Network literature


Internet literature refers to literary works and literary texts that are newly generated, using the Internet as a display platform and communication medium, and using hypertext connections and multimedia interpretations to express And online artwork that contains a part of literature. Among them, mainly original works on the Internet.

Internet literature is produced with the popularity of the Internet. The Internet has provided hundreds of millions of netizens with as many literary materials and information as Hengsha. At the same time, a kind of new media as the carrier, support, and means, with netizens as the recipient, has characteristics different from traditional literature. Internet literature is quietly flourishing.

Due to the use of powerful network media, network literature has the characteristics of diversity, interaction and difficulty in protecting intellectual property rights. Its form can be similar to traditional literature, or it can be non-traditional styles such as blog posts and posts. Real-time replies, real-time comments, and voting are important features of online literature. Due to the convenient dissemination of online literature, intellectual property rights are not easily protected


User payment has always been the main profit model for mobile reading applications.

It is worth mentioning that in China's online literature industry, Tencent's Reading Group accounts for more than 70% of the resources of the entire online literature industry. It is a very famous novel website.

And in the website under the Reading Group, the starting point, Chuangshi has incubated a number of high-quality IP, such as Fights Breaking Cangqiang, Taigu Shenwang and so on.


Online literature is divided into three types: one is that existing literary works enter the Internet through electronic scanning technology or manual input; the other is directly on the Internet. Literary works "published" on the Internet; there is another type of literary works created by computers or related computer software that enter the Internet, such as the computer novel "Betrayal", as well as several writers, dozens of writers, and even hundreds of Internet users Co-authored "relay novels" with the openness of the Internet, etc.

What people say about online literature mostly refers to literary works "published" on the Internet, including those edited and published in various online art journals (electronic newspapers), electronic bulletin boards (BBS) Literary works published by individuals without editing, and some literary works in E-mail. This kind of online literature is also called "online original literature" by websites such as "Rongshuxia".

The more influential literary websites include "Literature City", "Under the Banyan Tree", "Essence of Chinese Internet Literature", "Golden Bookstore", "Bihai Yinsha", "Mang Kunlun" and other websites. The more influential online literature works published include "Fights Breaking the Sky" (by Tiancan Tudou), "The First Intimate Contact" (by Cai Zhiheng, Knowledge Publishing House, November 1999), "Little Demon's Net" (by Zhou Jieru) Works, Chunfeng Literature and Art Publishing House, April 2000), "Farewell to Vian" (Annie Baby, China Social Science Press, January 2000), "Old Cohabitation Era" (Zhang Jian, etc., China Social Science Publishing Society, January 2000 edition), "Zhisheng Dongfang Shuo" (Long Yin, Writers Publishing House January 2000 edition), "Click 1999" (Gu Xiang, 21st Century Publishing House January 2000 edition), "Internet Star" series of 3 volumes (Huacheng Publishing House, March 2000 edition), and "Internet Literature" series of 10 books (Hubei Education Press, January 2000 edition). Some comments describe that the book market will enter the "Internet era" from the "image reading era".

Affected by the public’s current reading habits of using "fragmented time", as well as the enlightenment of the world’s master of short stories and the Nobel Prize winner Alice Monroe, let the Chinese critics and readers re-recognize The unique charm and significance of short stories. To this end, Dangdang announced that it will test the "single sale" of short stories and has signed a contract with domestic short story writers. "For writers, this measure has guiding significance for the author's writing, and can help the author reach readers in the first time. For enterprises, it is to make full use of the interactivity of the Internet platform, and readers can interact with the author and other readers. Comment and share at any time, constantly enriching the user’s reading experience.



(1) There are also some similar genres of traditional literature in online literature Works, such as poems, essays, novels, etc. However, due to the combination with the Internet, these works have some characteristics of their own. Many online novels are completed in the instant interaction between the author and the reader.

(2 ) New literary genres. Although the division of new literary genres is not widely recognized, it does exist. Some stories created by Solitaire in the forum and the use of "formation" to achieve special effects can be considered new Literary form.

Purpose of writing

(1) Works created by literature lovers to gain more recognition. Works are mainly novels, but some good poems can be seen And prose.

(2) The purpose of the writer’s creation is first of all hobbies, but also with a certain degree of utilitarianism. Novels in the works account for the vast majority.

