Main entry: History of Singapore
The history of Singapore can be traced back to the 3rd century, when there were indigenous people living there The earliest documentary record comes from the "Wu Shi Foreign Biography" written by Kang Tai, a general of the Dongwu in the 3rd century. According to the research of Singaporean scholar Xu Yunqiao, Puluozhong is the opposite of the Malay word "PulauUjong". "Pluozhong" is the oldest name of Singapore Island, which means "island at the end of the Malay Peninsula", which is more than a thousand years earlier than Temasek (the Ming Dynasty referred to Singapore as "Temasek"). Shilifu died in the 8th century. [ Also translated Singapore La), Sanskrit means "lion castle".
In 1320, the Yuan Dynasty sent people to a place called "Longyamen" to look for elephants, which may refer to the Keppel Harbour. Around 1330, a Chinese named Wang Dayuan came and called the settlement "the dragon head" and said that there were already Chinese living here. The first name Singapore was called Temasek (or Haicheng) appeared in 1365 in "The History of Java".
Singapore’s La dynasty was established for a hundred years. Because its north was threatened by Siam, the south was captured by Java. The throne was passed to the fifth, and it was called Mano Basie (Manjapahit) at the Battle of Singapore. Extinguished.
In the 14th century, the prince Bairimisura from Sri Lanka established the Malacca Sultanate in the area. Later, the Portuguese burned the stronghold at the mouth of the river in 1613. From the 18th century to 1824, Singapore was part of the Kingdom of Johor.
In 1819, Stamford Raffles, an employee of the British East India Company, landed Singapore, and began to govern the area. In 1824, Singapore officially became a British colony, initially under the jurisdiction of the British Indian colonial authorities. In 1867, Singapore was upgraded to the Straits Settlements and was directly ruled by Britain. With the development of steamships and the opening of the Suez Canal, Singapore has become an important port for ships sailing between Europe and Asia. Around the 1870s, the local rubber plantation industry developed vigorously, and Singapore became the world's major rubber export and processing base.
By the end of the 19th century, Singapore had achieved unprecedented prosperity, when trade had increased eightfold. After World War I, Britain also spent 500 million to build a naval base in Singapore. Winston Churchill, then British Prime Minister, also called Singapore the "Gibraltar of the East." Unfortunately, this naval base does not have any warships. The British strategy is to station all the Royal Navy in Europe and send it over when needed in Singapore.
The period of Japanese occupation
In December 1941, the British completely underestimated the combat effectiveness of the Japanese army until Japan attacked Singapore by surprise. She is a little jewel in the crown of the British Empire. As the political and economic center of Britain in Southeast Asia, Japan must take over Singapore to completely drive out the British. Singapore has a dense population of Chinese, and it is also the center of the anti-Japanese movement for overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia. Tan Kah Kee’s “Southern Overseas Chinese Relief for the Motherland Refugee Association” mobilized 8 million Chinese in Southeast Asia to raise a huge foreign exchange of about 400 million yuan for China. At this time, the Singaporean Chinese who fell into the mouth of the tiger had previously vigorously assisted China in the fight against Japan, and organized the volunteer army to carry out a heroic resistance, and thus suffered from Japan's hatred and frantic revenge.
The day after the Pearl Harbor incident, Japanese troops landed in Kota Bharu in northern Malaya. Only two months after the war began, the Japanese troops occupied the entire Malay Peninsula and Sin Chew. On February 15, 1942, the British army lost to the Japanese in the Battle of Singapore. The British commander-in-chief Bai Sihua announced an unconditional surrender. Over 130,000 British, Australian, Indian and other defenders were imprisoned. This was the greatest catastrophe in British military history. .
Japan changed its name to Zhaonan Island after taking over Singapore. From February 18 to 25 of the same year, in order to avenge the Star Hua Volunteer Army and the Chinese who had previously supported China's resistance against Japan, the Japanese army launched a revenge operation in the name of the "Great Inspection Certificate". The Japanese military authorities set up "verification centers" in many places. Their plan was to screen out all Chinese men between the ages of 18 and 50, and eradicate all "anti-Japanese elements". In the end, the Japanese army captured more than 20,000 people, of whom none Most were taken to the suburbs or remote Changi and Punggol beaches for mass shooting, and the rest were sent to Thailand for hard work. The Japanese army also blackmailed the Chinese in Southeast Asia, asking them to pay 50 million yuan in payment. The reason Yamashita Bongwen gave at the time was: "Overseas Chinese supported the Chongqing government to fight against Japan. This payment is your life money to atone for the Japanese army."
The people of Singapore came In front of the monument to mourn the civilians who died (8 photos)After more than three years of suffering, with the surrender of Japan, all Chinese living in Singapore are happy. According to incomplete statistics, about 20,000 to 50,000 Chinese were brutally murdered during the Japanese occupation for more than 3 years (Singapore Massacre). After the war, the remains of the slaughtered were found in many places. The Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry couldn't bear to let these bones be scattered in the wilderness. In the same year, it established a rehabilitation committee to be responsible for investigation, excavation and burial.
The Singapore Peace Monument was unveiled on February 15, 1967. Every year on February 15 (Occupied Day), mourning for civilians who died is held here. The Singaporean anti-Japanese film "The Price of Peace" describes the hard days of the Japanese occupation of Singapore, and also narrates the anti-Japanese experience of the Xinghua Volunteer Army. After watching this TV series, I have a deeper understanding of historical figures such as Tan Kah Kee and Lin Mousheng. The contribution made by the Nanyang Chinese against Japan.
Towards autonomy (1945-1963)
In September 1945, the British army returned to Singapore. After military control ended in March 1946, the Strait The colony was dissolved. On April 1, 1946, Singapore became a direct colony of the United Kingdom. Singapore after the war is very different from before the war, and the people demand a greater say in the government. The power of the Governor was dispersed, and an advisory group composed of official and appointed non-officials was established. The system became two separate executive and legislative councils in July 1947. On March 20, 1948, Singapore held its first elections. At the end of 1953, Singapore amended its constitution and enjoyed greater autonomy.
In 1955, Singapore held elections and Marshall became Singapore’s first chief minister. The labor front led by him formed a coalition government with Umno and the MCA. Due to the breakdown of negotiations for complete autonomy, Marshall resigned on June 6, 1956. In March 1957, a negotiating delegation led by Lin Youfu reached an agreement on the main provisions of Singapore's new constitution in the London negotiations. Singapore further achieved autonomous status in 1959. The first general election was held in May of the same year. The People's Action Party won 43 of the 51 seats in the Legislative Chamber. On June 5, the first government of the Singapore Autonomous State was sworn in, and Lee Kuan Yew became Singapore's first prime minister.
In May 1961, Malayan Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman announced Want to unite Singapore, Malaya, Brunei, Sarawak and North Borneo to form a nation-building program for Malaysia. In response, Lee Kuan Yew decided to hold a referendum, and 71% of the people voted in the end. So in September 1963, Singapore broke away from British rule and officially joined Malaysia.
After the merger of Singapore and Malaysia, Singapore began to have conflicts with the central government, and they also had different views on the policy of governing the country. The first public conflict between the two governments was in December 1963. Lee Kuan Yew criticized Malaysia’s annual budget for not giving enough budget to improve social conditions. Businessmen in Singapore have also begun to complain that the central government has discriminated against them, and instead of giving them the same benefits as other states, they have instead imposed a quota system on them. Bilateral economic conflicts In December 1964, the central government asked Singapore to increase the tax revenue paid to the central government from 40% to 60%. At the time, the Minister of Finance of Malaysia said that this was due to the increase in the armaments budget due to the confrontation activities in Indonesia. In the same month, the central government announced that it would close the branch of the Bank of China in Singapore because the Bank of China was funding the armed activities of the Malayan Communist Party.
There are also political conflicts between the two places. In 1963, the Coalition Party composed of Umno, MCA, and the National Congress Party participated in the Singapore state elections with the support of the central government. However, the Coalition Party not only failed to add a seat, the original three electoral districts were also taken by the People's Action Party. In September 1964, due to the instigation of Indonesian secret agents, serious ethnic riots broke out in Singapore. The concept of "Malays first" has gradually moved to the center of the stage. Non-Malay political parties have publicly expressed their opposition to the creed of "racism". At that time, the first prime minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, worried that the Chinese would dominate Malaysia’s political and economic environment. He believed that the best way to resolve the conflict between the two ethnic groups was to separate Singapore, with the Chinese as the main body, in order to ensure the Malay ethnicity. rule. As a result, the ruling coalition headed by UMNO urgently passed the amendment to the constitution in Parliament, and expelled Singapore from Malaysia with 126 votes in favor and 0 votes against it.
