John Patin

Character introduction

Puddin, born in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in 1908, entered Wisconsin University Madison's motor engineering system, in 1928, Bachelor degree, 1929 Master's degree in year. After graduation, Patama stayed in the engineering research assistant. During the period from 1930 to 1933, the Patamin was engaged in the study of Earth magnetic field and gravity field survey in Pittsburgh Bay Experimental Institute. In 1933, Badin entered Princeton University, and solid physics was studied under the guidance of E.P. Weiger. From 1935 to 1938, he served as a researcher at Harvard, and was a doctorate of Princeton University in 1936. From 1938 to 1941, Baden served as Assistant Professor of Minnesota University, from 1941 to 1945, in Washington Navy Army Laboratory, 1945 to 1951, the conductive mechanism of semiconductor and metal in Bell Telephone Co., Ltd., semiconductor surface properties And other issues. In 1947, Braton invented the semiconductor triode. After a month, Xiaokeli invented the PN crystal body tube, three people found the 1956 Nobel Physics Award for the discovery of transistor effects.

Characters experience

Pudding is the first scientist in the same academic field (physics). The first scientist of Nobel bonus. In this fact itself, it is not difficult to see what is brave in progress on the road in science, and is good at playing the power of collective. When he accepted the Nobel Prize in 1972, the Foundation members praised them to say: "... Zhu Langmao only has a small part of the enthusiastic climbers to arrive. Puddin, Cooper, Srifer three on the basis of predecessors, I finally arrived this peak ... You as a team, tough, work hard ... Now, the unlimited beautiful scenery on the top of the mountain is finally present in front of your eyes. "

1908 On May 23, Badin was born in Madison, Maximon, USA. In 1924, I advanced the Wisconsin University to study electrical engineering. He graduated from 1928, a bachelor's degree, after the master's degree in 1929, go to the Gulf Research Laboratory to study the three years of geophysics. Under the driving drive, he went to the University of Princeton, New Jersey to do graduate, diamond mathematics and physics. There, Eu9newi9ner put him into the door of solid physics, in this field, Baden won the Nobel physics bonus twice.

1936, Pudding received a Ph.D. in Physics in Princeton University. During the 1936-1938, he was teaching at Harvard University for two years. From 1938 to 1941, I asked at the University of Minnesota for three years. From 1941 to 1945, the Navy Army Laboratory in Washington, DC. From 1945 to 1951, Pudding went to the New York City RETERTERTERLIDENCE, participated in a newly established solid physics research team. There, he and Xiaochley and Bratan found that crystals were found in 1947. This research work has enabled them to win the 1956 Nobel physics bonus.

After 1951, the Professor of Physics, the University of Illinois, was a professor of the school after retiring. At Ill Irs, Patin, Patin, helping to develop superconductive and semiconductor research planning, and later research interests focus on low temperature physics, including research on superfluid helium B. Between 1959 and 1962, members of the US Presidential Science Advisory Committee. After 1960, the manager of Ronest Electrostatic Co-printing company. He is an academician of the US National Academy, the US Science Promotion Association, a Physical Society and a member of the Philosophy, and has served as the Chairman of the American Physics Society.

