Before the 1570s, Sao Tome Island was uninhabited. In 1470, the Portuguese navy under the leadership of P. Escobar invaded the island of Sao Tome and named the island Sao Tome after one of the 12 disciples of Jesus, Tome.
In 1471, Portugal occupied another island in the northeast of the island, called Principe, which means Prince Island.
In 1522, the two islands became Portuguese colonies. The Portuguese authorities exiled domestic political prisoners and other criminals here. Later, the Portuguese moved prisoners and Jews to the island to establish plantations and used the blacks imported from the African continent as laborers. During the slave trade period, Sao Tome and Principe became a midway stop for ships traveling between Europe, Africa and the Americas and a transfer station for the black slave trade. At the same time, Portuguese colonists also fetched large numbers of slaves from Angola, Mozambique, and the Cape Verde Islands, and forced them to do heavy labor on the island’s sugar cane plantations. Under the cruel abuse of the colonists, a large number of slaves died. The two islands were once known as the "Islands of Death".
At the end of the 16th century, the slaves of the two islands united in an uprising, which once overthrew the rule of white slave owners. Since then, slave riots on the island have been frequent, forcing some plantation owners to move to Brazil, and the sugar cane plantations on the island have gradually declined.
In 1599 and 1641, the Dutch took advantage of the decline of Portuguese power and attacked the city of Sao Tome twice and occupied the two islands.
In 1648, the Portuguese recaptured the two islands from the Dutch and continued to engage in slave trade and transshipment.
Modern and modern
It was occupied by the Netherlands and France in the 17th and 18th centuries, and it became a transfer, storage and transportation center for ocean-going ships and slave trade. After the economic decline, it was still in 1878. Under Portuguese rule, colonists recruited "indentured laborers" from Angola, Gabon, and Guinea to grow cocoa and coffee on a large scale on the island. The two islands once became important cocoa production and export places in the world.
In 1909, German and British chocolate makers boycotted the cocoa produced by Sao Tome because all contract workers on the Sao Tome plantation were slaves. In 1951, Portugal changed Sao Tome and Principe to an overseas province. Set up direct control of the Governor.
The Sao Tome and Principe Liberation Committee was established in 1960 (renamed Sao Tome and Principe Liberation Movement in 1972, and then renamed Sao Tome and Principe Liberation Movement-Social Democracy in 1990), demanding unconditional independence.
In 1974, the Portuguese authorities reached an independence agreement with São Tomé and Príncipe. Independence was declared on July 12, 1975. The country was named the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe, Manuel Pinto Da Costa was the president, and after independence, he was ruled by the Sao Tome and Principe Liberation Movement for a long time.
In August 1990, Sao Tome and Principe implemented a multi-party system; in January 1991, the Democratic Unification Party (Democratic Unification Party) won a majority in the parliamentary elections and became the ruling party; In March of the same year, Miguel Trovada was elected president.
In July 1996, Trovada was re-elected as president. In November 1998, SLM regained its victory in the parliamentary elections and formed a new government in January 1999.
In August 2001, the Democratic Independence Action Party ("DDP") candidate Fladic de Menezes defeated the liberation candidate Pinto and was elected president on September 3 Inauguration.
In July 2006, De Menezes was re-elected as president of the Democratic Movement Change Force/Liberal Party (referred to as the "Democratic Movement Party") and the Democratic Unionist bipartisan coalition candidate.
In August 2010, the Democratic Party led by Patrice Trovada won the parliamentary election and became the prime minister of the government.
In August 2011, the independent candidate and former President Da Costa was elected president.
In October 2014, Sao Tome and Principe held parliamentary elections. The Democratic Party won 33 of the 55 seats. Its leader, Trovada, formed a government alone and became prime minister again.
On September 3, 2016, Evaristo Carvalho, a member of the Independent Democratic Action Party, became president.
On December 26, 2016, Foreign Minister Wang Yi held talks with Sao Tome and Principe’s Foreign Minister Botello in Beijing. After the talks, the foreign ministers of the two countries signed the "Joint Communiqué on the Restoration of Diplomatic Relations between the People's Republic of China and the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe."
Sao Tome and Principe is located in the southeast of the Gulf of Guinea in western Africa, 201 kilometers from the African continent to the east. The two large islands of the United States and Principe and the nearby 14 small islands such as Carlosso, Pedras, Tinhosache and Rollas; the total area of the country is 1,001 square kilometers (Sao Tome Island 859 square kilometers , Principe Island 142 square kilometers). Sao Pudong and Gabon and Equatorial Guinea face each other across the sea. The main island of Sao Tome is roughly located at 0°15' north latitude and 6°36' east longitude.
The two islands of São Tomé and Príncipe are volcanic islands with rugged terrain and mountainous peaks. Except for the coastal plains, most of the islands It is a basalt mountain, with the highest peak, São Tomé, 2024 meters above sea level.
