concept evolution

1775, after the four major people of Lin Nai, after 40 years, Germany's natural anthropologist Bruneba is in his "human nature variant" In the book, a new human partship program is published. The people around the world are divided into five major people, namely, Caucasus, Mongolia, Malay, Niger, and Niger. Americans. He and many people learned from the later children, they also try to find a variety of people outside the skin, including skull, nose, hair, eye shape, eye, auricle profile, teeth, ear wad, base metabolism, blood type, fingerprint Wait, but use these standards that cannot be divided into strict people. There are also physical human scholars to prove that Mongolians have the rapid combination of yellow skin, "yellow people" and "Mongolians" and become synonymous.

In 1966, American breeders Kong En made a division of five original people. Among them, the second person is a variety of Mongolia, but also known as Yaman people. They initially live in East Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia and Siberia. Later, a North Ascena entered the American continent along the Alaska Bridge and developed as an Indians; another South Asians extended to the South Pacific Islands. The characteristics of Mongolia are: yellow skin, maroon eyes, black straight hair, body hair and beard are not obvious, facial flat flat, humerous humerus, no high nose, two eye angles have special adipitals, etc. . The Asian Mongolia can be divided into three people who have three people in North Asia, East Asia and South Asia. Holen's people have a big reference value, but there is still a variety of disputes.

Physical characteristics

Some Mongolian have independent light color traits, is an independent characteristic; its skin tone is white, light yellow, part is more ruddy; black and More straightforward hair, beard and body hair are not developed; the chin does not convene, but some people are more sharp, some are more flat; the nasal width is medium, the nose point index is medium; ocular crack medium, brown iris, upper eyelip pleating, Most of the eyes have the pleats to cover tears; the bungle structure of the on-site tongue is also one of the distinct features of the yellow human species; the face of the American Indians is not like the face of the people of the Mongolian language, shortness. Most of the long-scale, the protrusion of the nose is slightly large.

Language classification

Ancient times

Ancient, yellow people mainly talk about the Ural-Tibetan Department, Han Tibet, Zhuangwei, South Asian ), Altai, Mongolian family, Tonggusian family, Turkic language, Eskimo-Ashilans (Guosibilia language), South Island Language (Indonesian language), Indian language, Polynesian language, Polynesian language, etc.

Contemporary Distribution

Ural region (Northeast Europe)

Ural "; Urals across the Ural region in nearly 10,000 years ago. Since then, due to the Ural culture is too backward - such as the Finnish people in the 15th century, they have gradually been crowded to the remote area. The Urals have already begun to mixed with white, and the modern Ural people are mixed. Even white people, they are distributed in the Ural region. The main language is Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, Maldova (not Moldova), Komi, Akali.

East Asia

China (Chinese nation);

Korean peninsula (North Korean nation);

Japan island (big and national); < / p>

North Asia

Mongolian family;

Tonggusian family;

ancient Siberian language: Eskimo - Ai Laiyi Department, Chukoqi - Keicharban, Siberia, other languages ​​(Kate, Niwi, Yachkil, Aiu);

Southeast Asia

Tibetan group (mainly distributed Myanmar);

Taiwan - Ka Tu language department (语 语);

South Asian system;

South Island language;


Turkist: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan;

South Asia (especially in the northeast of India)

especially India Northeast; South Asia type is between East Asia and Malay types. The South Asian type here refers to South Asian yellow human species, not the mixed-blood Indians between the Airyan, Darro, or the buddies between the Yaan people and Darro, said the Han Tibetan language department (many scholars believe that Han Tibetan language includes Miao Yao language, Zhuangwei language and South Asian language.

Africa (Madagascar)

Merignan in Madagascar is a mixed human species of Mongolian southern type and Niegero;

America < / h3>

Mongolian American types; American Aboriginal people;

Far East, Pacific Islands

Micronesians, Melania people The mixed type with the Papua is a Nanxima language.

Hokkaido Ayu, Polynesia in the Pacific Islands has the characteristics of similar in the middle of the sea, and at the same time, there are also some Mongolia characteristics, and the molecular anthropology confirms the gene from the two. Asia, with Mongolian homologous, with the Europeans have no close genetic relationship, and its unique body may be the result of independent evolution in isolated island.


Y chromosome haplotype

  • single group k Mongolian

    • single group NO (from China)

      • single group o (most East Asians, Han Tibetan ")

        < / li>
      • single group N (Ural Language, Nordic)

    • single group P (originated from China, Southeast Asia, now Distributed in Central Asia)

      • single group Q (Siberian Ye Niyi, part of Siberi, India Europe, Native Americans)

      • Suitable group R (Indo-European system)

      • single group C (Altai "

        • Most Mongolia

        • part of the Central Asian

      • single group D, with African single group E related


      • Some Japanese, Ryuquati, China Tibetan (, mostly monophydro o)

      • India's Andaman

      • < / UL>


      "Mongolian people" is considered to have racist colors. According to the American scholar Qimai, Brunebach uses "Mongolian" to name East Asian, not because of the most typical and representative of Mongolian skull, but because Mongol is the most surprised East in history. People, this name is enough to evoke the History of Western to Genghis Khan and Tummer. Thereafter, "Mongolian Pleated", "Mongolian Spot" and "Mongolian Diseases" (Down Syndrome) reflects the development of racial thinking in medicine. By the 1950s, the Mongolian government has also filed protests to the World Health Organization. On the other hand, the combination of "Mongolian" and "yellow people" has further gave birth to the so-called "yellow disaster" of modern Europe. The use of contemporary, "Mongolian" and other concepts are still a controversial topic in various levels of politics, academics, society.

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