1965 to contemporary
On August 9, 1965, Singapore separated from Malaysia and became a sovereign and democratic And an independent country. On December 22 of the same year, Singapore became a republic, and Yusof Bin Isaac became the first president. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the collective sense of crisis of the Singaporean people became the driving force of the economic miracle, relying on hard work to survive in adversity.
Singapore sought international recognition after its founding and joined the United Nations on September 21, 1965. In October of the same year, Singapore joined the Commonwealth. Singapore also co-founded ASEAN in 1967. As a small country, the world has doubts about whether Singapore can continue to exist. In addition to sovereignty disputes, other important issues include the shortage of housing, lack of land and natural resources. The unemployment rate was as high as 12%.
In order to survive and survive, Singapore began a series of measures to develop industry and economy. The Economic Development Bureau, established in 1961, is committed to implementing the national economic development policy and attaching importance to manufacturing. The Jurong Industrial Zone was formally established, and light industrial bases were established in Kallang, Toa Payoh and other places. In order to attract foreign investment, the government decided to give foreign companies preferential treatment. In the same year, the Economic Development Board was reorganized, and the Jurong Town Authority and the Singapore Development Bank were also established that year. The rapid industrialization has made Singapore's manufacturing industry a major exporter of electronic products in the world within ten years. Although Singapore’s domestic political freedom was gradually suppressed, it achieved rapid economic development and soon became an important financial and entrepot trade center in Southeast Asia, and became one of the “Four Little Dragons of Asia” at that time. At the same time, the people's living standards have also been greatly improved, and housing, education, and transportation issues have been resolved.
In November 1990, Goh Chok Tong replaced Lee Kuan Yew, who had been in power since 1959, and became Singapore’s second prime minister. Singapore held its first elected presidential election in 1993, and Wang Dingchang became the first elected president. Nathan became Singapore’s second elected president in 1999. The results of the presidential election in August 2011 were announced. Chen Qingyan was elected as the third elected president of Singapore with a marginal advantage of 0.34% (7269 votes) ahead of Chen Qingmu and the other two candidates.
Singapore is a city-state, so there is no distinction between provinces and cities. Instead, the country is divided into five communities (administrative districts) in a manner consistent with urban planning. They are: Central District Community (1.2 million people), Northeast Community (1.3 million people), Northwest Community (830,000 people), Southeast Community (840,000 people), Southwest Community (830,000 people), developed by corresponding communities The board of directors (referred to as the social management committee) management. These five social councils were re-divided into 89 constituencies in 2015, including 13 single constituencies and 16 collective constituencies.
(1) Single selection area: Hougang, Pioneer, Yuhua, Fengjia North, Mountbatten, Sengkang West, Punggol East, Bukit Panjang, Podong Brazil, Latin Mas, Feng Shan, Bukit Batok, MacPherson.
(2) GRC: Yishun, Jurong, Sembawang, Choa Chu Kang, East Coast, West Coast, Aljunied, Ang Mo Kio, Tampines, Marine Parade, Dan Rongpagar, Bishan-Toa Payoh, Netherlands-Bukit Timah, Baisha-Ponggol, Mohaman-Kallang, Marsiling-Yauchi.
Singapore is located at 1°18′N, 103°51′E, adjacent to the south entrance of the Strait of Malacca and separated by the narrow Strait of Johor to the north. It is close to Malaysia, and is connected with the Xinrou Long Causeway and the second channel on the northern and western borders. There are ferry connections to Bintan and Batam in Indonesia across the Singapore Strait to the south. Singapore’s land area is 719.1 square kilometers, with a coastline of more than 200 kilometers. The country consists of more than 60 islands including Singapore Island, St. John’s Island, Turtle Island, Sentosa, Sister Island, and Jiong Island. The three largest outer islands are Jurong Island, Deguang Island and Ubin Island. As the reclamation project forms a new land area, an additional 100 square kilometers of land will be added. Singapore's standard time is UTC+8, which is 1 hour faster than its geographic location time.Singapore
Singapore’s topography is undulating and gentle. Its western and central areas are composed of hilly land, most of which are covered by woods. The eastern and coastal areas are plains, with the highest geographical point being Bukit Timah, 163 meters high.
Singapore is located in the tropics and is controlled by the equatorial low pressure for many years. It has an equatorial rainy climate with small annual and daily temperature differences. The average temperature is between 23 and 34°C, the average annual rainfall is around 2,400 mm, and the humidity is between 65% and 90%. The rainy season is from November to January to March of the following year. The weather is unstable due to the humid northeast monsoon. Thunderstorms usually occur in the afternoon, and the average low temperature hovers around 24 to 25°C. The southwest wind is the driest from June to September. During the alternate monsoon months, from April to May, and October to November, the wind on the ground is weak and the sun is very hot, and the highest temperature on the island can reach 35°C.
Water system distribution
The rivers of Singapore are quite short due to the topography. There are 32 main rivers in the island, including Kranji River, Punggol River, Serangoon River, etc. , The longest river is Kallang River. Most of the rivers have been transformed into reservoirs to provide residents with drinking water sources.
Singapore has built 17 reservoirs to store fresh water for citizens. Among them, the central set The water area nature reserve is located in the geographic center of Singapore, covering an area of about 3,000 hectares. The reserve has reservoirs such as the Merridge Reservoir, the upper section of the Seletar Reservoir, and the upper and lower sections of the Beyers Reservoir. In addition to collecting rainwater, its land also plays an important urban "green lung" function. In order to reduce its dependence on external water sources, Singapore has adopted large-scale water storage plans, as well as technologies such as seawater desalination and recycling, to make water supply more diversified and gradually move towards the goal of self-sufficiency in water supply. With the completion of the largest large spring seawater desalination plant, it can currently provide more than 60% of the water demand.
About 23% of Singapore’s land belongs to forests or nature reserves. Urbanization has limited the area of rainforest. Forests are mainly distributed in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and 3 protected areas, western part and offshore islands.
Singapore is a city-state, originally meant as the Lion City. In the 14th century AD, the prince of Sumatra's "Silver Kingdom" took a boat to travel around the island. He saw a strange animal on the shore. The locals told him it was a lion. He thought it was a good omen, so he decided to build this place. "Singapura" in Singapore is a homonym for the Sanskrit "Lion City", and early residents liked to use Sanskrit as a place name. The lion has the characteristics of being brave and vigorous, so it is natural to use it as a place name. In the past, Singapore has always used "Xinjiapo" as its common Chinese country name in the early days of independence. Due to the influence of the local dialect habits brought by overseas Chinese, many derivative names appeared in the early days, such as "Xi La", "Shi La", "La Bu", etc., and because of its small size, it was called "Xinzhou". ", "Star Island". The outside world also generally describes Singapore as "Star Country" and "Lion City".
The Singaporean flag, also known as the Star and Moon Flag, officially became the national flag of the Republic of Singapore on August 9, 1965. In 1959, Singapore formed a self-governing government under the rule of the British Empire. The Xingyue Banner then became the official flag of the self-governing government. It was chosen as the national flag after Singapore's independence in 1965. The Singapore flag is composed of two parallel and equal rectangles, red and white, with a ratio of length to width of 3:2, with a white crescent moon and five white five-pointed stars in the upper left corner. Red represents equality and friendship, and white symbolizes purity and virtue. The new moon indicates that Singapore is a newly established country, and the five five-pointed stars represent the country's five ideals: democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality.
The original version is The Malay language "Majulah Singapura" was changed to English after the independence of Malaysia. Chinese translated as "Go Forward, Singapore".
Singapore National Emblem by Shield It is composed of emblems, lions, tigers and other patterns. The red shield is inlaid with a white crescent moon and a five-pointed star, which have the same meaning as the national flag. On the left side of the red shield is a lion, which is a symbol of Singapore, which means "Lion City" in Malay; on the right is a tiger, which symbolizes the historical connection between Singapore and Malaysia. Below the red shield are golden palm branches and leaves. The blue ribbon at the bottom says "Go ahead, Singapore!" in Malay.