Sao Tome and Principe has a tropical rain forest climate with hot and humid throughout the year, with an average temperature of 27°C on the two main islands. The heavy rainy season is from January to May, the dry season is from June to September, and the light rainy season is from October to December. The average annual rainfall is 1000-2500 mm. Mild and humid southerly and southeasterly winds prevail on the two islands, and there are very few strong winds.
Sao Tome and Principe Natural Environment ( 2 photos)In 2003, Sao Tome and Principe had irrigated land of 100 square kilometers. In 2005, the country's arable land was about 83 square kilometers, accounting for about 8.33% of the country's total land area.
In 2010, the total forest area of Sao Tome and Principe was 270 square kilometers, accounting for 28.1% of the country's total land area.
In 1999, Mobil Oil Company discovered an oil field in the offshore of Sao Tome and Principe. The proved reserves of oil are estimated to be 6-10 billion barrels, but it is still in the initial stage of development.
Sao Tome and Principe is divided into 7 counties, namely: Agua Grande County (Agua- Grande, Cantagalo, Caue, Lemba, Lobata, Me-Zochi, except Pague County in Purin Outside Sybi Island, all are on São Tomé Island.
Introduction to the capital
SaoTome, the capital of Sao Tome and Principe, is located in the northeast of Sao Tome Island, near the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a national political, economic, and cultural Center and main port. Because it is located at the equator, it rains for half a year, and the climate is humid and verdant all year round. It is a beautiful and secluded garden city. The streets in the city are clean and tidy, with few tall buildings. The tallest building is a white seven-story building, and the rest are bungalows with courtyards or two-story small buildings with red roofs and white walls built around the sea, hidden in a grove of coconut trees. Independence Square in the city center is the place where celebrations are held every year. The Notre Dame Cathedral is a famous building in the city, with twin towers on the front. The whole church is pure white with a red roof and is surrounded by green grass. There are many parks on the streets and on the waterfront. There are roads leading to the whole island.
The national flag of Sao Tome and Principe is a horizontal rectangle with a length to width ratio of 2:1. It is composed of four colors: red, green, yellow and black. The side of the flagpole is a red isosceles triangle, the right side is three parallel wide strips, the middle is yellow, the top and bottom are green, and there are two black five-pointed stars in the yellow wide strip. Green symbolizes agriculture, yellow symbolizes cocoa beans and other natural resources, red symbolizes the blood of fighters fighting for independence and freedom, two five-pointed stars represent the two large islands of Sao Tome and Principe, and black symbolizes black people.
The pattern of the National Emblem of Sao Tome and Principe is a shield-shaped emblem of two African eagles that represent these two large islands. The black feathers on the tail of the eagle on the left represent the local black residents; the tail of the eagle on the right is dark red, which is a symbol of the local mixed race. They are united and are working together to build a beautiful home. There is a tall and plump willow tree painted on the gray-yellow back. It is a gift from heaven and is the country's main economic crop. The blue five-pointed star on the top of the coat of arms is the sky and the ocean. There is a yellow ribbon on the top and bottom of the national emblem, which is written with the full name of the country and the motto of the people: "Unity, Discipline, and Diligence".
Lyrics: Completely independent, is the magnificent song of the people, completely independent, is a battlefield Holy melody. Rising up in the national struggle, vow not to forget, for the sovereign state of Sao Tome and Principe. The soldiers had no weapons on the battlefield, the flames burned in the spirit of the people, and the assembled children came from all over the immortal motherland. Completely independent, complete and thorough, with the joint efforts of the heroic people, a peaceful, progressive, and blissful country must be established. Complete independence is the magnificent song of the people, and complete independence is the sacred melody of the battlefield. Rising up in the national struggle, vow not to forget, for the sovereign state of Sao Tome and Principe. Complete independence is the magnificent song of the people, and complete independence is the sacred melody of the battlefield. Labor, struggle. Struggling and winning, we take steps with the feet of giants and hoist our national flag in the reform movement of the African people. The voices of the people sounded, sounded and united, the heart of hope beats strong and powerful, to be a heroic son and daughter in danger, and the hero's dedication to make the country stand tall. Complete independence is the magnificent song of the people, and complete independence is the sacred melody of the battlefield. Rising up in the national struggle, vow not to forget, for the sovereign state of Sao Tome and Principe.
The national bird of Sao Tome and Principe is the African Grey Parrot (scientific name: Psittacuserithacus), a large parrot, a typical climbing bird, with toe-shaped feet Two toes forward and two toes backward, suitable for grasping, the beak is strong and powerful, and it can eat hard-shelled fruits. The tail is short, the head is round, and the face is long hairy. He likes to climb but is not good at flying. The African Grey Parrot is one of several animals known to be able to really talk to humans, which makes them one of the most well-known pet birds. Staple foods of all kinds of seeds, nuts, fruits, nectar, berries, etc.