( 3) Although it was first published on the Internet, it uses the Internet platform as a springboard to enter the traditional media. Most of the works are novels.

(4) Works written on the Internet in order to express their opinions, opinions, and feelings. Most of them are less literary. The genres are more diverse.

(5) In order to promote their own company or products. This is the more soft text on the Internet now.

Carrier h3>

(1) The website (forum) is purely for the purpose of publishing and exchanging the works of writers, and sometimes an electronic publication or something, but not in contact with traditional media.

( 2) Websites (forums) use methods similar to traditional media to promote the works of writers.

(3) Traditional media find works suitable for paper media on the Internet and publish them.

( 4) Use a free, unpaid, civilian writing platform-blog to increase advertising revenue.

There is also a website (forum) to buy the copyright of traditional media works and download it online (read ), cannot be classified as online literature.


Generally, short stories with a few thousand to 20,000 characters. 30,000~100,000 are novellas, the bottom line of a novel It’s hundreds of thousands. Among them, there are 500,000 to 600,000 medium and long stories, over 800,000 long stories, 1.5 million super long stories, and millions of words in huge long stories.


Mainly novels.

The authors are mostly young or even very young children, but some of them have written profound and connotative, literary works, and they are young to express feelings and gain. Recognition, interaction, and improvement are the main priority. Older people have certain business motives. Because the age in the Internet is very There are too many small LOLIs, leading most people to think that online literature has no connotation and is naive, but this is a typical characteristic of one-sided online literature with popularization.

Internet literature has a mature commercial operation mode, based on the pursuit of economic capital.

Internet literature is still in a weak position in the struggle for cultural capital.

Development status

The major personnel incident at the starting point disturbed the entire online literature industry, not only exploding the "internal worries" of Shanda Literature, but also allowing Shanda to see the real "external troubles": Shanda Literature can hardly be one of a kind, and the entire industry landscape of online literature is quietly changing. Tencent Technology learned that Tencent, which has been low-key and long-standing, is making a new integration of its literary business and has reached a cooperation with the original starting point entrepreneurial team. "Tencent Literature" has begun to surface, making the online literature industry a real shock for the first time.

China Industry Insight Network’s "In-Depth Research and Investment Prospects Report on China’s Online Literature Industry" pointed out that “Tencent Literature” covers’s reading channel, QQ space-based social reading platform “QQ reading”, Multiple platform resources such as the WAP reading platform "QQ Bookstore" and the mobile reading application "QQ Reading" have become one of Tencent's pan-entertainment strategy. The overall business layout is unified and led by Tencent's interactive entertainment business group., the world’s largest Chinese online bookstore, has more than 50% of the online book market share in China, and has also expanded its online literature business. In the public beta, Dangdang Digital Library and Dangdang Reading mobile client provide readers with online reading of online literature, enriching the dissemination platform of online literature, injecting more vitality into the online literature market, and providing greater market space for .

The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released the "2019 Internet Literature Development Report". The report shows that the number of Internet literature users has reached 455 million, with a half-year growth rate of 5.2%. More than 50% of Internet users are Internet readers; domestic Internet The number of literary creators has reached 17.55 million.

Online Literature Reading Day

On May 19, 2018, the "Orange Melon Internet Literature Award" initiated an initiative to establish May 19 as the "Online Literature Reading Day". I hope that Chinese online literature will develop more healthily, better inherit Chinese culture, and promote the positive energy of Chinese culture more effectively, so that more people can enjoy the pleasure of reading.


Online literature has the advantages of rapid update, widespread dissemination, large reading groups, and freedom from traditional restrictions.

Media reports

On the afternoon of October 25, 2009, CCTV News Channel reported on the information related to the publication of all-media online literature, and fully affirmed the new copyright model of NetWriting together. , Together with the editor-in-chief Comrade Zhang Douwei vividly interpreting the copyright self-help agreement in front of the camera. CCTV fully affirmed the "Write Together" project in cooperation with the National Digital Copyright Research Base, and said that the network self-help agreement has become a new direction for all-media online literature publishing.