Singapore declared its independence on August 9, 1965.
In 1981, Singapore was named The Orchid Flower of Zhuojin Vanda is the national flower. Orchid is commonly called Orchid in Southeast Asia. It was cultivated in 1893 by Ms. Innis Zhuo Jin. The flowers are beautiful and dignified, with strong vitality. It symbolizes the temperament of Singaporeans and the spirit of hard work, courage and struggle.
National Letter of Agreement
The National Covenant is a way for Singapore's citizens to swear allegiance to Singapore. Singaporeans generally read the letter together in public events, especially in schools, the Singapore Armed Forces, and National Day celebrations. The Chinese content of the letter is: "We are Singapore citizens, and we pledge to unite, regardless of race, language, or religion, to build a just and equal democratic society, and to work together to achieve the happiness, prosperity and progress of the country."
Singapore landscape (31 photos)Singapore downtown center (financial district) Located on the south bank of Singapore Island, with an area of only 719 square kilometers, there are no administrative units such as provinces, cities, counties and towns. The entire country is also a city, known as a "garden city", and is the country’s economic and political And cultural center. Shenton Road is the main road in the financial district, with skyscrapers on both sides. The adjacent Keppel Port is one of the busiest ports in the world. The Singapore River passes through the city. On both sides of the river are the places where immigrants first moved in. It was the first place where commerce prospered, and it was also the economic artery of old Singapore. On the estuary stands a milky stone "merlion" statue, which is the spiritual symbol and symbol of Singapore.
As of November 2015, the temporary number of total permanent residents in Singapore is 5.535 million, of which 3.375 million are Singapore citizens and 527,000 "permanent residents" "PR for short, the number of foreigners living in the Lion City is quite large, about 1.63 million. Singaporeans are mainly composed of immigrants and their descendants who have migrated from Eurasia in the past 100 years. The characteristics of its immigrant society and the influence of its colonial history and geographical location have made Singapore present a multicultural society.
As of June 2017, the total population was 5.61 million, including 3.96 million citizens and permanent residents.
In June 2018, the total population was about 5.64 million.
As of June 2019, the total population is 5.7 million, with 4.03 million citizens and permanent residents. Chinese account for about 74%, and the rest are Malays, Indians and other races. Malay is the national language, English, Chinese, Malay, and Tamil are the official languages, and English is the administrative language. The main religions are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Christianity and Hinduism.
Singapore citizens are mainly divided into four major ethnic groups: Chinese accounted for 74.2% of the population, Malays (13.3%), Indians (9.1%) and Eurasian/Mixed race (3.4%) and other citizens. The ancestors of most Singaporean Chinese originated in southern China, especially Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan provinces. 40% of them are from southern Fujian, followed by Chaoshan, Guangfu, Putian (Putian), Hainan, Fuzhou, Hakka people, as well as Baba and Nyonya. The population density of Singapore is 7,697 per square kilometer, and the human development index is 0.901.
According to the Singapore Constitution, Singapore implements a parliamentary republic. The president is the nominal head of the country and reserves the country's second key. It is elected by the people and serves a term of 6 years. The president appointed the leader of the parliamentary majority party as prime minister. The President has the power to veto the government’s budget and appointments to public sector posts; he can review the government’s exercise of the powers granted by the Internal Security Act and the Religious Harmony Act and investigate corruption cases. The Presidential Advisory Council is appointed to provide advice and suggestions to the President. When the president exercises certain functions and powers, such as the appointment of major civil servants, he must first seek the opinion of the Presidential Advisory Council. The President and Parliament exercise legislative power together. The parliament is called the parliament and is unicameral. Members of Parliament are elected by referendum and serve a term of five years. The political parties occupying the majority of seats in the National Assembly form the government.
In September 1963, after Singapore was incorporated into Malaysia, the state constitution was promulgated. In December 1965, the state constitution was amended to become the constitution of the Republic of Singapore and stipulated that some provisions in the Malaysian Constitution apply to Singapore.
Singapore is a country with severe penalties. Travelers who commit drug trafficking or commit murder and rebellion in the country may also have the chance to be sentenced to death by Singapore's legal authorities. However, the Singapore government has abolished the mandatory death penalty faced by two types of criminals, allowing qualified criminals who ran errands with drugs and killed others with a minor murder intent to have the opportunity to be exempted from the death penalty, but will be sentenced to life imprisonment. However, to be exempt from the death penalty, errands for drug smuggling must meet two major conditions: one is that only drugs are transported, and there is no supply or trafficking of drugs; the other is that the prisoner must give substantial and effective cooperation to the Central Narcotics Bureau, or that he is mentally impaired. And unable to understand the seriousness of the crime. If the conditions are met, the judge may sentence the prisoner to death or sentence to life imprisonment plus whipping at his discretion.
The full record of Singapore's 2011 general election/by-election (41 photos)Singapore has a unicameral system with a five-year term. The parliament can be dissolved early, and the general election must be held within three months after the dissolution of the parliament. Singaporeans who are 21 years of age or older have the right to vote. Members of parliament are divided into elected members, non-constituency members, and government members. Among them, elected members are elected by citizens from 13 single constituencies and 16 general constituencies across the country (in the 2015 general election). GRC candidates run in groups of 3 to 6, at least one of whom is Malay, Indian or other ethnic minorities. Candidates in the same group must belong to the same political party, or all have no party affiliation, and run as a whole.
Non-constituency members are appointed from the unelected candidates of the opposition party with the highest vote rate, up to a maximum of 6, so as to ensure that there are representatives of the non-ruling party in Congress. Official committee members are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Congressional Special Selection Committee for a term of two and a half years to reflect the opinions of independent and non-partisan individuals. The current Congress was elected on September 11, 2015. Among them are 83 members of the People's Action Party and 6 members of the Singapore Workers' Party. The other three non-constituency members belong to Wu Peisong, Chen Lifeng and Bellian of the Workers’ Party.
The main members of the Singapore cabinet are: Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, National Security Coordinating Minister Zhang Zhixian (Deputy Prime Minister), Economic and Social Policy Coordinating Minister Shang Daman (Deputy Prime Minister), Finance Minister Wang Ruijie, Minister of Trade and Industry (Trade) Lin Xunqiang, Minister of Trade and Industry (Industry) Yi Huaren, Minister of the Prime Minister’s Office Chen Zhensheng, Minister of Manpower Lin Ruisheng, Minister of Information, Communications and Arts Ya Guo, Minister of National Development Huang Xuncai, Minister of Defense Huang Yonghong, Environment And Minister of Water Resources Ma Shangao, Minister of Foreign Affairs Wei Wen, Minister of Health Yan Jinyong, Minister of Social and Family Development Chen Chuanren, Minister of Transportation Xu Wenyuan, Minister of Interior and Law Shang Mugen, Acting Ministers of Education Huang Zhiming and Wang Yikang, Ministers of Culture, Community and Youth Fu Haiyan.
Singapore has the Supreme Court and the Attorney-General’s Office. The Supreme Court is composed of the High Court and the Appeals Chamber. In 1994, the requirement to appeal to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was abolished, and the Court of Appeal of the Supreme Court was established as the Court of Final Appeal. The justices of the Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the president. Justice Chen Xiqiang, Attorney General Sandresh Meinong.
There are 24 registered political parties. The main ones are:
People's Action Party: the ruling party. In November 1954, it was founded by Lee Kuan Yew, Fang Shuishuang, Lin Qingxiang and others. The party's program is to maintain racial harmony and establish a sense of national belonging; establish a sound democratic system, ensure that the Congress has multi-racial representatives, and strive to build a multi-racial, multi-cultural, and multi-religious society. The People's Action Party has maintained its status as the ruling party since 1959. Lee Kuan Yew served as the party's secretary-general for a long time, and Goh Chok Tong took over in 1990. In December 2004, Lee Hsien Loong succeeded Goh Chok Tong as the party's secretary-general. The current party chairman Xu Wenyuan. There are currently 83 seats in the National Assembly.
