abandoned if No Party about this, the expiration date that is automatically extended for five years;
Article treaties in force when approved petition as soon as possible. When expedite the approval document exchange in Tokyo.
Shanxie two existing treaties with the Russian and Japanese, by the representatives of both parties signed and sealed on the open WITNESS WHEREOF.
April 13, 1941 April 13, namely Hitachi Showa sixteen years in Moscow.
Yosuke Matsuoka, US Jianchuan times (signed)
keeping with the spirit of neutrality treaty concluded on April 13, 1941 Soviet-Japanese, Soviet Union and Japan both governments to ensure peace and friendship between the two countries diplomatic reasons, wishes to solemnly declares: respect for the Soviet Union when the oath "Manchukuo" the territorial integrity and inviolability of Japan oath when respect for territorial integrity and sanctity of "the Mongolian people's Republic," the.
April 13, 1941 in Moscow
The Soviet government representatives Molotov (signed) on behalf of the Government of Japan Yosuke Matsuoka, US Jianchuan times (signed) < / p>
impact on China's
(1) day of the signing of the treaty, Yosuke Matsuoka told the German ambassador to the Soviet Union: "this is a treaty for Japan very important, it will be added to a national government of China great pressure, forcing the Chinese may thus be easily summed knees; at the same time, Japan's position against the Anglo-American enhanced "(Zhou Wenqi, Churu Liang" Comintern. and the Chinese Communist Party "on page 352) has been involved in American foreign policy plans Herbert Feith described the situation said the Japanese government felt this Treaty" very happy ", Prime Minister Konoe Emperor's approval quickly," because the treaty has long wanted to ease the impulse Army fighting with Russia, the Chiang Kai-shek brought the yield of hope, and south of the road safer. perhaps the US government will become even wider, and some. "(He Bert Griffith "road leading to Pearl Harbor", Commercial Press, 1983, p. 199)
(2) this treaty was signed, the Soviet Union shows that in the Sino-Japanese war, supported by China steering neutral position, this is a step backward in the Soviet Union on the issue of Sino-Soviet relations. Therefore, it is a political blow to the Chinese War of Resistance against Japan enthusiasm hurt the Chinese people, but also damaged the image of the socialist Soviet Union. This treaty not only caused ill-feeling and national government concerns about the future of the war for the Soviet government, but also makes China the other aspects of the "Treaty" to show dissatisfaction. Even the Communist Party of China for national self-interest and power politics tends to "treaty" blatant also been tactful and serious criticism.
(3) of this aggression treaty contributed to the arrogance of the Japanese fascists, before the bombing of Pearl Harbor, China has become one of the important international factors into the most difficult period of the war. Japan to ensure the use of the Soviet Union, it expanded its aggression against China, Southeast Asia. After
(4) "treaty" was signed, the Soviet Union and gradually discontinue aid to China dropped supplies, which weakened the Chinese anti-Japanese military.China separatist forces intensified the war on
(5) In addition, the "Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact" signed objective to promote complicate the situation in the Chinese domestic war. Signed
(6) "Soviet Neutrality Pact", a direct result of Dongbeikanglian forces in the Soviet Union to stop sending teams to the northeast, with the Japanese puppet war, so that the resistance fighters have long-term presence the territory of the Soviet Union. However, in the harsh natural environment and Puppet "forest grate comb" type "punitive" lower recourse, which also makes the effective strength of the resistance is preserved, thus avoiding greater sacrifices. Anti presence in the territory of the Soviet Union, were camping training and consolidation, and the establishment of the teachings of the trip, is conducive to the unified leadership of the originally dispersed power, in favor of strengthening the centralized leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the Northeast Anti fighting. Anti sent to the northeast of the small force, not only to continue the anti-Japanese struggle in the Northeast, but also provided valuable military intelligence to the Soviet war against Japan, the Soviet accurate to provide a reliable guarantee against the Japanese. On the battlefield against Japanese Soviet, anti-Union troops are fighting a direct participant, who is with the Soviet favorable, accelerated the process of the victory against Japan.
have been identified south of the Japanese strategy as soon as possible to free up troops from the battlefield to the full south China, have stepped up especially in the liberated areas under the leadership of the Communist Party of China on the Chinese battlefield attack. Again and again the raids, the liberated areas rapidly shrinking dramatically reduce the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army troops, plus Sheung Shui, drought, insects and other natural disasters, the Liberated Areas situation more difficult. Kuomintang diehards set off a second anti-Communist onslaught, manufacturing shocked the world Wannan Incident, the New Fourth Army more than 8,000 people to sacrifice, Japanese national united front once again in danger of splitting. At this time it is the Chinese people urgently need the international community to give strong support morally and materially. Coincided this time, but the Soviet Union and Japan signed a neutrality treaty, announced its recognition of "Manchukuo"; and in order to avoid the wrath of the Japanese, the Soviet Union began to decline after the Soviet-German treaty was signed and after the outbreak of the war to stop the support for China's Anti-Japanese War, China has lost an important source of supplies of war. This is a very heavy blow to working with the Japanese bloody battles of the Chinese people. Kuomintang diehards back to the Chinese Communist Party of the Soviet Union as an excuse to undermine China's interests, advocates continue to limit Chinese Communist forces, reduction of the CPC armed resistance. Pro-Japanese faction gloat, wantonly spread the fallacy of the anti-Japanese certainly fail, publicly seek refuge with the Japanese invaders. 1941-1943 August just two years, collaborators treason KMT senior generals of 58 people, the vice president of the KMT Central Committee more than 20 people, the enemy army is up to 50 million and more, accounting for 62% of the total puppet . Therefore we can say, "Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact" exacerbated the difficult situation in China's War of Resistance.signed
"Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact", so that the lifting of the Japanese war in the Pacific south of worries, Japan began to actively southward, sharp sharp contradiction between Japan and the US. But this time has developed "Asia Prior to Europe strategy" of the United States in order to ensure the interests of its stake in Britain not be defeated, the face of Japan's offensive, but to continue to take sacrifice the interests of China, in part to meet the requirements of the policy of appeasement of Japan, in the United States between May and June 1941, presented one after another, "Japan-US Memorandum of understanding program" amendment, is a concrete manifestation of this policy. In the three amendments to the US in, regarded by "friendly negotiated settlement 'Manchukuo' problem" that recognize its independence as the main content of Manchuria, in China and Japan agreed to garrison. However, Japan's greed is endless, the contradiction between Japan and the US must be resolved through war. With the outbreak of the Soviet-German War and the Pacific War, the Soviet Union and the United States also sucked into the whirlpool of the world war, anti-fascist countries, including the United States, Britain and other countries formed an anti-fascist alliance, China from out war against Japan adverse situation, and ultimately defeated the Japanese imperialists. This is the Japanese imperialists in the signing of "Soviet Neutrality Pact" that can not be foreseen. So in this sense, "said Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact" China factor breeds final victory of the war.