Copyright self-service agreement simplified SCA agreement is an Internet-based copyright solution established and formulated by the National Digital Copyright Research Base of Peking University and the Internet Copyright Research Center of Peking University Law School. "Together Write Net" is committed to returning the rights of online literature publishing-copyright transactions from the hands of websites and intermediaries to authors, and letting the authors decide the rights of the authors. Make online literature publishing-copyright transactions fairer and more transparent. And signed a strategic cooperation agreement with the National Digital Copyright Trade Base. “Write Together” specifically designed a “copyright self-service management kernel” for the project in response to the “SCA” agreement, and kept the version synchronized with the National Digital Copyright Research Base of Peking University. Active collaborator of the "SCA" agreement and the first to promote the application, "Write Together" shoulders an arduous and great historical mission.

In order to enable the "SCA" agreement to be recognized by writers and people from all walks of life as soon as possible, "Write Together" has invested a lot of energy and financial resources in the development of the network application core of the agreement, and has obtained Phased results.

20 Years of Internet Literature Report

Orange Melon Witness·Top Ten Fantasy Writers of Internet Literature in 20 Years

Chen Dong, Innocent and Sharp Brother, Feng Ling Tian Xia, Jing No trace, tricky, against the sky, kind bees, the three young masters of the Tang family, the silkworm potatoes, the monster night (in alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·Ten Great Xianxia Writers of Internet Literature in 20 Years

< p>The goose is the fifth child, the root of the ear, the beacon opera princes, the Guan Pingchao, the wandering toad, the dreaming machine, the forgotten language, I eat tomatoes, Xiao Ding, blood red (in alphabetical order)

orange Melon Witness·Top Ten Fantasy Writers of Internet Literature in 20 Years

Squid who loves to dive, go away, static official, aquamarine, chaotic knives, Lawson, masters, dancing, misty rain Jiangnan, Yuntian ( (In alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·Ten Metropolitan Writers in 20 Years of Internet Literature

Punching eyes, blazing flames, waving willows, six ways, dreaming into the wild, Qicheng, Woben Crazy, Murloc II, Fallen Star, Zhang Junbao (in alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·Top Ten Martial Arts Writers in 20 Years of Internet Literature

Andersen, Cang Yue, Feng Ge , Jinxunzhe, Li Xin, priest, Sanguanyuezai, Xiao Shu, Xiao Tie, Yan Leisheng (in alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·Top Ten Historical Writers of Internet Literature in 20 Years< /h3>

cuslaa, Gengxin, Gengsu, Jiang Shengnan, Jiayu2, alcoholics, go up to the mountain to fight the tiger, Angel Oscar, Xiaoqi school, Yueguan (in alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·Top Ten Game Writers of Internet Literature in 20 Years

Fargoing Snail, Fruity Meow, Butterfly Blue, Martian Gravity, Lan Di Meichen, Thunder Cloud Storm, Chaos, Qi Pei Jia, Lost Leaves, Innocence ( (In alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·Top Ten Military Writers in Internet Literature in 20 Years

8 Difficulties, Hussars, Blood Stabbing, Coyote, Dancing Demon Girl, Kazemaki Red flags, wandering sabers, but but, the search for vines, the last defenders (in alphabetical order)

Orange melon testimony·Top 10 romantic writers of online literature in 20 years

Wire , Fei Wo Si Cun, Gu Man, Mi Bao, Ming Xiaoxi, Qi Chengkun, Su Xiaonuan, Tian Xia Gui Yuan, Xi Weiyue, Ye Feiye (in alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·Internet Literature Top Ten Suspense Writers in 20 Years

Cai Bigui, Chang Shuxin, Ding Mo, Hong Niangzi, Nanpai Sanshu, Qigenhu, Qin Ming, Tianxia Bachang, Yin Xun, Zijin Chen (by initial Sort)

Orange Melon Testimony·Top Ten Sci-Fi Writers of Internet Literature in 20 Years

Half Drunk Wanderer, Morning Star LL, Fang Xiang, Revolving Earth, Skeleton Wizard, Seventy-two, Ten Xianfutu, Xuanyu, Yuantong, zhttty (in alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·Top Ten Sports Writers of Internet Literature in 20 Years

It's better to play football, Chen Aiting, Guo Nu , He Kan, Hua Qianxia, Lin Hai Tingtao, Ming Qiao, Qiao Wei'an, Tu Su, and Rabbit to mow the grass (in alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·Ten Top Two-dimensional Authors of Internet Literature in 20 Years