Due to the continuous development of various electronic tubes such as diode, triode, quadrupole and five-pole manufacturing techniques, a new discipline is generated in physics, called electronics. By means of various tubes and appropriate circuits, it is easy to achieve rectification, small signal amplification and no attenuating electrical oscillation of various frequencies. In the tube, the transport of electrodes between different electrodes is done with free electrons in vacuum. However, in solid substances, charge transport should be much more complicated. Pure metals have good conductivity, and the charge transport is completed by free electron in the metal. In the semiconductor, for example, an N-type or P-type or a p-type which is doped with a small amount of impurities (or steel), the current is conducted by electron (or holes). Later, it was found that semiconductors had a good rectification effect under certain conditions. The results of further study on semiconductors have developed another important area of ​​physics, namely solid physics. Since this discipline has obvious practical value, since the 1940s, many industrial sectors and research departments have conducted in-depth research on it. The last period of the Second World War, the American physicist Xiaochli and Bratan have begun to study semiconductor materials and its possible issues in electronic technology. In 1945, Pudding quickly participated in this work and played a lot in it. He proposed a hypothesis about the nature of electronic behavior, indicating the way to achieve the ideal solid devices. The three-person research team found in this assumption of Pudding, a particular arrangement of the electrodes, such as PNP or NPN arrangements, not only to rectify, but also enlarged current or voltage. Thus, the three of them have finally invented a semiconductor device at the end of 1947, which is used to replace the cumbersome and low efficiency vacuum tube. They named this device as "TransferResistor9, later abbreviation as" Translstorv, the Chinese translation is crystal triode. The three electrodes of the transistor are respectively referred to as emitter, base and collector, and under the action of external DC voltage, the emitter is transmitted carrier (electron or holes), and these carriers are small into the basal, absolutely Most flow into the collector. If the base current is controlled with a weak external signal, the small base current change causes a change in a large case of electrode current, which is an enlarged action of the crystal triode. Transistors have some significant advantages than ordinary electronics, such as low power consumption, small size, and long life. The emergence of transistors has caused a major revolution in electronic technology, and transistor radios, transistor televisions, and micro-electronic computers. This revolution continues until now, develops from discrete transistors to integrated circuits, develops from small-scale integrated circuits to medium-scale, large-scale and current large scale integrated circuits.

Later, Pudding has worked closely with Cooper and Srifer, and proposed BCS theory in 1957, successfully explained many scientists for decades, including five Nobel physics bonuses. The superconducting phenomenon that has not been explained. BCS is the first narrotte of the three people's name, Cooper, and Schrieffer, and BCS theory is Patin-Cooper - Srifer Theory. The three people are typically combined with young scientists and young scientists in the history of scientific history. In 1911, the Dutch H.kamerlinghonnes found superconductive, some metallic presents a new nature at low temperatures below 15, once in it caused current, this current will not Take the rest. Super-conductive theoretical explanation is very important, so many outstanding theors have explored it, including Bohr (N.BOHR), Hesenberg, London ( , Brochuan (L.D.landau) and Fayman (P.Feynmann), most of them are Nobel physics bonuses.

is approximately in 1950, the US compass E. A group under the leadership of Maxwell and the University of Latgs, independently found that a temperature in a certain metal is inversely proportional to the atomic amount of this metal. Celely called Pudding, telling him this discovery, and then heard this news, immediately expect that the electron-phonon interaction is included, that is, the effect of atoms in metal lattice to conduct electronics . However, these early attempts failed to successfully explain superconductivity.

In 1956, only 26-year-old Nakoza University, Kutcad, pointed that two electrons with energy near the Fermi level in the metal, attract each other, will form A common vibration state called a "Cooper Pair". The next year, Pudding and the graduate student Srifer were applied to multiple electrons, pointing out how all the conduction electrons can form a new cooperation state. According to this model, free electrons moved normally in metallic is to paddy, and interact with metal character. These electrons have common momentum, they are not willing to be affected by individual electron random scattering, so the effective resistance is zero. Since the development of quantum theory, BCS theory has been called one of the most important contributions to theoretical physics. Due to the guidance of the BCS theory, the superconductor can be formed at a slightly higher temperature, which has been made into such a superconducting alloy. Therefore, it has led to various practical results, such as superconducting iron, superconductor electronics, power transmission lines, and the like. US IBM has concentrated great strength and has made superconducting computers greatly develop.