Population: In 2010, the urban population of Sao Tome and Principe accounted for 62%; in 2012, the country’s population was naturally The growth rate is 1.996‰; in 2013, the total population of the country was 186,817; as of January 2016, the total population of Sao Tome and Principe was 193,000; in December 2019, the total population of Sao Tome and Principe was 204,000.
Ethnicity: 90% of Sao Tome and Principe are Bantu people, and the rest are of mixed race.
Sao Tome and Principe adopts a presidential republic. The president and parliament are elected by voters. The president organizes the government to exercise executive power, the parliament exercises legislative power, and the president and the parliament jointly determine the composition of judges to exercise judicial power.
In August 2016, Sao Tome and Principe held a presidential election, and the Democratic Party candidate Carvalho was elected. The parliamentary elections were held in October 2018. The Democratic Party won 25 seats, the SLM Party won 23 seats, the Democratic Unity Party-the Forces for Change Democracy Movement-Citizen Development Democratic Alliance political party alliance won 5 seats, and the Sao Tome and Principe Independent Citizen Movement Party won 2 seats. . In November, President Carvalho issued a presidential decree announcing that the SLM would form a cabinet and appoint Jorge Bom Jesus (Jorge Bom Jesus) as prime minister.
The Constitution of Sao Tome and Principe was promulgated in September 1990, which stipulates that: Sao Tome and Principe is an independent sovereign state based on basic human rights A democratic country ruled by law. Separation of church and state, and judicial independence. The president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president has the power to appoint and remove the prime minister, dissolve the parliament, and promulgate laws, decrees, and orders.
The National Assembly is the highest representative and legislature of the country of Sao Tome and Principe. The term of office of members is four years. The current parliament was formed in October 2018, with a total of 55 members, of which the Democratic Party won 25 seats, the MLM Party won 23 seats, and the current speaker Delfim Neves (Delfim Neves).
The current government was established in December 2018, including 1 prime minister, 12 ministers, 2 state secretaries: Prime Minister Jesus, as well as foreign affairs, cooperation and overseas Minister of Diaspora Elsa Pinto (female, ElsaPinto), Minister of Public Works, Infrastructure, Natural Resources and Environment Osvaldo D'Abreu (Osvaldo D'Abreu), Minister of Planning, Finance and Maritime Economy Osvaldo Osvaldo Vaz, Minister of Defense and Interior Oscar Sousa, Minister of Justice, Public Administration and Human Rights Yvette da Graça Correia (female, Iveteda Graça Correia), Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development Francis Francisco Martins dos Ramos, Minister of Cabinet and Parliamentary Affairs, Wuando Borges Castro, Minister of Education and Higher Education, Jurieta Isidro Ro Driggs (female, Julieta Izidro Rodrigues), Minister of Tourism, Culture, Trade and Industry Maria da Graça Lavres (female, Mariada Graça Lavres), Minister of Health Edgar Neves (Edgar Neves), Labor and Unity , Family and Vocational Training Minister Adlander Costade Matos (Adlander Costade Matos), Youth, Sports and Entrepreneurship Minister Vinicius Xavier de Pina (Vinicius Xavier de Pina), Press State Secretary Adelino Lucas (Adelino Lucas), Secretary of State for Trade and Industry Eugénio António da Graça (Eugénio António da Graça).
The Supreme Judicial Court is the highest judicial organ, responsible for overseeing the court’s interpretation and application of the law. Its members are appointed by the Parliament; the Attorney General’s Office is responsible for defending democracy and the legal system, and the Attorney General is nominated by the government and appointed by the President . The President of the Supreme Court of Justice, Manuelda Silva Gomes Gravid (ManueldaSilvaGomesGravid), and the Attorney General InaudyKelveNobredeCarvalho (InaudyKelveNobredeCarvalho).
According to the Political Party Law promulgated in September 1990, the number of any political party in Sao Tome and Principe shall not be less than 250, and it is appealing to the country’s highest After the court is registered, it becomes legal. At the beginning of 2007, there were 14 legal political parties registered in the country, with 7 larger parties.
(1) Sao Tome and Principe Liberation Movement-Social Democratic Party (Movimentoda Libertação de São Tomée Principe – Partido Social Democrata): Founded in September 1960, it is now an opposition party. Formerly known as the Liberation Committee of Sao Tome and Principe, it was renamed the Liberation Movement in 1972 and changed to its current name in 1990. There are currently 23 seats. Chairman Jorge Bom Jesus (JorgeBomJesus).
(2) The Democratic Independent Action Party (Acção Democrática Independente): It was formally established on March 21, 1993. It is now the largest opposition party in the parliament, with a total of 25 seats. Chairman Patrice Trovada (PatriceTrovoada).
(3) Partidoda Convergência Democrática (Partidoda Convergência Democrática): Formerly a thinking group, it was established in November 1990. Now participates in politics as a member of the Democratic League (5 seats in total). Chairman Javier Mendes (XavierMendes).
