Mawangdui (7) < / p> Mawangdui located in the eastern outskirts of Changsha City in Hunan Furong District, four kilometers of village Liuyang Mawangdui riverside (in March 1984 the former East Tuen crossing people's commune because of the territory and renamed champion Mawangdui heap Township), according to local history records as the Five Dynasties period Mayan cemetery Chu family, named Mawangdui. Each projection has something on the heap a mound, 20 meters distance therebetween, the shape of the saddle, it is also known saddle stack.
Mawangdui Changsha is the early Western Han Dynasty prime minister, Dai Hou Lee Chong family cemetery. Three tomb, the tomb is the early Han Dynasty in Changsha II prime minister Dai Hou Li Cang, Li Cang Tomb is a wife, a son Lee III tomb Cang. Owner of the Tomb II at Dai Hou Lee Chong Empress buried about two years (before 186 years), Li Cang III tomb tomb's burial is the son of former Western Han Emperor Yuan two years (168 years ago), Tomb tomb Lee Cang wife's burial may be even a little later.
1951 winter, archaeologists archaeological survey conducted in Changsha, in the eastern outskirts of Changsha wulipai found two mounds connected, according to archaeological data to determine the Han Dynasty tombs.
1952 years, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Archeology and Cultural Relics Management Committee of Hunan Mawangdui mound joint investigation, confirmed that large-scale Han Dynasty tombs.
1961 years, the provincial government will Mawangdui mound as a provincial cultural relics protection units and establish a protective emblem, but did not carry out excavations.
the end of 1971, 366 Military Hospital of Hunan Province, decided to build two small hillside in Mawangdui underground hospital, often encountered in the construction collapse, and the emergence of flammable gases. Archaeologists Hunan Provincial Museum received the news immediately realized that it was an ancient tomb. To cope with the infrastructure, the archaeologists have decided to rescue excavations, Hunan Provincial Museum will this mound is disturbed dugout named Han Mawangdui Tomb, was named number two Mawangdui tomb mound in the other seat.
1971 Nian 12 30, Hunan Province, archaeological experts to submit a report to the State Council, a formal application for Mawangdui excavations.
1972 Nian 1 14, the State Council issued a document approved and agreed to a formal Mawangdui excavations.
1972 January with the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Hunan Provincial Museum of Archeology formal scientific excavation Mawangdui tombs, the survey shows that a large ancient tombs 20 meters long from north to south, from east to west 17 meters, belong tombs. January 16 excavations began. Ending April 28.
1973 to early 1974, Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Hunan Provincial Museum and archaeological excavations Mawangdui II, III tomb.
1973 In September 2009, the State Council granted approval to continue excavations Mawangdui Tomb II and Tomb III.
1973 Nian 11 Yue 18 - December 14, Mawangdui tomb first cleared III, in which a large number of silk manuscripts unearthed tomb is the most valuable artifacts. Three-coffin tombs have been cracking, covering the bodies wrapped in clothes quilt seriously decayed corpses remaining bones.
1973 Nian 12 Yue 18 - January 13, 1974, Mawangdui Tomb II ended. The results showed excavations, II tomb had been stolen in the Tang Dynasty, and later after numerous excavation, very serious damage, collapsed coffin, a large number of cultural relics were destroyed and scattered the remains of the tomb bear, found that only three seals, were engraved above there are "Changsha prime minister", "Dai Hou of India" and "Li Cang" words.
Mawangdui a complete archaeological excavation, filling the pit II, unearthed the body of a woman, prime yarn Zen clothes and utensils and a large number of Han Dynasty silk brocade painting are all stored in the Hunan Provincial Museum; Three pit after finishing reinforcement, for people to visit.
Mawangdui (4)Mawangdui ground, similar size of the original mound two things in parallel, each of the bottom diameter of about 40 meters, circular flat top, a height of about 16 meters. After the local was originally a four or five-meter-high mound, while the lower half of the pit dug to build the tomb in the mound, then construction method Ben Zhu version of the pit and the upper half of ramps, buried, backfill compaction, build tall mounds. 3 grave pit, substantially the same form, the north side is a rectangular earthen ramps. 3 around the end of the tomb and coffin tomb chamber are filled with charcoal and a plaster, and then layers of filling, sealing compacted.
tomb mound composed, ramps, and the tomb pit (i.e., a lower pit) four parts, a rectangular shape earthen pit. The direction of true north.
mound tomb mound is located, 20 meters high before the excavation, bottom diameter of 50 to 60 m, most of the rammed earth, the platform top is circular, about 20 meters in diameter, most artificial pile, the lower side of a mound naturally formed from about 4 to 5 meters small mound. Of the burial mound, from excavation of natural mound, pit shape is rectangular earthen ramps with slopes, north-south direction. North slope ramp located in the middle of the pit, wider at the top, the top width of 3.1 meters, 2 meters wide lower end. The ramp slope is determined substantially close to an end of the tomb is 36 °, near the bottom end of the tomb crypt distance of about 3.5 meters, because there is no specific length of excavations unknown.
