Persian Bay

Name origin

Persia that is Iran and the Persian Gulf is the ancient name of the surrounding group of countries have in common. Geographer Strabo in the first century AD by the Persian Gulf to refer to this place, and Arabs in this region is known as the Arabian Gulf, and why modern geography international call using the Persian Gulf?

some Asian waters crown of a country name or nation name, is an international geographical indications (not a sovereign name): the Sea of ​​Japan, the East China Sea (not equal to the East China Sea), Philippine Sea (there are territorial seas of multi-national and most of the international high seas), the South China Sea (South China Sea is not equal), the Gulf of Thailand, the Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea (around many Asian and African countries), the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf (ie, Iran and the Persian Gulf is a group of around State shared).

off the coast of Asia, according to international geography naming convention has been named a huge sea (Arabian Sea) Arabic name, so the use of Persia (Iran's ancient name) named after the bay, better identification, difference, memory.

similar: Andaman islands belong to India, has been named a huge sea (Indian Ocean) with the name of India, therefore contemporary international geography and Google Maps using the name Myanmar, formerly known as British Sea call inherited Andaman Sea .

Persian Gulf power system

From the sixth century BC, there are five major power system ruled over the Persian Gulf. Gulf Ancient history Although vague, but in general, there have been two groups ruled the region: First, Iran from the sixth century BC to the seventh century AD dominate here, and later Arab rule the roost here. The exact time about ancient Iranians and Arabs ruled the Gulf region, as well as their exact scope of the rule, even though there can not be verified in the whole Gulf region, but they are after all different times in different places have ruled on both sides of the bay.

In modern times, one can see three of the international system in the Gulf region. Portuguese Following the 1515 occupation of the city of Hormuz in the Gulf region ruled for nearly a hundred years. In 1622, Britain and Iraq to regain the city of Hormuz, then that is the race between between Britain, the Netherlands and Britain and France. All of this happened before the British dominate the most important modern bay system.

As early as 1960, the British East India Company With London scored in the Gulf region, Abbas port in Iran opened its first trading facility, led the United Kingdom and was then known as "Pirates of the shore "countries signed the first agreement, which marks the start of British hegemony system. Then, through a series of carefully planned treaty, it further strengthens the system in order to establish the hegemony of the British forces in the Gulf.

Iraq's independence, is a gradual process, not a sudden event occurring at a given moment. Iraqi nationalist uprising in 1920, marking the beginning of a political change, which led to the 1922, 1926, signed a series of treaties of 1927 and 1930, and Iraq finally admitted into the League of Nations in 1932. Iran to challenge British control of some even more severe. Although the British government of Iran exercised considerable control, but Iran has never had lost its independence. Even before the Kingdom Reza Pahlavi in ​​1925 and the rise of a new dynasty, Iranian nationalism would have rejected the treaty Ke Lord of Iran's direct rule, with the rise of the Kingdom of Reza, Iran in many ways to show British hegemony challenge.

20 the late 1970s, the Gulf of the international system on the "diversity" of the. Mainly due to developments after World War II, accelerated the process of liberation from British control and influence, resulting in a system of eight independent sovereign state. In 1951 the British in Iran, Iraq nationalized oil company is the first signal. British government holds a majority stake in the British, Iranian Oil Company, and applying a broad and far-reaching impact on Iran by its domestic and foreign policies. Although Iran has failed to fully implement the nationalization of the oil industry in the early 1950s, but with the international consortium of British, American, Dutch and French oil companies formed to replace the British, Iranian Oil Company, a state-owned finally completed in 1973 change. In this case, as the National Iranian Oil Company has the most powerful state-run oil company out now throughout the Bay Area. At this time, the Iraqis will also be nationalized its oil industry, Iraq finally completely out of the control of the United Kingdom, this process is difficult, and its leaders to modify the 1930 "unequal treaties" has been unswervingly struggle from 1946 to 1955 illustrates this point. In 1955, when Britain granted Turkey - Iraqi Treaty (the treaty led to the creation of the Baghdad Pact), the signing of the treaty with Britain was finally abolished. However, it seems in Iraq, putting an end to British control in 1958, the war in Iraq and the Iraqi exit after the completion of the Baghdad Pact.

However, pluralistic system of the Gulf States in 1971 was fully reflected. At that time, the British withdrew from the Gulf most of its troops and ended on the "special relationship" with the chiefs of the Gulf countries since a long time. Located on the Gulf of Ministry of Kuwait in 1961 and achieved full independence on; make in 1968, when the British announced a historic decision from the "east of Suez" region (including the Persian Gulf, including) the withdrawal of it before the end of 1971 when the troops, part of the Gulf emirate located in, still under British control. The Conservative government considered the possibility of modifying the decision of the Labor Party came to power in 1970 had, but failed to complete the modifications in the unanimous opposition of Arab and Iran. And other Gulf countries experienced different, Alabama independent emirate, in fact, is unwilling to accept the United Kingdom granted when Britain decided to withdraw in the face of several emirates began.

