Lazarsfeld is one of the four major founders of American Austrians, famous sociologists, and spread. Graduated from the University of Vienna, a Philosophy, a Ph.D. in Humanities and Law. Razasfield is one of the most affected methods of subsequent communication research methods. In 1932, the earliest research on the use of field investigations in Vienna. After the establishment of the Institute of Applied Sociology in the University of Columbia, I have been working with famous sociologists for many years.
He proposed "Secondary Communication Theory" (after development as a "multi-level communication" study), the road is opened for communication effects and communication mechanism research. He also proposed "the role of both political tendencies", selective contact mechanism, opinion leaders, etc. Razasfield made an important contribution to research methods, known as the "tool producer" of communication research.
He has won respect for the dissemination of other scientific respect by continuously improving sampling survey techniques and quantitative analysis methods. Its representative is "propagating research" and "personal influence: the role of individuals in mass communication".
Lazarsfeld, Paul Felix, 1901 ~ 1976), American sociologist, American experimental psychologist. born on January 2, 1901, born in Austria, striving to August 30, 1976. Graduated from Northwestern University, a Ph.D. in Mathematics at Vienna University.
1924 won the Ph.D. in Vienna University. The following year in Vienna founded the Institute of Applied Sociology. He used to apply a psychological lecturer in the University of Vienna. After going to the US training psychology and joined the US, he served as a Sociology, Columbia. His research scope is quite extensive, involving mass communication, electoralism, market research, public opinion test, unemployment, educational psychology, mathematical sociology, etc.
His most influential achievement in sociology first promotes research methods, especially quantitative research methods and techniques. He attaches importance to social survey methods, pays attention to strict social statistical procedures and operating processes, emphasizing evaluation analysis of accurate quantitative measurement and qualitative. He is still the first person of the Social Survey method in public opinion, hosted an investigation in Iri. A series of applications, promoted and improved the development and quality of American and European sociology experience. There is "Mathematical Thinking in Social Science", "Elective Choice", "Quality Analysis" and "Application Sociology".
Razfield believes that most of the broadcasting and television programs, movies, magazines, and a considerable books and newspapers have an impact on the validity of the public. The average aesthetic aquatic and appreciation of the audience fell. This is a degeneration for elite culture.
"Mathematical Thinking in Social Science", "Elective Choice", "Quality Analysis" and "Application Sociology"
"Razhesfield - Stanton Program Analyzer" is a data collection instrument, from essentially a measuring instrument for media effects, recording experimental objects instant Psychological reactions, enabling researchers to connect radio programs or advertising content to the emotional impact of audience individuals. The focus team interview is an open manner to the survey object to collect information related to the scenario definitions related to a particular scenario (listening to a broadcast program, watching performance, etc.). Razsfield tries to combine investigating and multivariate data analysis to make public opinion into a scientific tool.
Subsequently, Razfield established the University of Columbia University, the final stage of the 20040th, in the middle of the 1940s, the general style of the research bureau project is the representative Sexual community, collecting information from the sample (or population survey) of its survey object, this research style after the investigation is analyzed, and the research style of the statistical data is followed by the empirical study of Razfield, and its formation For quantitative research methods, it is the most influential research institution at the time. Due to its research content and social practice, it has produced a series of important works, which mostly influential is "personal impact"; combined with "people's choices" produced by I-county research in 1940 to 1948, lazag Sfelde clearly expounds public opinion leaders and two-level communication theory, so that strong effect is transferred to finite effects, which is the new achievements of Razfield on media effect research, and developed a new background. In terms of guided propagation research, Lazasfield's role exceeds any other individual.
Lazasfield has created a new field for the early dissemination of the United States, and has attracted a series of important methodological progress: he advocates triangulation, that is, the measurement, collect information and The multi-way method for data analysis is to obtain multi-side understanding of the research object; his social research method tries to combine qualitative methods and quantitative methods, participatory observation and depth interviews, content analysis, and personal biography, special group research and focus interviews - - These are the innovation of Razfield in methodology.
Paul F. Razfield has important ideas in forming modern communication research, is a pioneer of the propagation effect research. Since the first time in Vienna in Vienna, in 1930, the "Broadcast Research Project" conducted in the United States in 1937 and the US presidential election in 1940, he has effectively used the sample investigation. Personal behavior, inference with causal relationships. The "People's Choice" "The Choice of the People" of Razsfield and its assistant cooperation is known as "one of the most complicated research in social sciences" and the classic work of the propagation effect research.
