Technical Introduction

mainly includes two aspects: (1) Using emerging nanotechnology to solve and biological problems; (2) Molecular devices, imitation and manufacturing using biological macromolecules Molecular machine of biological macromolecule.

Basic principle

Nanomaterials Mainly: quantum size effect, small size effect, indicating and interface effect, macro quantum tunnel effect. When the particles are less than 100 nm, many properties of the substance have changed, thereby presenting singular phenomena different from macro substances: low melting point, high ratio heat capacity, high expansion coefficient; high reaction activity, high diffusion rate; high strength, high toughness; 奇特 magnetic Extremely absolute absorption.

The size of nanoparticles is generally much smaller than cells in the organism, which provides a new research path for biological research, using nano-biotechnology to manipulate biological macromolecules, is considered to be possible The revolution of secondary biology.


The following is five important applications of nano-biotechnology, including bioconads, nano probes, biofluorescence markers, molecular motors, and molecular nano sieves.

1 , bioconch chip

Biological chip mainly includes 2 aspects: (1) Nanocomposites are prepared in biocontrol The application, enhances the static and dynamic adhesion between nucleic acids, proteins and sheets, promotes miniaturization, high resolution and multi-function; (2) broaden the application range of biological chips, such as high-throughput screening of the active ingredient of botanical drugs, Clinical diagnosis of diseases such as cancer, as an internal signal sensor.


Combined with microelectronic magnetics, bioconocitrer has been used in single-cell separation, mono-gene mutation analysis, gene amplification and immunoassay. The microstructure of microstructure, separation, purification, electrophoresis, PCR amplification, addition, purification, electrophoresis, PCR amplification, addition, and detection, etc. can be minimized in one chip. The biocon chip is different from the semiconductor electronic chip, which is equipped with a small geometric scale surface area or integrated with a variety of biological activity, only uses trace physiological or biological sampling, simultaneous detection and study different biological cells, biomolecules and DNA. The interaction between features and the mutual effects are obtained. The biocon chip has the advantages of integration, parallel and rapid detection, becoming the frontier technology of biomedical engineering in the 21st century. The bioconch chip is divided into cell chip, protein chip (biomolecular chip) and a gene chip (DNA chip).

2 , nano - probe

Using nanotechnology to make nano probes, you can directly on biological molecules in their life. The environment is detected to obtain more detailed and more detailed information.

Nano probe detect a variety of cell chemicals, monitor living cell proteins and other biochemical substances; can also be used to screen trace drugs, ultimately achieve the health of individual cells. The nanoscope is made by nano-probe, and its nanoscale probe detects a single living cell and inserted into a living cell to detect early DNA damage caused by tumors.

3 , biofluorescence marker

Nano-bioassay of nanoparticles (such as quantum dots) using biomolecules The platform breaks through the limits of fluorescence fluorescence in conventional fluorescent labels. Quantum dots are gel-shaped nanocrystalline semiconductors with unique luminescent properties. Compared to conventional organic fluorescent monoliths, quantum dots broadband excitation, the characteristic of the emitted bandwidth is suitable for use as a multivariate analysis and higher analytical sensitivity. The cellular working state is observed by the luminescent amount sub-point to characterize the cell surface or the internal protein properties, and the cell operating state is observed and used in the pharmaceutical design and treatment. my country has now developed fluorescence magnetic cells to target multi-function nano biofilms, invented simple, safe, efficient and inexpensive nuclear / shell semiconductor fluorescence quantum dots, and developed quantum dots products with excellent performance. Novel nano biomass.

4 , molecular motor

Molecular motor constitutes a nano-organism that is composed of biological macromolecules and utilizes chemical energy Device. Natural molecular motors such as driven proteins, RNA polymerase and muscle proteins, etc., are involved in cytoplasmic transport, DNA replication, cell division and muscle contraction, etc. in organisms. Current research more molecular motors are F1-ATP enzymes.

Molecular motor is a core component of a miniature robot and a variety of functions can be achieved on the molecule. If the nanoscope of the harmful substance can be detected, the liquid brake or mixing is realized in the bioconchi, and the drug molecules are delivered to a particular position, and the drug is released in the human cell.

5 , molecular nano -

Controlling the circulation of the material in the nanohole by voltage gallery molecular nano sieve. The cylindrical gold nano tube is arranged on the film, only 1.6 nm in the tube; when the small tube is positively charged, the positive ions are rejected, and only the negative ions can pass through the film; the membrane is negatively charged, the negative ions are rejected, and only the positive ions can pass through the film. At the same time, control the gating voltage, the aperture, the pore shape, and the charge limit, and the ion transport can be more accurately controlled. Since the nanohole can quickly distinguish a small amount of DNA molecules, this method is expected to be a rapid, low cost, high-throughput gene sequencing method.


After the genetic era development provides a good opportunity for the development of nano-biotechnology. It can be expected that as constant progress in the fields of chemistry, biology, materials, nano-biotechnology will be more extensive and in-depth studies. While the rapid development of biological chips, molecular motors, biological probes, nano-biomaterials, will have some other new fields of nano-biotechnology.

Nano biotechnology is the frontier and hotspot in the field of international biotechnology, and there is a wide range of applications and clear industrial prospects in the field of medical and health, especially nano-drug carriers, nano-sensor and imaging techniques, and miniature Intelligent medical equipment, etc., will play an important role in the diagnosis, treatment and health care of diseases. The research of international nano-biotechnology in the pharmaceutical field has made certain progress. Nano-biotechnology has been focused as a scientific research priority project in the United States, Japan, Germany.

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