Persian Bay

However, the British handed over power to process Arab Emirates, for the following two basic problems become complicated: First, Iran continues to insist claim to sovereignty over Bahrain Islands; secondly, the British wanted to Trudeau Sylvain coast of the seven emirates, with Qatar and Bahrain with nine emirates together to make a new Arab Federation. Despite the success of the British persuaded the emirates agreed on March 30, 1968 formed a federation, but the transfer of power until 1971 to complete, and even then the federal emerging also failed to include Qatar, Bahrain and Ras Al Khaimah. Ras Al Khaimah later joined the Federation, Qatar and Bahrain is not a member, but declared full independence, and later joined the United Nations and the Arab League. Through the mediation of the United Nations delegation, Iran gave up claim to sovereignty over Bahrain, and in 1971 first recognized Bahrain's independence. Nevertheless, the British Ministry of remnants continue to the next bay preserved, especially in Oman, British military personnel who support the Dhofar rebels against Sudan, the United Kingdom is also near the coast of Oman Masirah Island maintain its military presence .

In short, countries around the Persian Gulf independence from foreign control, should be seen as a "diversity" of the process, instead of "decolonization" process. This is because: first, although Saudi Arabia and Iran on foreign oil rent at different times so that dissatisfaction with the system, but they never belong to British rule. Although Saudi Arabia and other oil-producing countries was still on the road to nationalize Iran's oil industry, but it has never been treated British interests in Iran as the US oil interests it is also seen as a tool of foreign political control. Second, the British control of the Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula in other countries, unlike the British colonial rule in India. Britain's role in Iraq from hosting country only enjoys a special relationship into national treaty relations. For a long time, the United Kingdom and trucial the Emirates and the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman has another type of "special relationship." More importantly, the UK's only limited control over external relations guidance Emirates, do not say in their country's political, cultural institutions and local practices. Even on foreign affairs with varying degrees of manipulation of the British colony of Aden and the east, where Xi Yading territory, also retained traditional local political, social and economic order, and consistent with local customs and regulations of Islam remains dominant.


position Realm

Indian Ocean Edge Sea. Arabic, said the Arabian Gulf, referred to the Gulf. It located in the Arabian Peninsula and the Iranian plateau and Mesopotamia between the northwestern Indian Ocean is semi-enclosed bays. Northwest Persian Gulf from Shatt al-Arab estuary, to the southeast of the Strait of Hormuz, 970 km long, wide 56-338 km. An area of ​​241,000 square kilometers. The average depth of 40 meters, a maximum depth of 104 m

Persian Gulf basin area 3,180,000 square kilometers.


Gulf higher temperatures year round at about 20 ℃, summer can reach 32 ℃. Strong northwest wind will be blowing sand in desert areas in the Gulf, the water turbid. There are dust storms and haze in summer and autumn there squall and tornadoes.

Gulf located the Tropic of Cancer with high pressure, hot climate, sea water evaporation exceeds the injection amount, up to 30-33 deg.] C water temperature in summer, even up to the edge strip 36 ℃, therefore, is the highest temperature in the Persian Gulf bay.

Gulf scarce rainfall, strong sunshine, east and west coasts addition to the subtropical arid desert. The water temperature is high, north-west water temperature is 16-32 ℃, southeast 24-32 ℃, the water temperature in summer shallow waters up to 35.6 ℃, becoming one of the hottest sea in the world. Temperature, evaporation of the sea forces enhance drying, evaporation capacity of more than 2000 mm, significantly more than the sum of annual precipitation (300 mm) and the injection amount of the river, so that a higher salinity, southeast 37-38, northwest to 38-41 are greater than the Arabian sea to the east of the Strait of Hormuz, the sea on both sides of the Strait salinity range, causing the Arabian sea surface flows from the Persian Gulf Strait, and the Persian Gulf in the salinity of seawater from the larger Strait the underlying flow into the Arabian Sea.


Gulf Bank located in the sub-continent tropical, subtropical controlled by year round, prevailed downdraft evaporated greater than precipitation, high salinity, high density, low water, while the adjacent Arabian Sea, low salinity, low density, high water. As a result, the surface water flows into the Arabian Sea by the high waters of the lower surface of the Persian Gulf. By high salinity bottom water flowing into the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea. Many Gulf islands, mostly coral island, the larger are Bahrain, Qeshm Island, Abu Ali Island.