The demon fox, His Majesty the King, you can also rescue, the dark lychee, the talking elbow, Liu Aba, the mosquito, the good water, the legend of the paladin, the high school master (in alphabetical order)

Orange Melon Witness·20 Years of Internet Literature and Hundred Powerful God Writers Mo and Goose are the old five, the root of the ear, the frantic snail, Fang Xiang, I want to save, angry banana, wind surging the world, Feng Sheng Dapeng, Feng Yu Jiuqiu, Fenghuo Zhuhu, Gengxin, Gengshuo, Gu Man, Watching Chess, Guan Pingchao, Sweeping the End of the World, Nonsense, Butterfly Blue, Huayou Shanyue, Huangfuqi, Talking Elbow, Martian Gravity, Jiang Shengnan, Gu Yu 2, Mustard, Jing Wuhen, Alcoholic , Skeleton Elf, Old Pig, Li Xin, Blazing Flames, Lin Hai Tingtao, Wandering Toad, Wandering Sabre, Willow Swing, Chaotic Knife, Lawson, Luo Chengdong, Mai Su, Cat Greasy, Mengqi, Dreaming into God , Miao Juan, Muzi Miaomiao, Nanpai Sanshu, Against Cangtian, Priest, Ordinary Magician, Qi Orange, Kind Bee, Going Up the Mountain to Beat Tiger's Forehead, Lost Leaves, Su Xiaonuan, Tang Family Sanshao, Celestial Silkworm Potatoes, Angel Oscar, The world sings, the world returns to the original, dancing, forgets to speak, false precepts, I am pure, I eat tomatoes, innocent, Xixing, Xiaoqi school, Xiao Ding, Xi Weiyue, Xiaoyu Daxin, Heart is wandering, Xu Gongzi wins Zhi, Xuanyu, Blood Red, Misty Rain Jiangnan, Yaoye, Ye Feiye, Yuge, Murloc II, Yumo, Yufeng, Yuantong, Yueguan, Moon Like Fire, Moon's Oblique Shadow, Yue Qiansang, Cloud Sky, fallen stars, zhttty, Zhaizhu (in alphabetical order)

Orange melon testimony·Hundred industry figures in 20 years of online literature

A Nai, A Yue, Ai Depeng , Diving Squid, Bing Xin, Cai Leiping, Cang Yue, Chen Dong, Chen Ruiqing, Dai Hezhong, Dan Ma, Ding Mo, Duan Wei, Ergen, Furious Snail, Fantastic Cun, Wind Ling Tianxia, ​​Fenghuo Opera Lords, Feng Zhen , Fu Qiang, Gu Bei, Gu Man, Caring for Chaos, Guan Pingchao, Hai Yan, Han Zixiao, He Jun, Hou Xiaoqiang, Butterfly Blue, Huang Huazhu, Huang Zhiguo, Martian Gravity, Jiang Gang, Jiang Shengnan, Xiao Yu 2 , Jing Wuhen, Jingguan, Jiu Gelong, Jiuwu Erqi, Drunkard, Kong Lingqi, Kong Yi, Skeleton Elf, Old Pig, Li Qingfu, Li Xin, Li Zhidi, Liu Xiong, Wandering Toad, Wandering Sabre, Liu Xiahui, Liu Dao, Lawson, Misty, Dreaming into God, Ming Xiaoxi, Nanpai Sanshu, Priest, Thousand Fantasy Bingyun, Rao Geng, Kind Bee, Shen Haobo, Lost Leaves, Say No to Master, Song Hailong, Su Xiao Nuan, Sun Yi, Three Young Masters of the Tang Family, Celestial Silkworm Potatoes, Tian Xia Ba singing, Tian Xia Gui Yuan, Dancing, Tong Zhilei, Wang Haiying, Wang Liang, Wang Shubo, Wang Yu, Wen Zhou, I am pure, I eat tomatoes, innocent, Wu Wenhui, Xiao Ding, Xi Weiyue, Xie Yue, Xuan Wei, Xuan Yu, Blood Red, Blood Text, Misty Rain Jiangnan, Yang Ali, Yaoye, Ye Feiye, Yu Jing, Yu Second Generation, Yueguan, Yuntiantian, Zhang Jinguo, Zhang Junbao, Pig King (in alphabetical order)

Focus on issues

1. Internet literature is the literature of young people in a certain sense It is worthy of enthusiastic attention and should be given full attention. According to statistics, among the approximately 50 million Internet users in China, those aged 21 to 40 account for 85%. Behind the rise of online literature is the rapid growth of young writers born in the 1970s and 1980s, and young literature lovers born in the 1990s. Some people even describe online literature as "the first sign of the new cultural movement of the times", and the rise of online literature can "sound the horn of a new civilization." Excessive blows are not conducive to the growth of a new generation of online literature writers, and conservative accusations are even more ignorant of reality. The issue of cultivating this group of young creative teams should arouse the attention of relevant departments.