Singapore Workers’ Party: The largest opposition party. Founded in November 1957 by the Chief Minister of Singapore David Marshall. Advocating peaceful, non-violent parliamentary struggles. In 1971, the leadership was rebuilt, proposed to abolish the employment system, amend the domestic security law, and restore freedom of speech and association. Since 1981, he has won seats in the general election several times. The party now has 6 seats in the Aljunied General Constituency and Hougang Single Constituency, including Singapore’s first opposition female member of parliament, and a total of 9 seats with three non-constituency members. Secretary-General Liu Chengqiang, Chairman Lin Ruilian, and other new members including Mr. Chen Shuomao have joined in recent years.
The ancestral home of Singapore’s founding father Lee Kuan Yew in Guangdong on the mainland (4 photos)The People’s Action Party has been in power for a long time and has a solid position. Lee Kuan Yew was the party’s first secretary general and Singapore’s first prime minister. Born in Singapore in 1923, he is from Dapu County, Guangdong Province. He has served as prime minister for a long time since his independence in 1965, and in 1990 he handed over to the second prime minister Goh Chok Tong. In 1993, Singapore held its first presidential election after its independence. Wang Dingchang, the former deputy prime minister and secretary-general of the Singapore Trade Union Union, was elected as the first elected president. In August 2004, Lee Hsien Loong succeeded Goh Chok Tong as prime minister and was the third prime minister. After the general election in May 2006, he was re-elected as prime minister. On September 11, 2015, the People's Action Party won the general election again, and Lee Hsien Loong once again took over as prime minister.
Halimah Jacobs is the eighth president of Singapore. He was the Minister of State for Social Development, Youth and Sports of Singapore, the ninth Speaker of the National Assembly of Singapore, and the first female Speaker of Parliament in Singapore’s history. On September 13, 2017, the Chief Election Officer of Singapore announced that Halimah, the only candidate for the presidential election of Singapore and the former Speaker of the National Assembly, was automatically elected as the country's eighth president. She is also the first female president of Singapore. She took office on September 14, 2017 for a term of 6 years.
On July 10, 2020, the Singapore People’s Action Party led by Lee Hsien Loong won the 13th Singapore General Election with more than 61% of the votes. Lee Hsien Loong continued to serve as Singapore’s Prime Minister in the new cabinet.
Singapore is a foreign trade-driven economy, dominated by electronics, petrochemical, finance, shipping, and service industries, and highly dependent on the United States and Japan , Europe and surrounding markets, the total foreign trade is four times the GDP. Economic chiefDuring the period of rapid growth, GDP grew at an average annual rate of 9% from 1960 to 1984. It was hit by the Asian financial crisis in 1997, but it was not serious. Affected by the global economic slowdown in 2001, the economy experienced a negative growth of 2% and fell into the worst recession since independence. In order to stimulate economic development, the government proposed to "create a new Singapore", strive to transform to a knowledge economy, and set up an economic restructuring committee to comprehensively review economic development policies and actively negotiate free trade agreements with major economies in the world. According to the 2018 Global Financial Center Index (GFCI) ranking report, Singapore is the fourth largest international financial center in the world.
Affected by the global economic crisis in 2008, many industries such as finance, trade, manufacturing, and tourism were hit. The Singapore government has taken active measures to strengthen financial market supervision, strive to maintain financial market stability, enhance investor confidence and reduce inflation, and launch a new round of economic stimulus policies. The economy grew by 14.5% in 2010. In 2011, due to the negative impact of the European debt crisis, economic growth slowed again. The economic growth rate from 2012 to 2016 is between 1% and 2%. In February 2017, Singapore’s "Future Economic Council" issued an economic development strategy for the next ten years, putting forward goals such as an average annual economic growth of 2% to 3%, achieving inclusive development, and building a country full of opportunities. And implement seven major development strategies, including the blueprint for industrial transformation and the creation of interconnected cities.
The specific economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: 361 billion US dollars.
Per capita GDP: US$64,000.
Gross domestic product growth rate: 3.2%.
Currency: Singapore Dollar (Singapore Dollar).
The exchange rate against the US dollar: 1 US dollar ≈ 1.35 Singapore dollars.
Inflation rate: 0.4%.
Unemployment rate: 2%.
In 2020, Singapore will be affected by the new crown epidemic, and the economy will decline by 8.2%. The main economic data are as follows:
Gross domestic product: 350 billion U.S. dollars.
Per capita GDP: US$62,000.
Gross domestic product growth rate: -8.2%.
Total trade: 723.2 billion US dollars.
Currency: Singapore Dollar (Singapore Dollar).
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar≈1.35 Singapore dollar.
In 1961, the Singapore government established the Jurong Industrial Zone to speed up the process of industrialization and promote economic development. The area covers an area of 70 square kilometers and contains multinational companies and local high-tech manufacturing companies from all over the world. The Singapore government has also divided the northeastern part of Singapore into emerging industries and non-polluting industrial zones; the southwestern part of the coast, Jurong Island and Mao Hiroshima have been designated as ports and heavy industrial zones; the central area has been designated as light and general industrial zones. . Singapore’s industries mainly include manufacturing and construction. In 2012, the output value was 108.55 billion Singapore dollars, accounting for 25.1% of GDP. Manufacturing products mainly include electronics, chemistry and chemicals, biomedicine, precision machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, oil refining and other products. So far, Singapore has become one of the largest ship-repairing and building bases in Southeast Asia and the third largest oil refining center in the world.
The agricultural park is located in Lincuogang and Sungai Tengah. It has more than 600 hectares of arable land, and its output value accounts for less than 0.1% of the national economy. The production of high-value export agricultural products in agriculture, such as orchid cultivation, tropical ornamental fish wholesale cultivation, egg and dairy cow production, vegetable cultivation, and fish farms. As of December 2014, Singapore has 50 vegetable farms, three egg farms, and 126 land and coastal fish farms. Vegetable production accounted for approximately 12% of total consumption, and egg and fish production accounted for 26% and 8% of local consumption, respectively.
Singapore’s service industry plays an important economic role. The main industries include wholesale and retail (including trade services), business services, transportation and communications, and financial services. There are six categories of industry, accommodation industry (hotels and guesthouses), and others. Wholesale and retail industry, business service industry, transportation and communication industry, and financial service industry are the four major industries in Singapore's service industry. Among them, wholesale and retail industry has the largest share because it includes trade.
Singapore’s business services industry includes industries such as real estate, law, accounting, consulting, and IT services. The transportation and communications industry includes water, land, and air transportation and transportation, as well as traditional postal services and emerging telecommunications services. The financial services industry includes banking, securities (stocks, bonds, futures), insurance, asset management, etc. It can be said that it is based on the development of these four service industries that Singapore has established its Asian financial center, shipping center, and trade center. Status. In 2012, the output value was S$278.07 billion, accounting for 64.3% of the GDP.
Singapore’s tourism industry accounts for more than 3% of GDP, and tourism is one of Singapore’s main sources of foreign exchange. Tourists mainly come from ASEAN countries, China, Australia, India and Japan. According to statistics from the Singapore Tourism Board, the total number of foreign tourists received by Singapore in 2014 fell to 15.1 million for the first time in five years, 3% less than the previous year. Tourism revenue remained at S$23.5 billion, the same as the same period in the previous year.
Singapore’s tourist attractions (36 photos)In 1994, Singapore implemented a consumption tax GST. The consumption tax rate is 7%. Tourists can request a refund of the consumption tax if they shop at a partner merchant in Singapore and take the goods out of Singapore through Singapore Changi Airport or Seletar Airport within 2 months from the date of purchase. Land or sea transportation does not apply to consumption tax refund regulations.
Foreign trade is an important pillar of Singapore’s national economy. The commodities imported and exported include: processed petroleum products, chemicals, consumer goods, machine parts and accessories, data processors and parts, telecommunications equipment and medicines Wait. Main trading partners: Malaysia, Thailand, China, Japan, the United States, the European Union, Indonesia, etc.
(Chart reference source:)
The Singapore dollar (abbreviation: Singapore dollar or Singapore dollar) is legal tender, and is expressed in S $ Mark. The Singapore dollar can be divided into banknotes and coins. The banknotes currently in circulation in the market are: 10,000 yuan, 1,000 yuan, 100 yuan, 50 yuan, 10 yuan, 5 yuan, 2 yuan banknotes, and other coins are 1, 50 cents (50 cents), 20 cents (2 cents). Dime), 10 cents (1 dime), 5 cents and 1 cent coins. The banknotes currently in circulation (fourth edition) are also called "portrait series" banknotes because they use Singapore's first president Yusof Bin Isaac as the main design.
