Na Qimu · Hikmet Nazim · Hikmet, (1902.1.20- -1963.4.3) in Turkish political history's greatest and most controversial poets of the 20th century, his works are mostly based on the theme of social life, it depicts the lives of different classes of characters. January 20, 1902, Hikmet was born in Salonica city (now in Greece). He was born in bureaucratic family, childhood tutor and received strict influence of literature and art. His great-grandfather outside Marshal Muhammad Ali came to Turkey from Germany, converted to Islam in the Ottoman Empire Province Governor held several positions, is 1887--1888 Turkish army commander tenth Russo-Turkish war, but also a poet; father was a Foreign Ministry official, a former Turkish Consul General in Hamburg and Director of Press and Publication Administration; grandfather was a famous linguist and educator; and the mother endowed with both, is not only a painter, but also understand French, will play piano. Civilized family environment a great impact on Hikmet. He began to compose at the age of 14. At a family gathering he recited the praise for the sailors made heroic poetry, Secretary of the Navy hear severely infected, invited him to the naval school. In 1919 he graduated from the Naval Academy as a trainee officer on a cruiser, after suffering from pleurisy retired in May 1920. During this period, he became Turkey raised a good poetry writing poetry sound stage star, 1920 during a poetry tournament "standard-bearer newspaper" organized by the review group composed by the famous poet awarded him first prize.
When Istanbul is under British and Allied troops occupied France, Hikmet wrote many poems reflect the Patriotic Resistance passion. By the end of 1920 he created the poem "Youth" call upon the youth to fight for the liberation of the country. In early 1921, he and some of the patriotic poet went to Ankara to participate in the national liberation struggle, met during some Turkish students from Germany, heard about the socialist point of view, that he is refreshing. In the first mission in Ankara he and his friends accepted the call is written Istanbul youth for national liberation war poems. Their great poems repercussions beyond the expected, and therefore had been met with Kemal Ataturk's Turkey. Kemal said: "Now some young people took to the so-called modern poetry written content astray empty, I suggest you write purposeful poetry."
Soon he was ordered to Bolu as a teacher. That was when the Greek-Turkish war broke out, Turkey and the Soviet Union formed an alliance, a good relationship. In order to study and understand the world, he been primed in September 1921 went to Moscow Oriental University. At that time the victory of the October Revolution soon, the Soviet people in the struggle against the reactionary forces at home and abroad in an upsurge of socialist revolution and construction. Lenin's banner the young Hikmet see the dawn of complete liberation of humanity. He became a committed socialist, determined to struggle for the liberation of the Turkish people in the end. In 1924 he returned to work in the "bright magazine" and other units engaged in literary and artistic creation, and joined the Communist Party.
against the wind
From boyhood he liked to write poetry, but are some of the early works of classical poetry to express personal feelings. After returning home, he picked up a pen as a weapon, one side and conservative scholars debate unfold, one side has published widely in form and content are full of revolutionary fervor of the poems in the press. His verse high-pitched excited, very call to action, even if not agree with his political views had to gasp in admiration of his artistic genius.
His poems powerful blasts shook like poetry, but also shocked the authorities. Cheering on poetry and a shining star rises, the authorities put him on the list of dangerous molecules. From the 1930s to the 1940s, the prison became his routine, before and after a combined 17 years. In 1950, the Turkish Democratic Party government under pressure from public opinion at home and abroad and the legal profession enacted an amnesty law, Hikmet therefore released, but still subject to tracking and monitoring and persecution. Although nearly 50 years old and retired, the authorities are still required to serve in the army and tried to kill him. With the help of friends and family, he fled to the Soviet Union after Romania, in 1951 settled in Moscow. Turkish authorities after learning of the news, on July 25, 1951 decision to "treason" on the grounds fired his Turkish nationality. He actively participated in social activities in the Soviet Union, continue to engage in literature, he has won the "International Lenin Peace Prize."
During exile, he has played for many countries Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, France, Cuba and Egypt, where the meeting was held, to participate in activities against the imperialist war, and held a variety of TV radio program. He wrote many to maintain peace as the theme of poetry during live abroad, more work is to express his love and emotion homesick for the motherland. Hikmet In 1951 he was appointed director of the World Peace Council, he served as Standing Committee, members of the Bureau. In 1960 the President of the International Board of Regents Peace Prize World Peace Council. Hikmet early as during the Soviet Union to study to know many Chinese revolutionaries, including the internationally renowned poet Xiao San. He sympathized with the revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people, many in the poem mentioned China. For example, he wrote in "angina" in: "My heart is in this half and the other half, the other half of the Yellow River in China in the middle of the positive forces of launching ......." He wrote in 1948, "My heart is not here, "the poem says:" bright red blood, my blood, mixed together with the Yellow River Runs with my heart in China, in the middle of that system of justice for the soldiers fighting team beat "..
1952 September to October, he was invited to visit China and attend the Asia-Pacific regional peace conference, Vice-Chairman liaison Committee meeting. During this period he wrote seven short poems, praised New China's revolution and construction.
1963 Nian 4 on 3, the poet full of hardship feelings of the motherland, who died in Moscow. The age of 62. His body was buried in Moscow's famous Novodevichy Cemetery, engraved with his head wind that travels shadow on black granite tombstone.
After Hikmet's death, his reputation not only not disappear but increasing. His novel "My fellow group portrait" published in 1966 in Turkey. Which describes the panorama from Turkish society and political life during World War II to the early twentieth century, created many images of farmers, workers, landlords, capitalists, politicians and scholars, it is a rare art treasures of Turkish literary history . The book is called "epic novel" published in the United States. He wrote many plays were made into a movie. For example, with the Soviet Union in 1979, the Turkish co-production of the film "My love, my sorrow" is based on his screenplay adaptation. Hikmet's works in his home country has long been regarded as "communist propaganda" suffer blocked. In 2000, signs of thaw finally appeared on the eve of his centenary. Former President Suleyman Demirel quoted at an international conference on his verse; 500,000 Turks signature petition for the restoration of his citizenship; in 2001 in the United Kingdom held a commemorative seminar; UNESCO declared 2002 in the "Hikmet Year"; Turkey in recent years a number of organizations around the country as he held a variety of commemorative activities. The Turkish government has finally made the decision to restore Hikmet nationality. Turkish President Abdullah Gul and Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan have signed off on the decision.
Many Turkish intellectuals have spoken, the current government decided to abolish 58 years ago has become a trend. First, whether ordinary people or political leaders, not when someone references and Hikmet poem recitation, showing his works loved by the people. In addition, with the end of the Cold War, views on the "threat to Turkey" has been changed. Moreover, as a condition of joining the EU, Turkey must improve its human rights situation, allowing dissidents to exist and express their views. Restore Hikmet's citizenship, it can be considered a gesture to Turkey joining the EU did.
Of course, there is always a society of different political views and opinions. According to a poll in Turkey "national newspaper" in 2009, for the Government's decision, respondents in 46.4% of people think that recovery is very correct Hikmet nationality, 20.5% of people think wrong, 33.1% were undecided. But Hikmet unique position in poetry, it is not even his critics and enemies are hard to deny. His creation has brought fundamental change to the Turkish poetry, it is a major revolution in verse. 1929 "eight hundred thirty five lines" when someone will be published poems ratio as popping a bomb on Turkish poetry. There are even critics have to admit that his freedom of poetry by a single body to become rich playing music symphony. Some left-wing organization called him "the greatest poet of the working class and socialism," has called him a patriotic poet, some people think he is full of humane care for the community, it was like his love poems. His poetic soul forever linger in their homeland.