In the case of perception, we always use a standard to judge, this standard is called the reference system. The reference line of space perception can be divided into two categories: the reference system established by the perceived himself and the reference system established by a thing other than the perceived.
In a certain amount of time and space, the persense always occupies a position of the space, and its feeling information is often received by individuals as a reference system.
Will you walk in the next staircase - 咣 咣 咣 咣 地 地 地 地 步 步 步 步 步 步 步 步 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大 大Or is it confused to put the cup on the table, but put it in the air? Such experience is rare. We live in the three-dimensional space, must have the ability to understand the relationship between ourselves and spatial things and their changes. Various sensors, listening, sniffing, etc., provide us with information from all points from space, and if you can't organize this information, you cannot adapt to survival in this changing world. We perceived a space perception of the spatial relationship between itself and surrounding things and the position, a position, distance, and the like. Space Perception. Space consciousness includes shape consciousness, size perception, distance perception, and orientation. The main information source of space consciousness is visual and auditory.
pair up and down, left and right, the judgment of the front and rear is usually made by the perceptive itself as a reference system.
For the determination of the spatial relationship between the persense itself and the object and the object, in addition to the reference line established by the perceptive itself, it is often used as the reference system. The direction of east, south, west, and north is the orientation established by the sun. For the east day, the sunset is the west, the Nanypi is the north, the Northern Northern Northern Northern. With this reference system, we can link on this, and the object familiar in the environment is oriented. Under special conditions, there is no familiar ground object as a oriented reference body, or a star icon, a compass or other instrument can be oriented. We also use a certain reference system for judgment for space perceptions such as size, shape.
Hearing space consciousness
On the issue of perception of space, psychologists have been exploring the following two questions: (1) Our retina is two-dimensional, and we There is no "distance sensor", then how to form three-dimensional visual on the retina of the two-dimensional space, which clues are passed to grasp the guests and objects, the object and the main body, the various spatial relationships on the position, direction, distance. ? (2) If the perception of space perception is due to the result of both eyes coordinated, why can I get an accurate space sensation in many cases? According to the data, space consciousness needs to rely on many objective conditions and internal conditions or clues (CUES) and the existing visual experience of organisms. Sometimes we can't even realize the role of these clues. In summary, the clues of space perception include single-eyed clues and binocular clues. The single-eyed clue mainly emphasizes the characteristics of visual stimuli itself, and the two-eyed clues emphasize the role of feedback information generated by the binocular coordination activities.
A single eye can be used with a single-eyed clue (Monocular Cue), and the artists are particularly good at using the depth in single-eyed wire manufacturing works. Spatial Relations. There are many single-eyed clues, including the following kinds.
(1) of the relative size of the object (Relative Size). The relative size of the object is one of the clues from the perceptual. The little dot is like far away from us, the big dots seem to be close to us. For the judgment of familiar with objects, there are different acquaintances, and if you see the shortcoming person, it looks high, and that tall people look short, then, you will be observed to leave the former You are near, the latter is far away from you.
(2) occlusion. If an object is blocked by another object, the shield looks near, and the shield is far apart. The occlusion of the object is a clue from the perception (see Figure 1). If there is no object to block, the distance from the abbreviation is difficult to judge. For example, if the air plane is not overlapped with the cloud, it is difficult to see the relative height of the aircraft and clouds.
(3) texture gradient. The incremental and decrease in the projection size and projection density on the retina in the visual field, called texture gradient. When you stand on a brick shop, you will see the distance from the distance, the more the farther bricks are smaller, that is, the number of bricks in each unit area in the far portion is much like therein. Look at the two graphics in Figure 2, the upper texture density is large, and the lower texture unit is small, so that the distance perception extends to the distant extension.
(4) Bright and Shadow. We live in the world of light and shadows. It helps us to perceive volume, strength, texture and shape. Black, shadow seems to be back, far from us; bright and high-gloss partially highlight, close to us (see Figure 3).
In painting art, use the bright and dark tones, gray the distant part, and the colors of the nearly part of the colors are clear, resulting in a distinctive perspective.
(5) Linear perspective. The same size, the proportion of the same size, the proportion of the view is large, the view is also large; the proportion of the view is small, the view is small. Parallel lines, such as train tracks, will gather far away. The more the gathering line, the farther the distance of the perception (see Figure 4).
(6) Air Perspective (Atmosphere Perspective). Due to air scattering, we will feel when we watch a distant object: The less you can see; the edge of the object is getting less and less clear, more and more blur; the color of the object is light, change Be pale, becomes gray. These decays in detail, shape, and colors are called air perspective. Of course, the quality of air perspective and weather is very related. The sky is high, the air is transparent, and the objects that are seen are near; the mist is depressed, the wind is filled, the air is small, and the object to see is far away. As depicted in Figure 5, "Bristol's Wide Terminal",
, which not only uses air perspective principle, but also combines texture gradient, occlusion, line perspective and relative size and relative height. .
(7) Motion Parallex. Head is slightly rotated, the relationship between objects and vision changes. This change in the relationship between the retinal object image due to the activity of the head and the body is called the motion parallax. When we exercise, the original stationary object is also moving. People who have been sitting in the train have such experiences: an object outside the window, such as a house, then, movement of the object near the house, the closer the object, the faster the movement, and the object of the point of attention The farther the object is simultaneous, the slower the speed of motion.