19.5 yards north to south port tomb tomb west width of 17.8 meters, from the mouth down the tomb four steps, then the next is a bucket-shaped sides of the pit, direct end of the tomb. The first layer is 16.8 m stepped west width of 15.42 meters; 14.64 m long second level step and 12.8 meters wide; third layer length 12.54 m, 10.45 m wide; 10.34 meters long fourth layer steps, something 8.45 m. Each step height is about 1 to 1.5 m, the stepped walls and each angle of 105 to 108 degrees, the tomb base length 7.6 m, 6.7 m wide, 16 m deep, from Muding to the coffin chamber depth of 20 meters. Almost at the end of the ramp to reach the top wooden coffin and wooden coffin around filling in charcoal, reloading white plaster, filling with "Wu Hua soil" ramming other practices. Charcoal 0.4 and 0.5 m thick, a total weight of up to about 5000 kilograms, distributed in the outer layer of charcoal in a plaster, a thickness of 1 to 1.3 m, the viscosity is very strong, low permeability, decisive for the sealing. Tomb of a plaster deposited thick and uniform, tightly sealing the coffin deep underground formation chamber 10 meters high standard temperature, humidity, oxygen, sterile environment, the basic rule of physical, chemical and biological the role of various factors on the damaged material, it is multi-layered coffin tomb, the tomb of the bodies and funerary objects are well preserved.
positive tomb is located in the west side of Tomb II, that is another one pair Mawangdui heap. II tomb slightly smaller scale, shallow pit, Mubi only 3 layer level. Sepulcher tomb Tomb distance from the nearest port is about 23 meters. As earthen pit with ramp ramps, Northern and Southern Dynasties. Upper mound irregular oval, 11.5 meters north-south and east-west width of 8.95 m. Nearly rectangular base 3 meters tomb, 7.25 m long, 5.95 m wide. Due to the accumulation of a plaster is thin, uneven distribution, good degree of sealing yielded poor preservation of the case.
3 Tomb with a large share the same tomb mound, smaller size, shallow pit, only three layers mubi step. Original tomb belongs to the top of the mouth III tomb mound remaining 2 meters only for Wu Hua soil. Rectangular earthen grave with ramps, the direction is north-south direction, a depth of about 17.7 meters. Sepulcher 16.3 meters long north-south, east-west width of 15.45 meters. Tomb port has the following 3 layer step, each received within about 1 m below the pit wall of the bucket type, a direct end of the tomb. Tomb base length 5.8 m, width 5.05 m. In the middle of the northern end of the ramp pit slope is 19 °, close to the port side of the tomb built two kneeling ceramic dolls, have damaged. Filled with charcoal end of the tomb chamber and around the coffin, there is a plaster over charcoal. Charcoal 15 to 30 cm thick. Usually a cyan plaster thickness of 60 to 70 cm, 10 cm thin in some places. Above the plaster layer is a tight filling ramming, clay soil reticulate, pure upper portion, a lower gray paste mixed with mud, a total thickness of 6.1 m.
Mawangdui coffin (10)Mawangdui Tomb 3 Tomb coffin and are kept quite integrity, structure broadly consistent, but the scale is somewhat different.
One burial chamber having a coffin, and four sets of the coffin consisting of skids. Coffin is placed in the middle of the bottom of the tomb, the north direction, in a total of six outside (floor panel, four grid plate), even skids common wood seventy. Room coffin 6.72 m long, 4.88 meters wide, 2.8 meters high. This cast plate based ax pounds chisel, flat square straight, making precision. About seventy timber 52 cubic meters of wood, wood maximum (two things lemon chamber wall) 4.84 m long, 1.52 m wide, 26 cm thick, weighing about 1,500 kg. Coffin structured, seventy wood without a piece of metal studs. Bonding methods are roughly classified into fastening, tongue and sleeve pegs engage three. Coffin chamber with thick pine boards to build large, 6.73 m long, 4.9 meters wide, 2.8 meters high, and two skids underlying bottom plate, and then the tree four panels 4 baffles, will form the center of the room and the coffin around the edge of the box, and two layers of roof covering the upper cover. 4 layer sets coffin with Catalpa wood production, the inner walls are painted with red lacquer, the appearance is different. Pigment black outer coffin largest volume, 2.95 meters long, 1.5 meters wide, 1.44 m high, not add other decorative. The second layer is a black base colored coffin, clouds complex decorative patterns and different patterns of animals and fantasy. Layer 3 Judith painted coffin, decorated with dragon, tiger, Suzaku and fairy and other auspicious patterns. The fourth layer is in direct mutes coffin ornaments Jin, after the first draw a silk unwarranted two beams, and then attached to a full spread of needlepoint Kam Kam decals feather edging. The coffin is placed a body of a woman, preserved.
II tomb chamber interior for the middle coffin, the coffin and a plaster filled outdoor yellow plaster. Because after excavation, the upper rotten coffin, unable to distinguish the situation, only well-preserved floor, a total of four layers, it can be inferred as a coffin three or two coffin coffin coffin two structures.
