Profile Introduction

China 's first formal implementation of China. In 1902 (Qing Guangxu 28 Years) The Minister of Management, Zhang Baixi, has placed the "Qin Ding School of Association", 即 寅 学, does not practice. In 1903 (Qing Guangxu twenty-nine years) In July, the Qing Guanzhi is Zhang Baixi, Rongqing, Zhang Zhixong takes Japanese academic system as Bluestbook, and re-develops a school session, in 1904 (Qing Guangxu 30 years) announced, ie " The school chart is a year, which is the old school.

forming the background

Due to the pretending "学 学", Zhang Baixi, who is "学 学", is defiled by the new school, and also because the Xun Xue system has developed rush, there are many shortcomings after publication Some people put forward different opinions, of which Zhang Zhidong, Huaguang, also made a more systematic recommendation. In this case, Zhang Baixi, the management of the management, Rongqing, in June 1903, "The School for Today's First Priority, Zhang Zhidong is the first of the school", "asked Zhang Zhidong to learn The service, the last appointment.


January 13, 1904 (Qing Guangxu 30 years November 26), the Qing government announced a series of academic system documents from Zhang Zhidong, Rongqing, Zhang Baixi Including the "Scriptures", "Conduct", "Montecence Articles", "Scriptures", "Elementary Schools", "Higher Primary School Charter", etc. This is a national statutory system that China has enacted and first implemented a national statutory system in the first time, and more detailed more than "学". This is the formation background of "卯 学".

School system

The academic system includes "primary school charter", "Higher Primary School Charter", "Middle School Championship", "Higher School Chart", "University Cangship" (With the "Confucian Articles of Confucian Articles)," Montecence and Family Education "," Junior Teacher School Charter "," Excellent Teachers School Charter "," The First Rural Industry and Commercial Industry Association "(with" Industrial Tutoring General School "And" Artists Choose ")," Second Agricultural Industry and Commercial School of Industry "," Higher Roman Business Industry Association "," Industrial Teachers' Structure Articles "," Translation Museum Charter "," Scholar Charter ", and" The Subsidist Outline, "Conduct", "School of Mechanics", "National Awards Articles" and "School Examination Articles".


The establishment of the school in the school is "Based on loyalty," the Chinese scripture is based on the history of history, and the souvenir is home to pure, and then瀹瀹 瀹 知, practice its art, during his day, and practical ". It also stipulates the nature tasks, enrollment conditions, construction period and mutual connection and relationship of all kinds of schools.

The primary series

The primary series is divided into three seven seven levels for 25 to 26 years. The first phase is the first education, including the 4 years of the Summonarium, 5 years and higher primary school halls for 4 years and high school. The Sundang Institute is a childhood education institution, recruiting 3 to 7 years old, incorporating it into the school system. My pre-school early childhood education has entered the new stage of national planning. The first primary school planning is for the forced education phase for 5 years, which is a popular educational nature. It is "the knowledge of his life, and the foundation of the ethical love country, and the child's body is maintained." The courses are: Slim, Reading, Chinese text, arithmetic, history, geography, consisting, gymnastics, etc. Convenience, you can increase manual, drawing 1 or 2. The barren area can be set up, and the course will be reduced. 4 years, the purpose is "cultivating the national goodness, expanding the knowledge of the nationals, the gas of the national", the course is: Slim, Reading, Chinese text, arithmetic, Chinese history, geography, style, picture, gymnastics Wait. Handmade, agriculture, commercial and other sections can be added to the local situation. The second stage is a secondary education, and the secondary school hall is 5 years. It is a general educational nature, and has two tasks and employment of employment. There is a slim, read the classics, Chinese literature, foreign language (Japanese, English, English or German, French, Russian), history, geography, algorithm, museum, physics and chemistry, legal system and financial management, drawings, gymnastics. The third stage is in the high stage, with higher education halls, "teaching university preparatory purposes". According to the needs of the University of the University, divided into three categories: Category 1 is to upgrade to university subjects, political and legiscoology, literary department, business hours; Class 2 is to upgrade to university, engineering, agricultural sequen; The class is preparing to upgrade to the university medical department. University Hall is also known as the university, "" Take the tendency to create a tendency for the purpose ", divided into 8 sects, set a number of doors. Economics University: Set Zhou Yi, Shang Shu, Mao Poetry, Chunqiu Zuo Chuan, Spring and Autumn Three Biography, Zhou Li, Yi Li, Book, Analectory, Mencius, Science and Technology. University of Political Science and Law: Two Politics, Law. University of Literature: China Historiography, Wan Guo's Historiography, Sino-Foreign Geography, Chinese Literature, British Literature, French Literature, German Literature, Russian Literature, Japanese Literature 9. Medical University: Doing medicine, pharmacy. University: Mechanics, Starology, Physics, Chemistry, Dynamic and Plants, Geology. Agricultural University: Agricultural, agronomic chemistry, forestry, and veterinary medicine. University of Engineering: Civil Engineering, Machinery, Shippaign, Exercise, Electrical Engineering, Architecture, Applied Chemistry, Firepipe, Mining and Metallurgy. Business University: Set bank insurance, trade and trafficking, and 3 customs. Due to the division of law and medical treatment industry in the medical department of the medical department, the balance is 3 years. The university hall also has a Confucianism, "" For the study of the deep meaning of each science, it is prepared for the writer. " Take 5 years.