Because of the limited land area of Singapore, many local brands need to rely on external forces and are processed by foreign companies. The following is a list of Singapore brands: Singapore Airlines, Tiger Airways, Tiger Beer , Maicheng Stout Beer, Meizhenxiang, Kangyuan Biscuit, Ossan, Tiger Balm, Gao Pinle, CapitaLand Group, Pencil Club, Poplin, Cardinal Crocodile, DBS Bank, United Overseas Bank, OCBC Bank, Bread Sun Language, Tusi Workshop, Yang Xiecheng, Banyan Tree Holdings, etc.
Singapore is a multilingual country with 4 official languages, namely English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil. Based on the historical relationship with Malaysia, the Singapore Constitution specifies Malay as the national language of Singapore, mainly to respect the language spoken by the aborigines of Singapore. Due to the consideration of internal and external factors, Singapore adopts English as the main language and teaching language.
Singapore officially uses simplified Chinese characters consistent with mainland China. However, from 1969 to 1979, it had its own simplified standard for Chinese characters for a short time. The folks mainly used simplified characters but occasionally mixed traditional and simplified characters. The official language of Singapore is English, so official letters, business contacts, and other economic and business letters are usually mainly in English.
New Year’s Day
Gregorian New Year
February 8th and 9th*
Lunar New Year
|< p>March 25|
Labor Day< /p>
International Labor Day
May 21 Day
Celebrate the birth, enlightenment, and Nirvana of the Buddha
break the fast Festival
Festival at the end of Ramadan
October 29th< /td>
Indian Festival of Lights
Celebrate the birth of Jesus
*There are two days of public holidays in the Lunar New Year, and some Chinese businesses will put more Take a break during the holiday.
The immigrants who left their homes in the early days to Singapore and recreated their homes brought their traditional culture into Singapore, among various ethnic groups. The exchanges and integration of China have not only created a contemporary multi-ethnic harmonious society, but also left a wealth of diversified cultural characteristics. Chinese, the spirit of hard work, the entrepreneurial spirit of hard work. They live in peace with all ethnic groups, actively integrate and feed back to the local society. The essence of Chinese culture also deeply influences the life style of Singapore. Such as the joyful and colorful Lunar New Year, or the Ching Ming Festival, which is a long-term pursuit, and the Zhongyuan Festival, which is the traditional worship to the ancestors of Purdue. Of course, Feng Shui, which is popular in Chinese culture, can also be reflected in many architectural designs in Singapore.
New Media has filmed many popular Singapore TV dramas, focusing on introducing how Singaporean Chinese ancestors crossed the oceans to Nanyang, as well as stories about a group of people who experienced the Second World War, such as "Fog Locks Nanyang". "The Price of Peace" and "The Way Out", as well as the drama "Songs of Hakka", "The Chaozhou Family" and "Scent of Qiongyuan Coffee" by Chinese of various origins. Through the local dramas, young people in Singapore have seen the truest appearance of their ancestors leaving their hometowns and struggling unrelentingly to survive.
There is a Straits Chinese ethnic group in Southeast Asia, the descendants of Chinese immigrants and Malay women hundreds of years ago, mainly in Penang, Malacca, Singapore and Java. . The male is called Baba and the female is called Nyonya. The traditional Chinese customs preserved in Baba Nyonya came from a certain period of time and space in history, and then stopped. Later, the influence of Malay culture and customs was added, so it is not equivalent to the middle-earth culture. New Media Channel 8 launched "Little Nyonya" in 2008 as a Taiwan celebration drama. The content is about the grievances and hatreds of several generations of Baba families, with a special emphasis on the cultural customs of Baba Nyonya. The ups and downs of "Little Nyonya", coupled with the colorful ethnic costumes and Nyonya cuisine, are very sensational.
Various temples and churches in Singapore (16 photos)Singapore promotes a spirit of tolerance and tolerance between religions and ethnic groups, implements a religious freedom policy, and recognizes Singapore as a multi-religious country. According to the 2010 census, Singaporeans with religious beliefs accounted for 83% of the population. Singapore is indeed a melting pot of multiple religions. There are various religious buildings here. Many historic temples have been listed as national monuments, and there are different celebrations every year.
Buddhism and Taoism
Singapore Buddhism is the largest religion in the country, accounting for about 33% of the population. There are many temples in Singapore. There are more than 150 monasteries belonging to Northern Buddhism, and there are about 20 Southern Theravada Buddhist monasteries. Among them, Singapore Shuanglin Temple is the first monastery in Singapore and one of the largest jungles. Taoism in Singapore accounts for 11% of the population, and there are more than 300 large and small temples in the territory. The Chinese immigrants who came to the south to make a living in the early years brought their religious beliefs and customs. The Yuehai Qing Temple and Tianfu Palace built by Chaoqiao and Fujian Gang also collected calligraphy bestowed by Emperor Guangxu. They were also awarded the UNESCO Certificate of Merit for the Preservation of Asia-Pacific Cultural Heritage. In addition, the Four Horse Road Guanyin Hall is also one of the most prosperous temples in Singapore. There are crowds in the temple almost every day.
Singapore’s Christians (Protestant and Catholic) accounted for 18% of the total population. Western businessmen have made unique contributions to the development of the two churches. The Catholic Church of Singapore has also successively opened schools, hospitals, and charity organizations to take care of the interests of disadvantaged groups. The first churches built by the two churches were the Armenian Church and St. Andrew's Church.
The Muslims in Singapore account for 15% of the total population, with approximately 650,000 followers. Believers of Malay or Pakistani descent are basically Sunni Islam, and there are also a small number of Indians and Chinese who believe in Islam. There are a total of 80 mosques built in Singapore, among which the Haja Fatima Mosque and the Sultan Mosque are the more famous ones.
There are about 100,000 followers of Hinduism in Singapore, accounting for 5% of the total population. There are about 30 Hindu temples, most of which are based on the style of South India. Among them, the Sri Mariamman Temple and the Sri Mariamman Temple, both belong to Singapore's national heritage.
Sikhs and others
There are only more than 20,000 Sikhs in Singapore. Sikhism has 7 Sikh temples in Singapore, such as the Central Sikh Temple, which is the main holy place for 15,000 Sikhs. Judaism has two synagogues in Singapore. The Maha Abbe Jewish Temple was built in 1878 and is the oldest synagogue in Southeast Asia.
National Defense System
The Singapore Armed Forces was established in 1965, and the Army Day is July 1. The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The compulsory military service system is implemented, and the service period is 2-3 years. The Singapore Armed Forces has three components, which are divided into regular military personnel, active military personnel, and combat-ready military personnel; regular military personnel refer to professional military personnel, and active military personnel refer to military personnel who have served two years of compulsory military service between the ages of 16 and 20. A combat-ready soldier refers to a reserve soldier who is fully discharged from active service, enters a ten-year training cycle for returning to the camp, and can be mobilized within a certain period of time. In 2013, the national defense budget reached 12.34 billion Singapore dollars.
The total strength of Singapore’s active forces is 71,600, of which the army is 50,000, organized into 3 mixed divisions (each has 2 infantry brigades and 1 mechanized brigade). , 1 reconnaissance battalion, 1 artillery battalion, 1 artillery battalion, 1 engineering battalion), 1 rapid reaction division (administering 3 infantry brigades), and 1 mechanized brigade. There are 9,000 navy and 13,500 air force. There are also 1.29 million available personnel and 350,000 reserve forces.
230 people stationed in Australia (with 1 flight training school, equipped with 27 S-211 aircraft). 500 people stationed in Brunei (with a flight school, equipped with 5 UH-IH helicopters). 200 people in France. Three training camps in Taiwan, China. 1 training camp in Thailand. 250 people stationed in the United States, leased 3 CH-47D aircraft and 24 F-16C/D aircraft. Participated in the United Nations East Timor peacekeeping force 24 people, 5 observers in Iraq and Kuwait military observer missions.
There are 11 New Zealanders in the foreign garrisons in Singapore, and there is 1 support unit. 150 people in the United States.
Singapore is equipped with 35 ships of various types, more than 210 aircraft of various types, Leopard 2A4, Centurion and other tanks, heavy artillery and missiles, light weapons and other equipment . The Singaporean army mainly trains abroad. In 1971, it formed a "five-nation defense" with Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Malaysia. Attach importance to national defense education. Committed to building a third-generation "smart" army.