2. Network literature needs healthy reasoning and network literary criticism. The "e-criticism" of online literature on the Internet is very lively. This kind of "e-criticism" refers to comments that are very common on the Internet and can be posted by any netizen. It can be a long discussion or a sentence or a word. Almost all important literary and artistic phenomena have a large number of short or long "e criticisms" on the Internet. For example, some websites have specially opened the channels of "Wang Shuo and Jin Yong" and "I See Beauty Writers". However, most of these comments are posted on the forum without any editing, and casual and abusive criticisms are more common. Online literary theories and literary criticism are still quite weak, and there are almost no voices of academic and academic literary criticism. The healthy development of online literature requires a large number of literary and artistic critics with profound knowledge and scientific principles to participate in it, and to seriously comment on this phenomenon and works.

3. The copyright issue is a difficult issue related to the development of online literature. In 1999, six writers including Wang Meng, Bi Shumin, and Feng Qingyang sued the "Beijing Online" website for infringement, which aroused widespread concern in the literary and online circles, and the verdict caused controversy. Six well-known writers sued the "Beijing Online" website for publishing their fully copyrighted literary works, such as "Hard Porridge", "Chicken Feathers in a Place," "Death by Appointment", and "Black Horse" without permission. The court ruled that six writers won the case. The court’s judgment pointed out that the Internet of works is a new way of dissemination of works, and the digitalization of works itself does not have originality in the meaning of copyright law. Changes in the form of work carrier and the way of dissemination do not affect the author’s exclusive rights to his works. Right. Therefore, the defendant uploaded the plaintiff’s work to the Internet without permission, infringing the plaintiff’s right to use his work and the right to receive remuneration. The defendant should stop the infringement, publish an apology on his homepage, and compensate the plaintiff for economic losses. This case is called "China's first online infringement case", and its trial results have far-reaching significance for online copyright protection. Some people in the industry believe that excessive protection of online copyright will hinder the further development of domestic networks, especially Chinese online information resources are still in a stage of scarcity, and the digitization of existing works is also an important task to promote the spread of science and technology in my country.

Generally speaking, Internet literature is in the process of spontaneous and random founding, and it is difficult to compete with traditional paper literature. Many works are quite naive. However, many online literature authors believe that when the Internet becomes a more accustomed and familiar medium, online literature will become an important way of literary circulation. In the era of electronic reading, online literature is still like air in the mainstream Chinese literary world, but its existence is transparent. The Lu Xun Literature Award was wiped out for Internet literature. As the highest award for Chinese novels, the new change of the 8th Mao Dun Literature Award is that Internet novels can participate in the review, but they must have been published and published in full. According to this rule, the unfinished popular online novel "Tomb Raiders Notes" was not selected. This book represents a series of popular online novels with a large number of readers and was recommended by netizens. Among the participating works, only two real online novels, "The Past of Bashan" and "The Wind in the Office" were shortlisted. 4. The living environment of network writers: the signing rate is extremely low. The situation of writers signing contracts to obtain benefits is like an ancient pyramid. There are a small number of people at the top, who can gain public recognition, and the number of people who can publish works is even rarer. At the bottom of the pyramid, the number of uploaded words is not proportional to income. The authors of a large number of literary works have not received any returns or signed contracts.

The Literary Society

The significance of online writing exceeds any previous literary revolution. The most important change in the 30-year development of contemporary Chinese literature is the emergence of online literature. After 15 years of development, online writing is not only a cultural phenomenon, it has become a social form.

Those who create, discuss, and work hard on the Internet, they need an identity position, and a legal society summarizes them.