(4) Uniãodos Democrataspara Cidadaniae Desenvolvimento (União dos Democrataspara Cidadaniae Desenvolvimento): Established in May 2005, it is now a member of the Democrats League (5 seats in total) participating in politics. The current chairman Manuel Nascimento (ManuelNascimento).
In addition, there are political parties such as the Democratic Movement for Change/Liberal Party (Movimento Democrãtico-Forçada Mudança/Partidoliberal), the Christian Democratic Front (Frente Democrata Cristã), and the Movimentodo Cidadão Independentede São Tomée Principe.
Evaristo Carvalho: President. Born on October 22, 1941. Served as Minister of Transportation, Minister of Communications, Minister of Defense, Prime Minister, Speaker of the Parliament, etc., and was elected president in August 2016. Affiliated to the Democratic Independent Action Party.
Jorge Bohm Jesus: Prime Minister. Born on July 26, 1962. He served as the Minister of Education and Culture and was appointed as the Prime Minister in November 2018. Affiliated to the Liberation Movement-Social Democratic Party.
Sao Tome and Principe is one of the least developed countries in the world announced by the United Nations. It is based on the cultivation of cocoa and other cash crops. The main agricultural country, one of the least developed countries in the world announced by the United Nations. After independence, an economic policy based on the state-owned economy has been implemented for a long time. Economic liberalization began in 1985. The economic restructuring plan was implemented in 1987, and thereafter a debt reduction and economic growth plan was signed with the International Monetary Fund. In 2005, the Sao Tome and Principe-Nigeria Joint Development Agency signed an oil sharing contract for the first block of the joint development zone with energy companies such as the United States, and Sao Tome and Principe received a signing gold of 49.2 million US dollars. This is the country's first petrodollar. In recent years, the Sao Tome and Principe government has actively sought assistance from Portugal and other countries and the International Monetary Fund. At the same time, it has adopted measures such as reducing tariffs, improving the investment environment and establishing free trade zones to attract foreign investment, focusing on investment in infrastructure such as ports and electricity, and actively developing tourism and other emerging industries. The industry and the economy maintained a certain growth. However, due to limited foreign aid and investment, continued currency depreciation, and rising prices, the state’s finances continue to be tight, and the people’s living standards are severely divided. More than 50% of the population lives below the poverty line.
The main economic data of Sao Tome and Principe in 2020 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: 536 million US dollars.
Gross domestic product growth rate: -7%.
Inflation rate: 10%.
(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review for the first quarter of 2021)
Currency name: Dobra.
Exchange rate: 1 Euro = 24.5 Dobra (fixed exchange rate).
Sao Tome and Principe (3 photos)Sao Tome and Principe only has ceramics and tiles , Beverage, wood processing, clothing, printing, auto repair and other small factories. In addition, there are two hydroelectric power stations and a thermal power station.
As of January 2016, Sao Tome and Principe has only small factories such as ceramics, bricks, beverages, wood processing, clothing, printing, and auto repair. In addition, there are two hydroelectric power stations and a thermal power station. In 2009, the country generated 32 million kilowatt-hours of electricity. In 2010, the growth rate of Sao Tome and Principe’s gross industrial production was 7%.
As of January 2019, 51% of Sao Tome and Principe’s population is engaged in agricultural production. The arable land area is 48,000 hectares, and the arable land is 38,000 hectares. The land reform began in 1993, and the household contract was implemented. Food cannot be self-sufficient, and food imports account for 17% of total imports. The main cash crops are cocoa, cocoa, coffee, palm kernels, etc. The output value of cocoa accounts for more than 20% of the GDP. Now 3500-4000 tons of cocoa are exported every year, accounting for more than 77% of the total export value, 90% of which are exported to Belgium , 10% is exported to France and Switzerland.
The currency of Sao Tome and Principe is Dobra. In 2007, Sao Tome and Principe received substantial debt forgiveness from the International Monetary Fund and the Paris Club. Its external debt dropped from more than US$300 million to about US$80 million, and its financial situation has improved. In 2014, Sao Tome and Principe’s broad money grew at an annual rate of 16.8%, the deposit interest rate was 3.38%, the loan interest rate was 15.9%, the total currency and quasi-money (M2) totaled 2.51 trillion, and the total domestic savings was 21.713 million US dollars. In 2018, foreign exchange reserves were approximately US$67 million (data source: January 2019 Economic Quarterly Review Statistics).
In 2002, Sao Tome and Principe’s national fiscal revenue was 16.96115 million U.S. dollars, total expenditures were 34,099,500 U.S. dollars, and a deficit of 17.138 million U.S. dollars. In 2007, Sao Tome and Principe received substantial debt forgiveness from the International Monetary Fund and the Paris Club. Its external debt dropped from more than US$300 million to about US$80 million, and its financial situation has improved. In 2014, foreign exchange reserves were approximately 62.5 million U.S. dollars.