Puddin Professor Professor I proposed quantum size effect in more than 20 years ago, which in recent years have attached great importance to the United States and internationally. He also proposed to use the principle of quantum dimension effects to make so-called Gaas-0aalas multilayer quantum 5FF heterojunction lasers. Although London has regarded supercodes as "quantum structure on microscopic scales", Josephson uses BCS theory to predict microscopic phenomenon, and make Josephon knot. Sensitive devices made by Josephson effects can measure current, voltage and magnetic fields. The establishment of BCS theory has attracted a large number of more in-depth explorations. Due to this contribution, three people jointly won the Nobel physics bonus in 1972. In May 1980, Puddin Ying Ying Yingyuan's Invitation from the Ministry of Education and Peking University Zhou Peiyuan came to China. During the study of Peking University, there was a report on the development and recent development of superconducting problems, "" Superconducting Computer Development Recent "and" Quantum Disease Heterogeneous Laser ". Patamin specially mentioned that the superconducting applications currently have high power (MW) and small power (microwats). The top one is mainly the various applications of superconducting magnets. In recent years, the development is slower than people. It is superconductive for electronic devices, which is developed more fast than people.

In 1951, Patin Berin was born in Bell Laboratory due to Xiaokeli, and gave a group of champagne in Illinois. In the early 1950s, Patin Puddin has begun to consider the problem of superconductivity. He realized that the interaction between electrons and phones is the key to solving the problem. In 1953, Schlif came to the University of Illinois, with a Ph.D. in physics under the guidance of Pudding, and chose superconducting issues as a doctoral title. Under Yang Zhenning, Princeton Higher Institute recommended, Ji, who has just received a doctorate from Columbia University, starts to cooperate with Pudding and Sherifer. In 1957, Budin and Cooper, Schwedford founded the BCS theory and made a reasonable explanation of superconductivity. They also won the 1972 Nobel Physics Award. Pudding is a person who won the Nobel Physics Award twice.

Patin is married to Maxwell in 1938, and there are two children in the marriage. Amateur Time Patin likes to travel and play golf.

Cooperative scientist

physicist John Patin is a typical of a partner scientist. Patin is the only scientist who won the Nobel Physical Award. His two winning projects are a crystallization in cooperation with other scientists. In 1939, Kelly was served as Director of the Bell Lab Semiconductor Research Department, in order to enrichment, he hosted Xiaochlai from MIT, which was responsible for the work of the semiconductor physics team. In 1945, Xiaokel ​​hired Puddin, a solid theoretical physicist in the Naval Army Lab. Bratton is an excellent research surface phenomenon, experimental physicists, started working in Bell laboratory from 1929. Pudding has a solid foundation in solid quantum, which is good at interpretation and coordinating experimental data and its phenomenon; while Xiaoklai is a geometric image to illustrate physical phenomena. These two theoretical physicists have achieved replenishment in solids in solids, complement, adapted to semiconductor research on the theoretical needs, and Bratton and others in semiconductor experiments have made important progress in theoretical explanation in theoretical explanation. In 1945, Xiaoklai designed the transistor and related circuits, Braton, etc., did not find expected current modulation, and 1946 Badin proposed surface effect theory, overcoming this difficulty. In 1947, Pin and Braton cooperated to inventions of the first transistor point contact transistors. Three scientists in Shawklai, Patama and Bratton jointly shared the 1956 Nobel Physics Award in the different roles of theory and experiments during the discovery process of transistors.

1951 Bad Dadin left Bell Lab and served as a professor at the University of Illinois. In 1955, Badin turned into superconducting research. In the superconducting study, Pudding realized that the mobilization method of solving the interaction between particles will be an advantageous tool. Since Patmin is not familiar enough, the Professor Yang Zhenning, who worked at the Princeton High School, asked him whether he had known to a person who was willing to engage in superconductivity. Yang Zhenning recommended Cooper who is studying after being studied there. Cooper arrived in 1955 to the University of Illinois. At the same time, a young graduate student in Pudding also participated in the car. In 1956, Kucel first took a key and basic step, and proposed the concept of electronic pairs known now with "Cooper". At the end of January 1957, Sherv proposed the underlying wave function of the superconductor. On this basis, in 1957, three cooperative writing were published, and a new micro-conductivity was born. Now people are used to using the first letter of the 3 authors of this theory, called BCS theory. In 1972, Patin, Cooper and Schrifa shared the 1972 Nobel Physics Award.

Related Articles