Establish a national-level association that leads, guides, and regulates the creation and research of online literature throughout the country. The Chinese Federation of Literary and Art Circles or the Chinese Writers Association became its competent authority, and the Ministry of Civil Affairs became its registration authority. Take China as a member of the association as its leader.

The network literature community that emerged with the Internet network literature can be said to be in its infancy compared with the traditional literature community in terms of time.

Online Literature Club Backed by a powerful Internet and relying on high-tech support, the Internet Literature Club has shown a traditional literary agency based on paper and printing technology. Unparalleled huge media advantage. First of all, in the same time and space, online literature clubs can publish works that are dozens of times larger than traditional literature clubs. So as to provide the majority of literature lovers with more opportunities to read and appreciate works and more space to show their literary talents.



China Online Literature Association is an industry-based non-profit social organization voluntarily formed by various online literature associations. There is a council and a standing council. The alliance aims to promote the development of the network literature agency industry, and provides various services related to the network literature agency industry for the government, industry, and society.

China Online Literature Association Alliance currently has more than 10 member societies, including school-run, entity literature clubs, online literature clubs and other literary clubs in various forms, including many excellent Chinese original literature clubs. . The member societies of the alliance not only constitute the backbone of the network literature society, but most of them also become the main body of the network literature society in the development of the network and in real life as the core society.

Functions and goals

The alliance is committed to the cultivation, support and promotion of China's original online literature clubs, and spares no effort in promoting the development of literature clubs and foreign exchanges. While advocating self-discipline in the industry and safeguarding the interests of alliances and associations, it also pays attention to communication and coordination with upstream and downstream associations, and between literary clubs and literary clubs. Not only does it strive to promote the improvement and convergence of the literary club industry, but also strive to build a Chinese network. Literary healthy, active, pragmatic, pure and professional association image.

Examples of some online literature

"Fights Break the Sphere"

"Hilling Empire"

"Anomalous Creatures"


"Ice Soul Thunder Soul"

"Chengdu, please forget me tonight"


"Tie Xue Yun Yan"

"New Song"

"Stealing Ming"

"Picking a Great Emperor and Going to Another World"

"Dust Fate"

"Swallowing the Starry Sky"

"The Gale Broken Strings"



"No Tomb "

"Northern Wolves"

"Facial Makeup"

"The Supreme Master Ding"

"The Legend of Harem·Zhen Huan"

"Frightening Heart Step by Step"

"Xigong Spring Complaint"

"Thousand Mountains Evening Snow"

"Furong Brocade"

< p>"Shang Li"

"Flower Thousand Bone"

"Moon Rainbow Dance Companion"


"Qing Gong ·Biography of Concubine Wan"


"Grave Robber Notes"

"Ghost Blowing Lantern"

"Mortal Cultivation Biography"< /p>

"Walking Universe"

"The Great Master"

"The Kind Reaper"

"Martial Universe"

< p>"Perfect World"

"Global Martial Arts"

"The Great King Takes Your Life"

"The Longevity of the Qin Dynasty"

Other online literature


1. Old Town Mystery Series

2, shock Dreams come true

3. Horror Park

4. When the earth is alone

5. Don’t live in my room

6. Lost in the morgue< /p>

7, the empty coffin of the solitary tomb

8. The Dream of the Clock Tower

9. Asi finds his father

10. The ecstasy of the ancient temple

11. The ghost village is noisy

12, Devil Restaurant

13, original love

14 , A village always at night

15, a visitor in a dream

16 , Douluo Dalu

17, Doupaoqiang

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Related Activities

On October 16, jointly sponsored by Beijing Writers Association, Beijing October Literature and Art Publishing House, and Zhangyue Technology " Online Literature Forum: Focus on quality products, gather efforts to improve-the mission and responsibility of online literature in the construction of a national cultural center" theme event was held in Beijing. Scholars from all sides in the literary world focus on the current status and trends of online literature development, and provide advice and suggestions to promote the healthy development of online literature creation and jointly build a good environment for the development, display, exchange, cooperation and transformation of online literature.

Rectification action

On June 14, 2018, the National Press and Publication Administration and the National Anti-Pornography Office jointly deployed various localities to organize and carry out the 2018 online literature from May to August. Special rectification actions focused on rectifying the three major problems of incorrect orientation and vulgar content of online literary works, dissemination of obscene and pornographic information, and infringement and piracy.

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