"People 's Choice" in 1940 US presidential election is the analysis case, trying to explain how the votes make vote under the influence of mass media and interpersonal relationships choose. Promoting the cause of Razfeld et al. To study the behavior of the public in presidential election is the Second World War, the war machine directly promotes the development of many humanities and social sciences in the United States in the United States: sociologists are ordered The morale of the soldiers so that the spirit of the entire army is more conducive to combat; social psychologists are ordered to study the effectiveness of political propaganda, so that the government's directives are easier to accept the public; in the world's cultural culture Home is responsible for advising the government to reduce the friction generated when the US government is dealing with Japan and other countries. These scholars have brought high reputation and increasingly extensive research fields in their respective fields. Based on social needs, the various emerging research fields have also prompted humanities socialies to get rid of a simple thinking research method, because each research results are expected to explain the urgent social issues or as a The basis for government development policies. The "People's Choice" and the empirical communication are born under such an academic atmosphere.
"The Choice of the People" is mainly reflected in two aspects for the contribution of communication academic ideas. First, the limited effect of mass spread, one is the formation of "two-level communication" and "public opinion leaders".
Early publicity theor supports strong mass media, but later communication scholars have changed this kind of strong effect when studying media for election behavior, consumption decision making and other types of behavior evidence. The main scholars who started to suspect a strong mass media effect is Razasfield, but is his suspicion in Yilixian research. • Razsfield and others hope that the mass media has direct and powerful effects in the intention of how people act on how to act in the presidential election. He assumes that the voting decision in the presidential election will be made in the campaign and will be affected by the relevant election issues and the news and special reports of the candidate in the mass media. However, the research results revealed the opposite fact: Many e-county voters got their ideas before the election campaign begins. Only 54 of the 600 surveys have turned from a candidate to another candidate, and only some of these transducesses are directly done because of the impact of the mass media. The media can only inform and persuade some key individuals, which is later known as "public opinion leaders", which turn this effect by contacting the interpersonal communication with their followers. Expanded. In addition, it is a contribution of propagation research in the formation of face-to-face interviews and group tests and quantitative analysis. It is also a contribution of Razfeld to the communication methodology system. Reading "The Choice of the People" can not only have a clear understanding of the development of the academic discipline in communication, but also from middle school to a lot of effective research methods.
Communicate US and Europe
Razasfield's most important role is a bridge between Europe and the United States. In the autobiography, Razasfield wrote: "When I started my academic career, Europe's social science was dominated by philosophy and thinking about the trend of thoughts ... At the same time, US behavioralism and operationalism dominated the knowledge world ...... In this case, I am a connected gear. A European 'That is a popularity that is welcomed by people who have a sense of subtle trends in American social sciences. "Razfield Trying to establish a multi-bridge of academic thinking to criticism, hoping that it is integrated with American empirical studies, as a challenge and new concepts for explaining known things and seeking new materials A source. He believes that critical academic thinking is helpful for proposing the challenges and new concepts that can use the experience and researchers. He said this: "If it is possible to develop a practical research process that combines work with experience in criticism, then, the people involved, and the actual utility of this work will be Because of the private relationship with other criticians of Hawker Haimer, Floym, Adorno and "Social Research", Razasfield is very familiar with the critical theory of Frankfurt School, he thinks this work It is worth causing greater attention from American scholars. Although Razfeld's practice is not understood by experienced research scholars, although many criticians do not agree that Razfeld tries to do the role to play, although Lazasfield is constructed from the surface. Communication Methodology On the Try of Bridge Failure, His attempts provide a new vision for the research of communication, Gilz has said: "The discipline needs to have an open vision, and the new discovery The theoretical framework. "
Communication is a multi-discipline cross, penetrated edge discipline, the communication discipline itself is an academic circle movement, due to the variety of communication Sex and extensive, since the birth of the last century as an independent discipline, it involves various disciplines such as political science, sociology, psychology, economics, linguistics, journalism, and mathematics, scholars From the respective disciplines, the process, laws and effects of the study of information, the complexity and diversity of the discipline itself have enabled humanities and social sciences to introduce the research in communication, and in the development of later discipline The evolution of two different research institutes, that is, the research of the Critical Critical School of Europe and the experience of American scholars.
After the 21st century, Ye Communication was produced in the United States. After the May 190s, the early other countries have laid the foundation for the establishment of communication, Paul Laza Sfield is one of them, and he is also known as an outstanding representative of empirical research, and has a prominent contribution in the research method of communication. Razasfield provides methods of innovation for empirical research itself, but also attempted cooperation with empirical and criticalism in research methods, this new attempt and breakthrough in the history of communication research.