Sao Tome and Principe (4 photos)The main export product of Sao Tome and Principe is cocoa. In addition, there are coffee, copra, palm kernels and so on. Mainly imports grain, fuel, industrial products and daily consumer goods. The main export destinations are the Netherlands, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany; the main importing countries are Portugal, Angola, China, Nigeria, and the United States. In 2018, the trade volume was 170 million U.S. dollars, of which imports were 153 million U.S. dollars and exports were 17 million U.S. dollars. (Data source: Statistics from the Economic Quarterly Review in January 2019)
Sao Tome and Principe is one of the countries that receive the most foreign aid per capita in the world, and 90% of its development funds rely on foreign aid. The main aid countries and regions and international institutions are Portugal, France, the United States, Germany, Japan and the African Development Bank, the European Union, the United Nations Development Program and the International Monetary Fund. In 2012, Japan provided Sao Tome and Principe with 2.4 million euros in food assistance, and the European Union funded Sao Tome and Principe with 2 million euros for the construction of four water supply stations. The World Bank provided Sao Tome and Principe with US$4.2 million in financial assistance, and the African Development Bank provided 800 Ten thousand U.S. dollars was used for poverty reduction projects, Russia forgave Sao Tome and Principe’s debt of more than 4 million euros, and the International Monetary Fund provided 3 million U.S. dollars in financial support to Sao Tome and Principe. In 2013, the European Union funded 6.6 million U.S. dollars for the restoration of the São Tomé and Príncipe’s coastal road, and East Timor provided 5.3 million euros in aid for the Sao Tome and Principe national budget and parliamentary projects. In 2015, the International Monetary Fund provided Sao Tome and Principe with a medium-term loan of 4.44 million SDR. In 2017, the United Nations Development Program and Sao Tome and Principe signed a 2017-2021 cooperation agreement, providing Sao Tome and Principe with USD 13 million for related assistance. In 2018, the World Bank announced that it would provide Sao Tome and Principe with US$10 million for social projects in the next five years, and signed an institutional capacity building and budget support agreement with Sao Tome and Principe to provide Sao Tome and Principe with US$15 million in financing. In the same year, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations provided $4.6 million to Sao Tome and Principe for the implementation of climate change projects.
The official language of Sao Tome and Principe is Portuguese. Portuguese is a new Latin language that uses the Latin alphabet. It belongs to the Latin language family. It uses Portugal, Africa and parts of Asia, and Brazil as its language areas. Portuguese is formed on the basis of popular Latin, plus some dialect features. As a Romance language, it is a sister language with Spanish, French, Italian and Romanian.
The main holidays in Sao Tome and Principe are: New Year (January 1), Easter (April 13-16), Labor Day ( May 1), Independence Day/National Day (July 12), Christmas Day (December 25).
The people of Sao Tome and Principe take bananas and breadfruit as their traditional staple food, and have many local traditional dishes such as Calulu, Blabla, Isaquente and so on. Sao Tome and Principe does not have many types of vegetables. Tomatoes, onions, and potatoes are the main consumption items. Common meats include pigs, sheep, chickens, etc. The locals love spicy flavors and are not used to the sweeter dishes. Local restaurants mostly use barbecue cooking methods. Although Sao Tome and Principe is rich in high-quality coffee, most locals do not like coffee and prefer tea.
The main religion in Sao Tome and Principe is Catholicism. Catholicism is an important sect of Christianity. Together with Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant Christianity, it is called the three major sects of Christianity. It is also called "Public Church", "Roma Catholic Church" and "Gatli Church", and is called "Old Church" to distinguish it from Protestant Christianity. This school believes in God and Jesus Christ, and respects Mary as the mother of God; believes that the Father of God transforms into heaven and earth and creates mankind; the Son of God is born as man and redeems mankind; the end of the world will come again, and the human body will be the end of the world Resurrected to accept the judgment of Christ, the good will enjoy eternal blessing, and the wicked will suffer eternal suffering.
The people of Sao Tome and Principe are very warm and hospitable. Whether in the city or in the countryside, they will be warmly welcomed to visiting guests. Traveling in this country, enthusiastic hosts always prepare fruit banquets with local ethnic flavors for guests. Sao Tome and Principe is known as a country of etiquette. They have received a series of strict education in religion, etiquette and language since they were young. On international diplomatic occasions, they gave a handshake and adopted an international name.
The Sao Tome and Principe Armed Forces was founded in 1975 (called the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Sao Tome and Principe after 1991). It consists of armed forces, police, presidential guards and militias. composition. In 2001, the number of the country’s armed forces was reduced from 600 to more than 300, including 2 army battalions, 1 navy platoon, 1 militia battalion and 160 presidential guards. Sao Tome and Principe’s weapons and equipment mainly come from Portugal, Libya and South Africa. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. In 2006, São Tomé and Príncipe’s military expenditures accounted for 0.8% of the GDP. In 2010, the number of people eligible for enlistment in the country was 27,310 men and 29,279 women.