Because of the northern Gulf of Euphrates and Tigris rivers bring a lot of sediment accumulation and the crust to rise slowly, causing gradual shallow water depth, the north shore of the Gulf shoreline at a speed of 56 meters per year to move forward, in the Gulf reduced. Temperature, evaporation of the sea forces enhance drying, evaporation capacity of more than 2000 mm, significantly more than the sum of annual precipitation (300 mm) and the injection amount of the river, so that a higher salinity, southeast 37-38, northwest to 38-41 are greater than the Arabian sea to the east of the Strait of Hormuz, the sea on both sides of the Strait salinity range, causing the Arabian sea surface flows from the Persian Gulf Strait, and the Persian Gulf in the salinity of seawater from the larger Strait the underlying flow into the Arabian Sea.

Persian Gulf seabed and the surrounding land is a treasure trove of the world's largest oil, accounting for about 53% -58% of the world's oil reserves. Oil production accounts for about one third of world oil production. Oil output accounts for 60% of total world oil exports, the main supply some of the world's economically developed countries, the United States, Japan and Western Europe. Fishery resources are very rich, rich variety of fish, pearls and mother of pearl collection known to the world. And an important port along the bay are: Abadan, Kharg Island, Bushehr, Basra, Faw, Hong Kong and Kuwait, Abu Dhabi and Dubai.

Rim countries

Rim countries are: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. Gulf is the world's largest oil-producing and suppliers, has proven oil reserves account for more than half of the world's total reserves, annual output accounting for one-third of the world's total output. Produced oil, the Strait of Hormuz shipped around the world. Known as "treasure trove of oil", "World oil valve," he said. There are many islands in the bay, mostly coral island. Bay bottom and coastal areas is one of the largest reserves of oil in the world. Most of the fresh water from the north-west of the Shatt al-Arab river Ka Lun. It exceeds the injection amount due to evaporation, so the northwest salinity (38-41 ‰) still (37-38 ‰) higher than the sea southeast.

northwest temperature 16-32 ℃, southeast 24-32 ℃. Since ancient times for maritime traffic. Residents in coastal navigation, trade, fishing and pearling industry more. After World War II, the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf through Iran's oil major Sinotrans.

a shallow edge of the Indian Ocean sea area of ​​239,600 square kilometers. It situated between the Arabian Peninsula and in southwest Iran. Shatt al-Arab from the Persian Gulf to the northwest of (the Tigris and Euphrates river estuary two) to the southeast of the Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz Gulf of Oman exports, long 990 km wide 55-340 km. North and east as Iran, the United Arab Emirates and Oman to the south, west of Saudi Arabia and Qatar, Kuwait and Iraq for the northwest, the Gulf island nation of Bahrain in there.

shallow waters, rarely more than 90 m, the vicinity of the outlet and only individual parts of southeast depth of more than 110 m. The maximum water depth along the coast appeared in Iran, and wide shallow waters with an average depth less than 36 meters in contact with the Arab coast. Gulf flow of fresh water into the small, mainly from the Tigris, Euphrates, and Karen (Karun) River. In fact, Southwest Gulf side is not much fresh water injected into the bay. This, together with the high temperature leads to excessive evaporation of inflow of fresh water and high salinity water.

Persian Gulf (3)

Persian Gulf economy dominated by oil production. Gulf and around the country's oil production accounts for about a quarter of the world's more, accounting for more than half of the world's reserves. Gulf littoral states of Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain and has also developed a large-scale commercial fishing industry, but in the early 1990s, due to the Persian Gulf War (1991) offshore oil wells in Kuwait, Iraq caused a lot of oil spilling, once the fishing industry paralyzed.

Persian Gulf are elongate, northwest - southeast direction. Iranian coast, the southern section of mountainous coastline straight, steep coast; the northern section of the coastal plain is narrow, more tortuous coastline, how small harbor. Arabian Peninsula along the coast to the desert, local salt marshes. The southeast end of the Strait of Hormuz choke tight mouth of the bay to the Gulf throat, mouth of the bay with many islands and Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and other islands, bays constitute a natural barrier. Subtropical climate. Year-round prevailing northwest wind, wind fickle. Summers are hot and dry, dust haze often wind, low visibility, there are storm autumn, winter and more clouds. Annual precipitation: less than 125 mm side of the Arabian Peninsula, the Iranian side 275 mm. SST: southeast 24-32 ℃, northwest 16-32 ℃. Salinity 37-41 ‰, the local waters southwest of 50-70 ‰. Current counterclockwise circulation flow rate of 3-4 bay, other sea 0.5

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