(8) adjustment of the eye. When people look at things, in order to obtain a clear object, the curvature of the crystal changes in the crystal, when the recent object, the crystal is relatively projected; when looking at the farm, the crystal is relatively flat. This change is adjusted by ciliary muscles. The ciliary muscle is moved when the ciliary muscle is adjusted, providing the brain information from the abstore. However, the adjustment effect is only valid within a few meters, and the resolution is poor.
Using binocular cue is the main way to depth and distance consciousness, the effect is much more accurate than using other clues. The double eyeliner mainly includes radiation and double-eyewalk.
(1) Axis is irradiated or binocular convergence. When looking at the farm, the two eye sight is similar to parallel; when the recent object is seen, the double eyeliner will aggregate to the inquiry object. The idea of eye muscles during the radiation of the line of sight, will provide the brain to the aberration of the object. However, the distance between the distance provided by the radiation acts only in the range of tens of meters. The object is too far, the sight tends to parallel, and effective irradiation information is no longer available.
(2) Binocular Disparity. The two eyes are about 65 mm apart. When we look at the three-dimensional, both eyes look at this object from different angles, and the line of sight is a bit different. Try to put your finger in position close to the nose, separately with two single-eyed views, will find a clear movement in your finger position. The difference between the two-eyed retina when observing the object is a double-eyed parallax. The double-eyed parallax plays a crucial and does not understand the role of people in deep perception. It is determined by the binocular parallel to determine the process of stereo visual visual (Stereopsis). With this principle, a three-dimensional entity map can be observed by means of a computer chart or a special solid mirror.
Three-dimensional visual research shows that under the conditions of all other depth clues, a set of completely meaningless visual stimuli, as long as the disparity conditions are available, it can produce deep perception. This verifies Gibson's direct perception theory to a certain extent, and is widely used in artistic creation and computer visual field.
About space feeling, in addition to visual, the ear can provide the direction of the sound and the acoustic source of the sound source. Visual clues have the difference between single eye and eyes, and the auditory clues also have the difference between single ear and fever.
single ear lines
The clues obtained by the single ear can not effectively determine the orientation of the sound source, but can effectively determine the distance from the sound source. Usually, we often judge the nearby voice of the sound: strong feelings, weakness. Especially familiar sounds (such as cars, the sound of the train), determined that the sound source is nearly nearly accurate according to its strength.
Double ear transmissions
The sound source is near and the direction, and the coordinating cooperation with both ears can obtain accurate judgment. There are mainly three of the two-ear sharing of space perception.
(1) Double ear time difference (time DIME DIFCERENCE OF BINAURAL). From the side of the sound, the two ears feel the sound stimulation has time difference (ie, an ear is earlier than another ear). This time difference is the main thread positioned in the sound source direction, and the sound source is positioned on one side of the stimulus. The body's head is approximately spherical, and the distance between the two-ear is about 15 to 18 cm, and the maximum value of the time difference of the two ear is approximately 0.5 milliseconds.
(2) Double-ear intensity difference (Intensity Difence of Binaral). The strength of the sound changes with the spread, that is, the weak. The sound obtained with the ears on the same side of the sound source is strong, and the opposite ear is weak due to the sound of the sound of the accelerator. Thus, the sound source is positioned on a strong side.
(3) bit is different. The low frequency sound is long because the wavelength is long, the barrier of the head is smaller, and the strength difference between the two ear is small. At this time, the determination orientation is mainly different from the bits of the two ears, i.e., the different portions of the waveform of the same frequency sound wave acts on the two ear, so the pressure of the acoustic wave in the inner ear drum film is also different. Although this difference is small, it is the main clue of low frequency sound source positioning.
above 3 000 Hertz sound, the two-ear strength difference is large, easy to position. The strength difference of the two-ear feeling is the main clue of the high frequency sound direction. The sound speed is 344 m / s, when the sound source is biased toward 3 °, the time difference of the two ear is only 0.03 milliseconds, and people can feel the sound of the side. The greater the time difference, the greater the angle of the sound biased toward the side. Basic sounds on the left and right sides of the body, reaching the two-ear strength difference and the time difference, easy to distinguish the direction; the sound on the vertical plane of the two ear axis, the intensity difference between the two ears, etc., it is difficult to distinguish it. When positioning in the auditory direction, people often turn the position of the body and the head, so that the distance between the two ear is constantly changing to accurately determine the direction of the sound. In this way, even an ear, the clue of the head and the body can also determine the orientation of the sound.
How to test the
space perceptual tester is an instrument for investigating space sensation characteristics and identifying individual's identification capabilities. It can also be used to verify the effect of spatial structural characteristics of the stimulus on information transfer efficiency. The instrument includes a light display, a primary test controller, and trial operation. It can present dozens of graphics through different combinations of small lamps, which are used for an experiment. The output of the output is divided into strips, blocks, and irregularities, each of which can be divided into four patterns. In the experiment, the trials were tried to distinguish between different patterns, and the necessary data is recorded. The resulting data can be compared with regular statistics, or the information transfer efficiency can be calculated using the information method.
In general, normal people's space consciousness relies primarily on visual and auditory. The sense of smell can also work. Since the odor reaches the time of the two nostrils, the source and position of the odor can also be distinguished. In special cases, you can also feel space with other senses. For example, in the dark, rely on touch and move to determine the orientation relationship between the peripheral objects and people.