Service marketing combination


two marketing

Traditional marketing 4PS includes: product; price; channel; promotion.

Service Marketing 3PS includes: personnel; shape display; process.


In the early 1980s, Booms and Bitner joined the marketing combination of the original traditional theory to the service marketing concept, the service marketing 3PS is: person (People), a shape show (Physical Evidence), process (Process). When developing a marketing strategy, marketers need to be familiar with the various elements and combine the actual situation to carefully analyze, determine the connection between the elements and how to effectively operate, and formulate the exact marketing solution. These seven elements can be said to be the core of the marketing program, ignoring any elements will be related to the success or failure of the overall solution. The 7 major marketing strategies in the new marketing combination are now briefly analyzed as follows:

Service marketing combination


1. Product

Service Product must Considering the provision of services, quality of service, quality and service levels, and pay attention to matters such as brands, guarantees, and after-sales service. Among these elements, the combination of these elements is quite large, such as a small restaurant serving several small dishes and a combination of five-star hotels serving a variety of big foods.


The factors to be considered in terms of price include price level, discount, discount, and commission, payment methods and credit. When distinguishing a service and another service, the price is a way of identification, and the customer can feel the value of its value from a service price. The relationship between price and quality is also an important consideration for service pricing.


Provides the location of the server and the location of the grounding of the service is important in service marketing. The reachability of the geostability is not only the real thing, but also other means of conducting and exposure, but the shape of the distribution channel and the region which are covered with the region is closely related to the service.


Promotions include advertising, personnel sales, sales promotion, or other market communication methods, as well as some indirect communication, such as public relations, etc.

The four items are traditional marketing combination elements. But the service marketing staff must add more elements, such as people, tangible display and procedures.


People in service enterprises as a production or operability role, in the customer's opinion, is actually part of the service product, and its contribution is the same as other salespersons. Most service companies are characterized by operators may serve as a double job of service performance and service sales. Therefore, marketing management must coordinate cooperation with work managers. The task of corporate staff is extremely important, especially those who experience "highly exposed" service business. Therefore, marketing managers must also pay attention to screening, training, incentives and control of employers.

In addition, the relationship between customers and customers should also be paid attention to for certain service business. Because a customer knows the quality of a service product, it is likely to be affected by other customers. In this case, the problem that the manager should face is the quality control of the mutual impact between customers and customers.

A shape display

There is a display that consumers and customers are evaluated to a service company. The elements of the shape include: entity environment (decor, color, furnishings, sound) and service providing equipment (such as car rental companies needed), there are other physical clues, such as airlines The logo or dry cleaning store will be washed with "packaging" on the clothes.


people's behavior is important in service providers, and the process (ie, the delivery process of service) is also important. Pleasant expressions, focus, and concern, can reduce customers' impatient feelings that must wait for the service, or calibrate customer complaints or dissatisfaction when technically. The operating policies and procedures of the entire system, the use of the service supply, the application of employee cut rights, the extent to which customers participate in the service operation process, the flow of consultation and service, the constant subsidiary and the hospitality, etc., are marketing Managers should pay special attention.

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