As of January 2019, Sao Tome and Principe has 380 kilometers of roads, of which 250 kilometers are asphalt roads. Two ports and two airports. There are sea routes to Libreville, Luanda, Lisbon, Antwerp and other ports, mainly operated by Portuguese and Dutch shipping companies. Sao Tome and Principe is a joint venture operated by Portugal, Sao Tome and Principe, and Gabon. It was included in the EU's no-fly list due to aircraft safety issues. In addition, airlines from Portugal, Angola, Gabon, South Africa and Nigeria all fly to Sao Tome.
As of January 2016, Sao Tome and Principe has 3 hospitals, 6 maternity hospitals, and 3 general Outpatient department, 1 maternal and child health center and 1 national health education center; there are 218 medical staff, including 76 doctors and 580 beds. The birth rate in 2002 was about 35.3‰, the death rate was 7.4‰, and the average life expectancy was 69.4 years, making it one of the long-lived countries in Africa. In 2009, the bed density of Shengpu Hospital was 2.9 per thousand people. In 2012, Sao Tome’s medical expenditure accounted for 7.2% of GDP.
Sao Tome and Principe attaches great importance to education and implements free education in primary and secondary schools. There are 85 schools nationwide. The government pays attention to teacher training, and hires Portuguese and English teachers to teach in middle schools. In addition, the country also selects international students to study abroad every year. There are 6 libraries nationwide with 14,000 books; 1 archives and 1 museum. In February 2004, Sao Tome and Principe reformed the education system, and compulsory primary school education was changed from 4 years to 6 years. In 2006, the University of Luceida in Portugal established a branch in Sao Tome. At the beginning of 2018, the high school enrollment rate was 68% and 32% respectively.
Sao Tome and Principe lags behind in sports, and the first time to participate in the Olympic Games was the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Later, both the Sydney Olympics and the Athens Olympics participated. However, the experience of participating in the Olympic Games three times did not bring any medals to Sao Tome and Principe. In the 2008 Olympic Games, Sao Tome and Principe sent a total of 9 representatives to participate.
Sao Tome and Principe’s General Administration of Social Information is the national news agency in charge. The main domestic newspapers in Sao Tome and Principe are "Izvestia" and "Republic Daily", with a daily circulation of about 800 copies. In addition, there are newspapers such as "Tribune", "Window News" and "Fool". As of January 2016, Sao Tome and Principe has one national radio station, one television station and Sao Tome and Principe News Agency. In April 2000, the radio station of the Autonomous Region of Principe, aided by Portugal, officially started broadcasting. The radio broadcasts in Portuguese for 17 hours a day. The TV station has been broadcasting since 1982. In addition, Radio France International and Voice of America have established transit stations in Sao Tome and Principe. In November 2007, French TV5-MondeAfrique was broadcast in Saint-Prince and Principe.
According to the Human Development Index published by the United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Report 2017, Sao Tome and Principe ranks 143th out of 189 countries. In recent years, the Sao Tome and Principe currency has continued to depreciate and prices have risen. The proportion of people living below the poverty line has exceeded 50%, of which 15% are absolutely poor. There are 3 hospitals, 6 maternity homes, 3 comprehensive clinics, 1 maternal and child health care center, and 1 national health education center. There are a total of 218 medical staff, including 76 doctors and 580 hospital beds. The birth rate in 2014 was about 35.12‰, the death rate was 7.4‰, and the average life expectancy was 69.4 years, making it one of the long-lived countries in Africa.
Sao Tome and Principe pursues a foreign policy of peace and good-neighborliness and advocates the establishment and development of friendly and cooperative relations with all countries , In order to make better use of international cooperation resources to serve the economic development of Sao Tome and Principe; focus on developing relations with neighboring countries, African Portuguese-speaking countries and Western donor countries; maintain African unity, attach importance to regional cooperation, and support the realization of African integration; emphasize To resolve disputes through dialogue requires the establishment of a new international political and economic order. It is a member of the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States, a member of the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries and a member of the Organization of French-speaking Countries.
●Relations with China
1. Bilateral political relations
On July 12, 1975, China established diplomatic relations with Sao Tome and Principe.
On May 6, 1997, Sao Tome and Principe announced the so-called "establishment of diplomatic relations" with the Taiwan authorities; on July 11, the Chinese government announced that it would suspend diplomatic relations with Sao Tome and Principe from now on, and stop the implementation of the two countries. All agreements between governments. In November 2013, the Chinese Liaison Office in Sao Tome and Principe was established.
During the maintenance of diplomatic relations between China and Sao Tome and Principe, the main Chinese officials who visited Sao Tome and Principe were: Vice Foreign Minister Gong Dafei (1981), Assistant Foreign Minister Zhou Jue (1986), Ministry of Foreign Affairs Vice Minister Yang Fuchang (1991) and Vice Premier and Foreign Minister Qian Qichen (1997), etc.