Three coffin tomb intact, structure and Tomb much the same, but smaller. Put the coffin in the center of the three-room coffin coffin room, one less than the tomb. The case is constructed coffin chamber: three skids tomb bottom horizontally, then vertically placed 19 cm thick floor two, three each. 5.09 m length of the upper plate, width 3.37 m, the lower base plate smaller. Zi upstanding wall thickness of about 19 centimeters eight base plate, constituting 1.15 m deep and four sides of the chamber box coffin. Coffin chamber 2.61 m long, 1.22 m wide. South box 41 cm wide, 94 cm wide north tank, are 2.87 meters long. The same thing both sides of the tank size, are 62 cm wide and 2.63 m long. Roof cover plate and cover layers coffin chamber. 6 ~ 6.8 cm thick top plate, intermediate plate is three rectangular. East and west sides a long plate, a trapezoidal plate south, north two trapezoidal-shaped plate. The north east - central box, a plus-shaped wooden frame, in order to support the roof. Cover layers, the upper horizontally four, five lower horizontally, 19.5 - 22 cm thick, and additional frame. The frame length 5.60 m, width 4.25 m. Under slightly smaller box. Zi-covered chamber over a whole mats, Zi cover slightly larger than the area of about 25 m2. Fit tightly the three wooden coffin and outer coffin and the coffin are prime coffin, painted dark brown exterior paint, painted red lacquer. The coffin sides and bottom images engraved with a full timber. Outer coffin 2.57 m long, 1.16 m wide and 1.13 m high. 2.34 m long in the coffin, 92 cm wide, 88 cm high. After the addition of two beams on the inner coffin silk, Kam is full raised trim attached to the embroidery, 2.14 m long, 72 cm wide, 67 cm high. When unearthed, three have cracks coffin, coffin lid closed lax, save poor conditions. There coffin in the coffin for about 250 liters of liquid, cover and wrap the body has decayed clothes. Rotting corpses have been, leaving only scattered skeleton, identified as male, aged in his thirties.
Han Mawangdui three relics were unearthed more than 3,000 pieces, most well-preserved. Where more than five hundred pieces of all kinds of lacquer, producing exquisite, ornate decorations, shiny as new. Tomb is a large number of precious silk, protection intact. Many varieties, there are silk, Qi, Luo, yarn, Jin and so on. Lam Sim Yuen yarn has a prime coat, the Length 1.28 m, and a long-sleeved, only 49 g weight, woven skilful. Unearthed silk painting, is China's earliest extant what was then the reality of large-scale works. There are colored figurines, musical instruments, weapons, seals, silk manuscripts and other treasures.
Mawangdui Han funerary objects, focus is placed among the four sides of the box, including textiles, lacquer, wood figurines, musical instruments, and other bamboo wood, as well as pottery, bamboo, etc. , a total of more than 1,000 pieces. In addition, in the cover plate inside the coffin decorated with brocade and we found a painting hanging painting, paint caught between a wall and thirty-three peach branches wooden figurines, decorated coffin and Zhu Jin within the painted grid found three centromere Mai the wooden figurines and a few silk pieces.
Mawangdui unearthed a large number of cultural relics, preserved the tomb and III tomb, funerary objects are placed in four sides of the box around the coffin room, the main seal, silk, painting on silk, bamboo trunk, lacquer ware, wooden figurines, musical instruments, wood and pottery, as well as "severance policy" bamboo, reached more than 1,000 pieces. Kam ornaments in the two tombs are covered with painted silk painting on the coffin. Tomb unearthed two calendar years does not rot the body of a woman, III tomb unearthed a large number of silk manuscripts documents and weapons.
Tomb coffin with a layer 4, which is positioned most inner coffin tomb remains covered with a "T" type mystery dynasty coffin lid, which width up to two meters and a huge dynasty is intact archaeological history of China first discovered.
4 Tomb coffin outermost layer sheath of a decent coffin black pigment, not the slightest decoration; the second layer is a black lacquer painting coffin, on black base with gold depicted more complicated clouds pattern change, interspersed between the lines 111 or immortal monster, imaginative patterns, rough lines; the third layer is a lacquer painting coffin bottom Zhu, green, brown, yellow and other colors on a red background, depicting many representatives auspicious patterns, drew a total of six dragon, three tigers, three deer, a phoenix and a fairy, and compared to the outside of the coffin, the coffin looked magnificent; within the innermost coffin, coffin body painted black and wrapped with silk brocade and embroidery decoration. Clean up after a week, the owner who found her wrapped in 20 layers of clothing, silk, linen goods, clothes seasons was cleared. After the embalmed body of a woman, she was sent to Hunan Medical College. When injected preservative, soft tissue of the body of a woman at any time muster, and then gradually spread, and fresh corpse similar. This is not only in the history of archaeological wonders of the world, but also the miracle of human history.