Outside the main series

There are teachers and industrial schools. 1 Teacher School is divided into primary and excellent. a. Primary Normal School Training Higher Primary School and Elementary Schools, equivalent to the degree of ordinary middle school. Finished complete sectoral and simple. Completely recruited a high-level graduate and equivalent scholars under the age of 18 and 25 years old, graduated in 5 years. The simple rejuvenation is 25 years old and 30 years old, graduated from 1 year. There is also a preparatory and primary school teachers. The predecessors recruiting ordinary scholars without high-profile graduates, and the primary school teachers who have enrolled their academic qualifications. b. Excellent Normal School Training Primary Teachers School and General Middle School Teachers and Administrators. It is equivalent to the level of higher education halls (university preparatory). Enclose the primary teacher school and middle school graduates and equivalent scholars, graduated in 4 years (1 year public subject and 3 years). In addition, 1 year of Jacking, after graduation, after graduation, students self-sensing management law, the lack of professor law. 2 Industrial school points first, medium, high. a. The primary industrial schools are divided into three categories of agriculture, commercial, and commercial boats, enrolling in the age of 13 years old and equivalent. It is equivalent to the highest level of agriculture, merchants, merchants, and the most brightest knowledge and skills. Agricultural schools are divided into agriculture, sericulture, forestry and veterinary, graduated from 3 years. The primary business school is not available, 3 years graduated. At the beginning of the waiting mail school, the sea, the turnull 2, graduated from 2 years. b. Secondary industrial schools, divided into agriculture, industrial, commercial, business ships. It is equivalent to the degree of general secondary school, professor farmers, workers, merchants, and merchants. Agricultural schools set up agriculture, sericulture, forestry, veterinary and 5 subjects. Industrial schools set up civil, metalworking, shipbuilding, electrical, woodworking, mining, dyed, kiln, paint industry, artwork painting 10 subjects. Traffic ship school branch sea, turnar 2 section. All kinds of schools have undergraduate and preparatory. Undergraduate recruits, the high-level graduates and equivalent of the age of 15, graduated in 3 years; the predecessors recruited primary graduates and equivalents over the age of 13, graduated from 2 years. Also specialize in the department, enrolled undergraduate graduates, 1 year agriculture, industrial 2 years. c. Higher industry schools are divided into agricultural, industrial, commercial, commercial boat 4, equivalent to the degree of higher school hall (university preparatory). Agricultural Sciences, Forests and Veterinary. Industrial schools are available in chemistry, dyeing, woven, building, kiln, machinery, electrical, electrical chemistry, civil engineering, mining, shipbuilding, painting, artwork painting and other 13 sectors. The merchantry school has a sea, the main wheel 2. Undergraduate and business schools are all undergraduate and commercial schools. After a year of graduation, he graduated from agricultural school in the Undergraduate School of Agricultural Sciences. Industrial schools and business ships have only undergraduate undergraduate, the former graduated from 3 years, and the latter graduated from 5 to 5 years. Recruitment of the equivalent scholars of ordinary secondary school graduates and years over 18 years old. Another year of selection and special sectors recruited undergraduate graduates.

In addition, there is also an industrial tutorial common school and artistic school. Industrial tutorials in ordinary school, divided into agriculture, industrial, commercial, and aquatic products. Recruitment of workers, agriculture, business, and preparation employment, have established graduation and equivalent of primary primary primary primary school. In addition to the knowledge of agriculture, workers, business knowledge, also eliminating general education in primary schools, graduated in 3 years. Artists Xue Hall recruits young children with a rough understanding of the year over 12 years old. Learning is half a year to 4 years. In addition to the slim, Chinese culture is a compulsory course, Yu Ke can listen.

also has a translation, quite higher school hall (university preparatory) level, British, Law, Russia, Germany, Japanese and other subjects, cultivate translators, graduated in 5 years (see Xuan Xue system map ).

Guiding Ideas

The guiding ideology to develop this system is "Middle School as the body, the West is used". And, most of the thoughts of the Japanese education system are drawn. On the course setting, pay special attention to the reading, with strong feudality. Primary and secondary schools are listed as the head of the course, and they have read the class. However, the training objectives and talent specifications of all kinds of schools have differentiated, and it has broken through the single goal of traditional education and training bureaucratic elite. "Playing the School of Association" is the official establishment of the Chinese early childhood education system. The primary school hall, the secondary school hall is divided into official, public, private, and the teaching content also broke the situation in the Confucian classic world. Take the Middle School Tang Tang, its learning subjects include: Slim, Reading, Chinese text, Foreign language (Japanese, English or German, French, Russian), history, geography, algorithm, museum, physics and chemistry, legal system, and financial, drawing 12 gymnastics, 12 gymnastics, 36 o'clock per week, reading the study of 9 o'clock per week. "卯 学" has established a teacher education system separately, divided into two levels of primary teacher schools and excellent teachers, and stipulates that teachers are not paying tuition fees, thereby attracting many children's children enrollment. In addition, an industrial education system has been established. Industrial schools are divided into industrial faculty works, agricultural schools, industrial school halls, business schools, and merchants schools. It excludes the education of women and is a simple male education, and the system has a longer system. The Xi Xue School has gradually implemented since 1904, and it was abolished after the 1911 Revolution. It has been released from 1903 to the Qing Dynasty in 1911. The school system of old China is very affected, and the establishment of school institutions later is actually the evolution of this study.

Xue deficiencies

It is worth noting that there is no status of women's education, and it is not allowed to set up a woman's school, so the Mong. The teacher cannot be cultivated by the school. Springs can only serve by the trained nursery. They are a very low cultural level, the feudal thought, lack of modern scientific knowledge, the feudal and backwardness of the pursuant education education is hereby visible.

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