Singapore’s military officers are divided into 3 levels and 10 levels: general level 3 (lieutenant general, major general, brigadier general), colonel 3 level (colonel, lieutenant colonel, major), Lieutenant officer level 4 (captain, lieutenant, second lieutenant, warrant officer).
Singapore is an important transit port in the world and an aviation center connecting Asia, Europe, Africa, and Oceania.
Singapore is the world’s busiest port and one of Asia’s major transit hubs, and the world’s largest fuel supply port. There are more than 200 routes connecting more than 600 ports in the world. According to data from the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore, as of the end of 2014, the container throughput of the Port of Singapore increased by 4% to 33.9 million TEU, ranking second in the world. From the perspective of fuel sales, Singapore is still the world's number one bunkering port. In 2014, the total fuel sales volume reached 42.4 million metric tons, and the number of ships arriving at the port reached a record of 2.37 billion gross tons.
Singapore Changi Airport(14 photos)Singapore has 8 airports, including Singapore Changi Airport and Seletar Airport It is an international civil aviation airport, and the rest are used for military purposes. Changi Airport covers an area of 13 square kilometers, with 3 terminals and two runways. Operated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore, it mainly includes Singapore Airlines and its subsidiaries SilkAir, Singapore Airlines Cargo and Scoot. Changi Airport is operated by the Changi Airport Group Bureau and is the main operating base of Singapore Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, SilkAir, and Jetstar Asia. Changi Airport now serves more than 120 international airlines flying to about 100 countries and regions and 380 cities, with 7,400 flights per week. Changi Airport has also created more than 160,000 jobs for Singapore.
Singapore Changi Airport performed brilliantly in 2018, setting records in terms of passenger numbers, flight takeoffs and landings, or air cargo volume. Among them, the passenger volume reached 65.6 million, setting a record high, making it the 18th busiest in the world today. International Airport.
Singapore Changi Airport was voted as the world's best airport for the third consecutive year in 2015. This is also the sixth time that the airport has been ranked first in the Skytrax World Airport Rankings. In addition, Changi Airport has also won the "Best Airport for Leisure Facilities" award, and it is the seventh year that it has won the award in this category. Award-winning leisure facilities include music bars, cinemas, swimming pools, nap rest areas and transit hotels in the passenger terminal.
On March 19, 2018 local time, Singapore’s Parliament passed the Aviation (Miscellaneous Amendment) Bill on the third reading, allowing the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore to implement a new airport passenger capacity management plan to curb airlines from abusing the authorities’ allocation to flights During the take-off and landing period, ensure that the passenger plane takes off and landed on time, otherwise you will face a fine of up to 100,000 Singapore dollars.
(Source: Singapore Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Trade and Industry)
The length of Singapore’s main highway is about 3,356 kilometers, and the whole island has built a height A well-developed transportation network includes 163 kilometers of expressways and 613 kilometers of first-class highways. In addition, public transportation is also developed, with subways and buses as the mainstay, and light rail and taxis as supplements. It is operated by two bus companies, namely SBS Transit and SMRT Group. Singapore's public transportation system implements a flat fare, all systems accept smart cards or change payment, and you can enjoy fare discounts when you take the card. Standard one-way tickets can be purchased from general ticket vending machines in all subway stations.
Singapore's rail transportation is mainly based on the subway. Singapore's subway system has been in operation since 1987, and currently has 121 subway stations and 170.1 kilometers of standard gauge lines. The service starts at 5:30 in the morning and ends at 1 in the morning, and the frequency is about 3 to 5 minutes. The system uses 5 subway lines: East-West Line (Green Line), North-South Line (Red Line), North-East Line (Purple Line), Circle Line (Orange), and Binhai City Line (Blue Line) to connect each corner with each other and lead to Several tourist attractions can be used by the public only by checking the station name and remembering its color and number.
The branch system of the subway, the route is 28.8 kilometers long, and it has 43 (9 have not yet opened) stations. Currently, 3 routes (grey routes) have been opened to provide short-distance connection services to residents of the HDB areas in Bukit Panjang, Sengkang and Punggol.
There are more than 300 routes across the island. The main service providers are SBS Transit, SMRT Group and TowerTransit. There are nearly 4,000 buses for one person. Operation, the frequency is about 6 to 206 minutes. The bus service covers the whole island, and even regular trips to various HDB housing estates and the more remote areas of Lincuo Port and Tuas South. Most buses are equipped with air-conditioning equipment and provide services such as main line, branch line, express, and town connection.
The local name is "taxi". There are 6 taxi companies and more than 20,000 vehicles. In addition to raising your hand to greet you, you can also use the phone or the Internet to reserve a car, and the fare is charged according to the meter.
Tanjong Pagar Railway Station has been moved to the Woodlands Train Checkpoint on the northern border in 2011. Passengers who can depart or arrive at the Woodlands train checkpoint must also buy tickets, get on and off the train there, and go through immigration formalities.
Singapore Post is a privatized company that not only sells stamps and provides mail delivery services, but also provides telecommunications and financial agency services.
Singapore has more than 600,000 private cars. In order to effectively curb the growth of the number of private cars, private car buyers must first bid for a limited number of car ownership certificates. The price of a car ownership certificate is equivalent to the price of an ordinary imported car, and the price of private cars is also quite expensive.
As of December 2014, the housing ownership rate of residents reached 90.5%, the average life expectancy was 82.5 years, and the literacy rate was 96.7% (over 15 years old) ). The country has an average of 23 doctors for every 10,000 people and a total of 12,000 hospital beds. Every thousand people own 110 private cars, mobile phone penetration rate is 148%, home computer ownership rate is 81%, and Internet access rate is 77.7%. There are 589 crimes per 100,000 people.
Singapore’s social background, demographic structure, language environment, and education system are all unique. The Chinese education in Singapore has a history of more than 150 years since the establishment of Chongwen Pavilion, an overseas Chinese private school. However, since the 1980s, the government has gradually unified the schools of Chinese origins. All students regardless of race use English as their first language, and English is also the main medium of instruction.
As far as Chinese is concerned, there are 11 specially selected schools in Singapore, such as Deming Government High School, Overseas Chinese High School, Lihua High School, etc. They were traditional Chinese schools in the early days. With the approval of the government, they have combined Chinese and English At the same time, they are taught as the first language. These schools are responsible for cultivating Chinese-speaking cultural professionals, and they also have the mission of imparting Chinese culture.
Singapore primary and secondary schools generally use half-day systems, while junior colleges, university colleges, and polytechnics continue to use open full-time systems. There are more than 350 primary and secondary schools, more than ten junior colleges, one high school, and three technical education colleges.
Singapore Management University
National University of Singapore
Republic Polytechnic College
Nanyang Technological University
Ngee Ann Polytechnic
Singapore Institute of Technology
Singapore Nanyang Polytechnic
Singapore University of Technology and Design
Since 2003, Singapore’s six-year primary education is mandatory for citizens. The first to fourth grades of elementary school are the basic education stage. All courses are compulsory. There are 4 main courses, including English, Chinese, mathematics and science. Other courses also include music, art, civic education, society and sports. Students start learning science in the third grade of elementary school. Sixth graders must take the primary school leaving exam, enter different middle schools based on their test scores, and take different courses.
Primary school (6 years): 6th grade students need to take the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE, Primary School Leaving Examination). The test subjects are: English, Chinese, Mathematics and Science. Chinese and English each have 100 points, mathematics and science each have 50 points, and the total points are 300 points.
Junior high school stage: There are special courses or fast courses, ordinary courses (academic) or ordinary courses (craftsmanship). More than half of middle school students are assigned to express courses, a small number of students take special courses, and about 30% take general (academic or technical) courses. The subjects studied include: English, Chinese (students in special courses can choose one of the advanced mother tongue and English can be the first language), mathematics, science (including chemistry, physics and biology), humanities (including history and Geography), English literature, fine arts, technology, housekeeping, civic education, sports and music. After graduating from high school, more than half of the students will enter the post-secondary education centers, such as polytechnics and technical education colleges, and only some of them will eventually enter the university. The remaining 15% of graduates enter junior colleges and high schools, and most of them will enter universities.