The leaders of Sao Tome and Principe’s visit to China are: President Pinto da Costa (1975, 1983), Prime Minister Miguel Trovada (1977), Foreign Minister Carlos Da Costa Graça (1989), President Miguel Trovada (1993).
On December 20, 2016 (local time), the government of Sao Tome and Principe issued a statement, deciding to sever the so-called "diplomatic" relations with Taiwan. China expressed its appreciation.
On December 26, 2016, Foreign Minister Wang Yi held talks with Sao Tome and Principe’s Foreign Minister Botello in Beijing. After the talks, the foreign ministers of the two countries signed the "Joint Communiqué on the Restoration of Diplomatic Relations between the People's Republic of China and the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe."
On April 3, 2017, the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Sao Tome and Principe held an unveiling ceremony. Representative of the Prime Minister of Sao Tome and Principe, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Overseas Chinese Botello, Minister of Finance, Trade and Maritime Economy Ramos, Minister of Infrastructure, Natural Resources and Environment Nova, Minister of Education, Science, Technology, Culture and Communication Dayo and other government officials and all sectors of society About 200 people including representatives of various countries' envoys in Sao Tome and Principe, as well as representatives of Chinese-funded enterprises and overseas Chinese attended the meeting. The international students from Sao Tome and Principe went to study in China in August 2017.
2. Bilateral economic and trade relations and economic and technical cooperation
China once provided economic assistance to Sao Tome and Principe and built and handed over the People’s Palace, the bamboo straw training center, etc. 6 items. In 1975 the two countries signed a trade agreement. Due to the shortage of foreign exchange in São Tomé and Príncipe, the two sides have suspended spot foreign exchange trade since 1980. The two countries signed a barter trade protocol in 1983, and there have been four barter trades since then, which was suspended in 1991. In 2012, the trade volume between China and Sao Tome and Principe was US$ 2 million, all of which were Chinese exports.
3. Cooperation in other fields
Since 1976 and 1985, China began to send medical teams to Sao Tome and Principe and accept students from Sao Tome and Principe. During the period from the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries to the suspension of diplomatic relations, China sent 12 batches of 171 medical team members to Sao Tome and Principe and accepted 25 students from Sao Tome and Principe.
●Relationship with Portugal
Portugal is the largest aid country in Sao Tome and Principe, and the two countries have signed many agreements on friendly cooperation, economy and trade, culture and technology. . There are doctors, teachers and engineers and technicians in Portugal to São Tomé and Príncipe. In 2006, President De Menezes visited Portugal and participated in the inauguration ceremony of the new Portuguese President. In 2008, Sao Tome’s Prime Minister Trovada visited Portugal, and Sao Tome’s President attended the 7th Portuguese-speaking Countries Summit in Lisbon. In 2009, the Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe went to Portugal to participate in the Party Congress and visit of the Portuguese Socialist Party, the ruling party of Portugal. In 2010, the Prime Minister of Sao Tome and Principe visited Portugal. In 2011, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Portugal, the Secretary of State of the Ministry of National Defense and the Attorney General visited São Tomé and Príncipe, and President Da Costa visited Portugal. In 2013, the Portuguese Minister of Defense visited Sao Tome and Principe, and President Da Costa paid a private visit to Portugal. In 2014, President Da Costa attended the 10th Summit of the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries in East Timor. In 2015, President Da Costa paid a private visit to Portugal. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of Portugal and the Minister of Defense visited Sao Tome and Principe. In 2016, Prime Minister Trovada visited Portugal. In 2017, President Carvalho visited Portugal, and the Portuguese Foreign Cooperation Secretary and Minister of Defense visited Sao Tome and Principe. In 2018, the Portuguese President and Minister of Defense visited Sao Tome and Principe.
●Relationship with France
The two countries have signed economic and cultural cooperation agreements. In recent years, the two sides have maintained close relations, and France is one of the main donors to Sao Tome and Principe. In 2007, President De Menezes went to France to attend the Franco-African summit. In 2008, France agreed to forgive Sao Tome and Principe’s debt of approximately 7.6 million euros, and Sao Tome’s Prime Minister Trovada visited France. In 2010, President De Menezes of Sao Tome and Principe went to France to attend the France-Africa Summit. In 2012, 2015 and 2016, Prime Minister Trovada visited France three times.
●Relationship with the United States
The United States provides a certain amount of assistance to Sao Tome and Principe every year, and the two countries have military cooperation projects. In 2006, the US military established a regional marine monitoring center in Sao Tome and Principe. In 2010, the Prime Minister of Sao Tome and Principe visited the United States. In 2012, the commander of the U.S. Africa Command and the delegation of the American Society visited Sao Tome and Principe respectively. In 2013, the Secretary of the Navy visited Sao Tome and Principe. In 2014, Prime Minister Gabriel went to the United States to attend the U.S.-Africa summit. In 2018, Prime Minister Trovada visited the United States and Sao Tome and Principe participated in a multinational military exercise led by the US-Africa Command.