Special courses and fast courses, four years of schooling, take the national unified Singapore-Cambridge O-level examination, the results will determine the promotion of secondary, junior colleges and polytechnics. The difference between the two is that students in the special course take'HigherMotherTongue', while students in the express course take'MotherTongue'.
Ordinary courses: Divided into two types: academic and technical. Students in the academic class major in academic subjects such as accounting, and those who take the'N' level examination in Form 4 and have excellent grades You can choose to go to Form 5 and then take the Singapore Cambridge O-Level Examination. The students in the craft class have two main subjects, English and mathematics, and other subjects are more technical, such as design. In the fourth year, they take the Cambridge ‘N’ level examination and enter the Institute of Technical Education (ITE)).
High school stage: Including junior college (Junior College), Liren high school (Millennia Institute), polytechnic college and technical education college.
Junior College: Admission with Cambridge O-level results, 2 years. After graduating to participate in the Cambridge ‘A’ level diploma, the results will determine the university’s destination.
Liren High School: Admission with Cambridge O-level results, 3 years. After graduating to participate in the Cambridge ‘A’ level diploma, the results will determine the university’s destination.
College of Technology and Institute of Technical Education: Admission with Cambridge "O" level, "A" level or ITE results. A 3-year college course (diploma course), including theory and practice. Graduates with excellent grades can enter the university and will be exempted from the first year of university courses.
University: In addition to medical, law and other specialties, it generally takes 3 years to obtain a general degree and 4 years for an honorary degree.
Private colleges: Private colleges in Singapore offer two types of courses: preparatory course diplomas and degree courses. The degree courses are all foreign university diplomas issued by cooperation with foreign universities. In 2010, the Ministry of Education of Singapore began to implement a new certification qualification for private institutions called Edutrust "Education Trust Guarantee Plan." The whole plan will explore the following areas: financial management and health of private education institutions; emphasis on academic processes, such as curriculum design and development, student follow-up and development, student evaluation and teacher selection, and tuition protection for local students. The plan provides a way for better private educational institutions to highlight their good standards in key areas of management and provision of educational services.
In 2011, there were 320 conditionally registered doctors in Singapore, while in 2007 there were only 230 doctors.
Singapore is stepping up the training of doctors to cooperate with the construction of hospitals and various elderly care facilities. In terms of doctors, the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine of Nanyang Technological University, together with the National University of Singapore Yang Luling School of Medicine and Duke-National University of Singapore, can train 500 doctors every year. But even so, there is still a shortage of 100 to 150 doctors every year.
All kinds of buildings in Singapore (21 photos)In the early 1960s, most Singaporeans lived in poor sanitary conditions and population Too dense housing environment, and unable to buy their own house. Under such circumstances, the Singaporean government announced the implementation of the "Home Ownership" plan in 1964. Today, more than 80% of Singaporeans live in government-built houses, and the remaining 20% of residents live in landed real estate and private apartments. The construction of HDB housing estates in Singapore is designed and constructed in accordance with the planning of residential quarters, and residents' general daily life problems can be solved in the community. There are also complete public service facilities in each residential community, and the community also sets up entertainment, rest, fitness and social activities places for residents.
Singapore’s telecommunications companies provide communications services ranging from GSM to wireless Internet access to 4G mobile phones. Telecommunications companies include: Singapore Telecom, M1, Star and Mobile, MyRepublicLimited, etc.
New Media TV was launched in 1963 and currently has 7 free TV channels. New Media Channel 8 and New Media U Channel mainly provide Chinese information, current affairs and entertainment programs. News Asia, New Media Channel 5 and OKTO mainly broadcast in English, and Chaoyang and Spring Channel serve minorities. In the pay-TV market, StarWorld uses cables to transmit programs, providing about 120 channels, while SingtelTV launches 100 TV channels based on IPTV services for viewers.
Singapore has 16 newspapers with a daily circulation of 1.2 million. The main newspapers are: "Lianhe Zaobao", "Lianhe Evening News", "Xinming Daily", "My Daily" and "Thumbs" in Chinese; "The Straits Times", "Business Times", "New Daily" and "Today" in English and Malay And Tamil newspapers.
Singapore’s first radio channel was established in 1923. Currently, media such as New Media Radio, Armed Forces Radio, Alliance Communication, and British Broadcasting Corporation broadcast in four official languages, broadcasting 19 channels for listeners. Including 883 FM, 933 Enchanted Channel, City Channel, Favorite Channel, UFM1003 and other radio channels, broadcasting news, entertainment and music programs in Mandarin all day long.
Highlight economic diplomacy, actively promote trade and investment liberalization, and cooperate with New Zealand, Japan, the European Free Trade Association, Australia, the United States, China, Jordan, South Korea, India and Panama signed a bilateral free trade agreement. Singapore has also signed the first free trade agreements spanning three continents with New Zealand, Chile, and Brunei, and reached consensus on the signing of bilateral free trade agreements with Bahrain, Egypt, Kuwait and the UAE.
Singapore proposes the establishment of "Asia-Europe Meeting, East Asia-Latin America Forum" and other cross-continent cooperation mechanisms. In 2004, the concept of establishing an "Asia-Middle East Cooperation Dialogue" was proposed, and the first meeting was held in Singapore in June 2005. In addition, Singapore is also actively promoting the signing of the "Asian Regional Anti-piracy and Armed Robbery Cooperation Agreement (RECAAP)". The information sharing center established under the agreement was formally established in November 2006. Singapore has established diplomatic relations with 175 countries.
Attitudes on international issues
Resolutely support the international anti-terrorism struggle, actively cooperate with the United States’ anti-terrorism operations globally and in the region, and strengthen anti-terrorism cooperation with neighboring countries. Several members of the "Jemaah Islamiyah" related to Al Qaeda were arrested. He is more concerned about the North Korean nuclear issue, worried that the deterioration of the situation will undermine the stability of the Asia-Pacific and threaten the security of Singapore, and support the efforts of China and other relevant parties to peacefully resolve the North Korean nuclear issue.
Relations with China
On June 14, 1980, China and Singapore signed an agreement on the establishment of mutual commercial representative offices in Beijing. The commercial representative offices of the two countries officially opened in September of the following year. Pavilion. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Singapore on October 3, 1990, the two places have achieved remarkable results in mutually beneficial cooperation in various fields. The two countries signed the "Memorandum of Understanding on Economic Cooperation and Promotion of Trade and Investment" and established a bilateral economic and trade consultation mechanism. The two sides also signed the "Promotion and Protection of Investment Agreement", the "Double Taxation Avoidance and Prevention of Tax Evasion Agreement", the "Marine Transport Agreement", the "Post and Telecommunications Cooperation Agreement", and the "Agreement on the Establishment of the Investment Promotion Committee between China and New Zealand". Cooperation agreement. Chinese President Xi Jinping paid a state visit at the invitation of Singaporean President Chen Qingyan on November 6, 2015. This is also one of the activities to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and China. Xi Jinping pointed out that China and Singapore are close and friendly neighbors. Over the past 25 years since the establishment of diplomatic relations, the two countries have maintained a good tradition of exchanges, cooperation in various fields has been continuously deepened and expanded, and fruitful results have been achieved. It is understood that the two places have also signed eight cooperation documents, including the third intergovernmental cooperation project in Chongqing and the document to initiate negotiations on an upgraded version of the China-Singapore Free Trade Agreement. During China's visit to Singapore, leaders of both sides of the Strait Xi Jinping and Ma Ying-jeou also held a Xi-Mao meeting in Singapore on November 7 to exchange views on promoting the peaceful development of cross-strait relations.
On May 10, 2018, U.S. President Trump announced that his meeting with North Korea’s supreme leader Kim Jong Un will be held in Singapore on June 12, 2018.
Singapore is a food paradise. The diverse culture and rich history make Singapore proud of its cuisine. The food cultures from China, India, Malaysia and many other countries collide with each other in this melting pot of Asian cuisines, and each shows their strengths.
The fragrant chicken satay is a famous Malay delicacy in Singapore. The chicken skewers are grilled over hot coals. Served with rice balls, sliced fresh cucumbers and onions, it is a delicious Malay snack. Dip with carefully prepared pineapple and peanut butter, it is extremely delicious and one of the favorite dishes of locals and tourists.
Hainan Chicken Rice
Hainan Chicken Rice is a dish of early immigrants from Singapore. The recipe is simple: fresh and juicy white chicken with oily yellow chicken rice, light soy sauce or dark soy sauce, special chili sauce and ginger paste. Every part of the cooking of Hainanese chicken rice must be meticulous in order to make a delicious meal, which is the best choice for Singapore cuisine.
Curry fish head
Curry fish head is one of the most Singaporean cuisine representatives. This spicy Indian delicacy is based on a big stone The head of grouper or red snapper is mainly served in a large bowl of hot curry soup. The soup is spicy and fragrant, and the fish head is tender and delicious.
Laksa is a typical Nyonya or Peranakan cuisine. The soup is based on coconut milk, spices and chili. It is fragrant and spicy. It is served with coarse rice noodles, plus shrimp and clams. It is one of Singapore's specialties.
Although Nasi Lemak is a traditional Malay delicacy, it is also a popular breakfast choice. Nasi Lemak gets its name and its cooking method. The rice is cooked with coconut milk and slightly seasoned with a little pandan leaf to give the rice a tangy fragrance. This classic delicacy can be divided into two types. The traditional Malay style is made with young fish, nuts, cucumbers and eggs. The other is Chinese style. The rich side dishes include fried chicken legs, chicken sausages, fish cakes, and luncheon meats.
Universal Studios Singapore
The attraction is located On Sentosa Island, it has the unique Universal Studios theme park in Southeast Asia, the world's largest marine life park, a casino, various entertainment performances, and six star-rated hotels of various styles. The cinema contains 7 themed areas, Respectively: Hollywood, New York, Science Fiction City, Ancient Egypt, Lost World, Faraway Kingdom, and Madagascar, all of which are wonderful amusement projects designed with Hollywood blockbusters. Including: Transformers 3D Showdown Ultimate Battle, Shrek 4D Cinema, Madagascar: Wooden Box Drifting, Jurassic River Adventure, etc.
Sentosa (meaning calm and serene) is the most charming resort island in Singapore covering an area of 500 hectares, with colorful entertainment facilities and leisure activities area, known as the gem of joy. The south coast of the island has a beach with a length of more than 2 kilometers. To the west is the Siloso Fort left by the British Army in World War II, two golf courses and 7 hotels. These include Resorts World Sentosa, Universal Studios Singapore, Butterfly Pavilion, Dolphin World, Insect Kingdom, etc.
Located on the banks of the Singapore River, Clarke Quay used to be a busy cargo unloading and trading center. Under the renovation plan, it was transformed into restaurants and bars. The original 60 warehouses and shops have been developed into 200 shops, restaurants, bars and entertainment venues. Boat Quay is located downstream of Clarke Quay. The old warehouses have been transformed. There are at least 35 bars and restaurants of various styles. It is also one of the most attractive entertainment venues along the river in the city.
Singapore Sands Casino< /p>
The Singapore Sands Casino, located in Marina Bay, houses a casino, an opera house, an art science museum, a convention center and exhibition facilities, retailers and a variety of restaurants, and a total of 6 major architectural series. In the 55-story hotel, there are 2,561 rooms. Crowning the glory of the hotel is the Golden Sands Sky Garden on the 57th floor. This one-hectare sky oasis will gather lush greenery, elegant gardens, and even an infinity pool.
Singapore Botanic Gardens
Located on Kereny Road, it covers an area of 74 hectares and is famous for its research and collection of tropical plants and horticultural flowers. There are more than 20,000 subtropical and tropical exotic flowers and precious trees in the garden, which can be divided into tropical and subtropical evergreen trees, aquatic plants, parasitic plants and desert plants. The botanical garden also has a flowerbed and research institute specializing in planting Orchid flowers. There are more than 400 pure and more than 2,000 hybrid Orchid flowers, with a total of more than 60,000 plants, mainly including Phalaenopsis, Paphiopedilum, Dendrobium, etc. The "Orchid Family" is dizzying.
Merlion Park< /p>
Every year, tourists from all over the world make a special trip to the Merlion Park in the city to take pictures with the Merlion. The design of the Merlion statue is inspired by the records of "Malay Chronicles". In the 14th century AD, an Indonesian prince of Palembang arrived by boat. As soon as he landed, he saw a magical beast and his entourage told him that it was a lion. So he named the island Lion City. As for the fishtail shape of the statue, the swimming in the waves not only represents the characteristics of Singapore's transformation from a fishing port to a commercial port, but also symbolizes the hard-working ancestors who came to the south to make a living and survive.
Singapore Jurong Bird Park
Located in West Jurong, covering an area of 20.2 hectares. There are more than 400 kinds of flying birds in the park, about 5,000, of which 29 are threatened. The park has a wide collection of birds from all over the world, including flamingoes from Spain, cassowaries from Guinea, colorful starlings, and Antarctic penguins from the ice and snow. Other main attractions include the Bird Knowledge Museum and African waterfalls. Aviary, buffalo valley, Southeast Asian aviary and acclaimed wetlands in Africa. Here, visitors can also visit the daily operations behind the scenes of the park and see how the staff take care of endangered chicks and abandoned eggs.
Located in Wanli, covering an area of 28 hectares, it has collected 315 species of mammals, birds and reptiles, with a total of nearly 2,530. With an "open concept" here, visitors have the opportunity to be in a colorful world of flora and fauna. The zoo displays rare birds and animals from all over the world, including polar bears, proboscis monkeys, golden monkeys, Komodo dragons, East African lions, rhinos, white tigers, and the world's largest social apes. Visitors can also enjoy the wonderful programs presented by different species of animals and birds.
Singapore Buddha Tooth Relic Temple p>
It is located on Sue Street, Chinatown, with a five-story building built in the style of a Chinese Buddhist temple in the Tang Dynasty. The first floor is the mountain gate, bell tower, drum tower, Guanyin Hall, and Bailong Hall. The second floor is the Alanruo Tibetan Scripture Pavilion, the exhibition hall, and the Manjusri Hall. The mezzanine floor is the Lotus Core Tea House, the Dizang Hall, the Dharma Hall, the Jieguang Hall, and the Moral Statues Memorial Hall of the Elders of the Mountains. The third floor is the Puxian Hall, Longhua Yuan-Buddhist Relics Museum. The fourth floor is the Emmanuel Hall and the Golden Pagoda of Buddha Tooth Relic. On the top floor of the fifth floor, there are the Pavilion of Ten Thousand Buddhas, the Vairocana Great Illuminating Sutra Zhuanzang, the Wanfu Guangming Lantern and the Orchid Garden.
Singapore has four national museums. The National Museum of Singapore mainly displays the history of Singapore. The museum incorporates modern technology into historical exhibits and conveys historical information through sight, hearing and touch. The Asian Civilization Museum is divided into two pavilions. The museum is located at the former site of the Daonan School. It is an exhibition hall with the theme of "Baba Nyonya" life and civilization. It is located in the second hall of the Queen's Square. In addition to the exhibition of Chinese civilization The pavilion also displays cultural heritage with the theme of Southeast Asia and other places. The Singapore Art Museum specializes in collecting and exhibiting modern and contemporary art from Singapore and Southeast Asia in the 20th century.
Lee Kuan Yew, Lee Hsien Loong, Zeng Qiu Kun, Han Laoda, Shui Ming Zhang, Zeng Yuancang, Qiu Deba, Li Guangqian, Li Chengwei, Huang Zuyao, Huang Zhixiang, Chen Liushi, Cai Jianya, Sun Yanzi, Xu Meijing, Chen Kit Yi, Lin Junjie, Adu, Olivia Ong, Cai Chunjia, Yong Er, By2, Lin Xiangping, Fan Wenfang, Li William , Wu Dairong, Cai Heping.
In recent years, Jet Li and Gong Li have also joined Singaporeans.
In October 2018, the 17th "Global City Competitiveness Ranking" was released, and Singapore ranked sixth.
In November 2018, GaWC released the list of world-class cities in 2018, and Singapore ranked eighth among the world's first-tier cities.
On July 11, 2019, the Xinhua-Baltic International Shipping Center Development Index was released, and Singapore ranked first in the world.
On November 12, 2019, Singapore ranked third in the “Top 20 Global Cities in Economic Competition in 2019”.
In 2019, the top 20 global sustainable competitiveness, Singapore ranked first.
On December 26, 2019, it ranked eighth on the list of the top 500 global cities in 2019.