●Relations with Nigeria
Sao Tome and Principe had the problem of demarcation of offshore oilfields with Nigeria. In 2001, the two countries formally signed an agreement on the joint development of a maritime mixed exclusive economic zone, and in 2002 the joint ministerial committee on oil development was established. In 2006, President De Menezes went to Nigeria to participate in the Africa-Latin America Summit held in Nigeria. In 2007, President De Menezes went to Nepal to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Yar'Adua. In 2008, the Foreign Minister of Nigeria visited Sao Tome and Principe. In 2009, President De Menezes and Prime Minister Blanco visited Nigeria respectively. In 2010, the Prime Minister of Sao Tome and Principe visited Nigeria. In 2011, President De Menezes attended the inauguration ceremony of President Jonathan of Nigeria. In 2013, Sao Tome and Principe and Nigeria’s Joint Inter-Ministerial Committee for Petroleum Development held a meeting. In 2015, President Da Costa attended the inauguration of Nepalese Prime Minister Buhari. In 2018, Prime Minister Trovada visited Nigeria.
●Relationships with other African countries
Sao Tome and Principe and Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and other four Portuguese-speaking countries and neighboring countries such as Equatorial Guinea and Gabon have relatively close relations. In 2010, the President of Sao Tome and Principe attended the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of Gabon’s independence. The Prime Minister of Sao Tome and Principe visited Gabon, and the Prime Minister of Cape Verde visited Sao Tome and Principe. In 2011, the Prime Minister of Sao Tome and Principe visited Gabon and Angola, the Prime Minister of Gabon visited Sao Tome and Principe, and the President of Sao Tome and Principe went to Equatorial Guinea to attend the African Union summit. In 2011, Sao Tome’s President Da Costa visited Angola. In 2012, President Da Costa visited Equatorial Guinea, South Africa, Angola, Congo (Brazzaville), and Prime Minister of Sao Tome and Principe visited Germany. In 2013, President Da Costa and Prime Minister Gabriel visited Angola, South Africa and Equatorial Guinea, and the Minister of Social Relief and Resettlement of Angola visited Sao Tome and Principe. In 2014, the Speaker of the Parliament of Angola visited Sao Tome and Principe. In 2015, President Da Costa visited Angola, and Prime Minister Trovada visited Angola, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea. In 2016, President Da Costa visited Cape Verde and attended the inauguration ceremony of the Presidents of Congo (Brazzaville) and Equatorial Guinea. The Prime Minister of Trovada visited Morocco, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Angola, and the Prime Minister of Cape Verde visited Sao Tome and Principe. In 2017, President Carvalho attended the inauguration ceremony of President Lorenzo of Angola, Prime Minister Trovada attended the inauguration ceremony of President of Rwanda, and Speaker Diogo visited Equatorial Guinea. In 2018, President Carvalho went to Equatorial Guinea to attend the celebration of the 50th anniversary of Equatorial Guinea's independence. Prime Minister Trovada visited Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Burkina Faso, Senegal, and Mali. The President of Gabon and the Prime Minister of Cape Verde visited Sao Tome and Principe.
The seaside scenery of the capital Sao Tome (2 photos)Unique geographical location, beautiful The natural landscape provides abundant tourism resources for Sao Tome and Principe, but the inconvenient transportation and backward infrastructure have affected the development of tourism. Since the 1990s, tourism facilities have been greatly improved. In February 2004, the Parliament approved a government proposal to allow casinos to be opened in Sao Tome and Principe. In 2016, there were more than 60 hotels of various types across the country, with more than 1,400 beds and nearly 30,000 tourists. In 2014, tourism and other service industries accounted for 73% of GDP. The main tourists are from Portugal and Angola.
Main attractions in Sao Tome and Principe
Sao Tome is a small island close to the equator, with tropical scenery on the coast. The coastline at the southern end of the island is tortuous and changeable, with steep cliffs and wide open areas. Tall coconut trees are swaying in the sea breeze. Standing on the rocks and staring at the changing sea, sometimes green and sometimes blue, the waves rush to the shore and hit the rocks. It had to be smashed, arousing white waves of height.
Principe Island is rugged and mountainous, with its highest point It is 948 meters above sea level. It is hot and rainy all year round, and the annual precipitation in the south reaches more than 4000 mm. The forest is dense. Tropical crops such as cocoa, coffee, sugar cane, oil palm, and coconuts are mainly grown. The main town is San Antonio, on the northeast coast of the island, it is the only port for external connections on the island.
The "National Museum" in Sao Tome is Portugal The colonists built the 15th century Fort Fort São Sebastião (Fort Fort São Sebastião), which contains many relics from the Portuguese colonial era, blue and white porcelain from China, and a sea turtle specimen room.