Islamic visual art is decorated, color is bright, and it is abstract in terms of religious art. Typical Islamic decorative patterns are called Arabic decorative style, this decoration or style uses patterns such as flowers, leaves or fruits, and sometimes uses animals and human body contours or geometry to form a straight line, angle or curve interleave, Complex pattern. This decoration is used on construction and items.
pottery, glass products, metal products, textiles, manuscript illustrations and woodworking in Islamic culture. Pottery is the most important project in the early Islamic decoration art. The flash ceramic device is the greatest contribution of Islam to ceramic art. The decorative method of this pottery is a metal film which is a metal film which is a congestion of the glaze. Other famous items made in the Harry Age (Circle 750 to 11th century) have the bronze and wood carvings of Egypt, Iraq's stucco and ivory sculptures of Spain. In the Searz period (the middle of the 11th century to the middle of the 13th century), pottery, textile and glass products are still very important. In addition, the adducts made of bronze and brass are also inlaid with silver and pure copper and decorated with complex pattern. The manuscript illustration is also an important and respected art at this time. The fine painting is the greatest and most distinctive art of Persian in Mongolian invasion (1220 ~ 1260). Writing text in Islam, as a tool that conveys the sacred revelation, has a special status. Therefore, calligraphy has developed a lot of rich and complex styles based on a variety of elegant fonts. Calligraphy art is not only used in the manual book, but also important features in buildings and other decorations.
Conquer the process of conquest of the Arab Empire in conquering West Asia North Africa, widely absorbed the art essence that is highly developed by the national highly developed art, which has made arabic Islamic art belt. Regional Features. Architectural art, especially the religious architectural art - the mosque is the main representative of Islamic art in Arab. However, due to the difference in climate conditions, building materials, building technology, and national cultural background, the mosques in all parts of the Arab world have their own characteristics. Such as the Islamic building of Syria is affected by Byzantine and Roman architecture; Egyptian buildings are affected by science; in Iraq and Persia are affected by the architecture of the Landscape and Sassan Dynasty; while China and India's mosque are inevitable The Influence of National Architectural Style. Similarly, Arabic calligraphy art has created many fonts with local color and calligraphy family on the basis of traditional liberals and NASC.
But the living environment of Islamic art in Islamic art made it impossible to get out of Islam, and it is this impact that it is produced in different regions. It is obvious. The various art forms of local colors tend to be assimilated, and they are all infected with Islam.
From the Arabian West of Andalusa to the Arab East of Baghdad, as the mosque of Islamic art collection, it must include the towering cloud, showing Islamic to high Xuanli tower for religious ritual bathing pool ( "Reservoir"), the places used by representatives of vulgar and religious power ("Mark Sulla"), even including a specially separated, with separate entrance halls for women. In the mosque of the mosque, you must have "Mi Harab" - give the devout Muslims to indicate a gorgeous niche in the direction of Mecca, and there must be "talking about the altar" - read the judgment and the state orders. Pope.
and the Arabic calligraphy art is precisely because of its close relationship with Islam and its high position in Islamic art forms in Arabia. Ph.D., University of Columbia, a famous Arab historian, in the United States, in the "Arabic Tong History" book, the Arabic calligraphy is written when the Arabic calligraphy: "The art of calligraphy is prestige, because the purpose of calligraphy is to make the sky And got the "Qur'an", this kind of art was prosperous in the 2nd century or 3rd century, soon became an art. "This, the arabic calligraphy art of different styles also becomes a respect The means of the truth, the Islamic spirit is dyed.
Arab pattern decoration art enjoys a reputation in the history of world art. "Pattern decoration art enters people's lives from quite a few aspects and has close contact with private art traditions. This kind of art is widely circulated. After all, it is a medieval general cultural art, especially the cultural art of Muslim people. A special manifestation of decorativeness. "
is roughly divided into three types of art patterns: one is the flowers, leaves, columns as the main, wrapped around the number, each The pattern is regular, paying attention to the symmetry, is also very standard, some gossy is exaggerated, constitutes a unique style. The second is the geometry, circular, elliptical, diamond, corrugated, polygon, etc., or single use, or several suites. There are also flowers and grass patterns in the collection graphics, which is also very standardized. The third is to use the Arab number to do lace decoration. This decoration is unique. It is different from the rules of plant graphics and collection graphics and symmetry, and the curved letter stroke can be neatly arranged and changed, giving people. Therefore, the pattern of text decoration is both a boutique of the Arabic calligraphy, and it is also the superiority of lace pattern art.
These exquisite patterns appear in any place that can be seen, the text of the mosque is full of calligraphy lace pattern pocket color painting is praise, and the lace with decoration is also beautiful; in ceramics, Metal, glassware, lace pattern also use Wuzhi, on the Persian carpet, beautiful lace pattern constitutes the main melody of the carpet. The aesthetic consciousness of Muslim artists is the most embodied in the lace pattern.
It is said that when Muhammad is in the world, there have been pictures of Mu Sheng. The portrait is realistic, and it is very vivid. Holy Term disciples actually spread and save, and love is not released. This painting is sent to Mu Sheng Hand. He looked shocked, immediately ordered to burn the portrait, and said: "The painter is the actions of the devil." Later, Mu Sheng said: "The model will suffer from the end of the day. Punishment. "
Therefore, when the European Middle Century Artist puts a lot of people in the Bible in the religious art, Islamic art is adhering to the teaching, no characters, animals, and sculptures. Even in the Miami period, Harry happened to be extravagant, built a happy palace in the desert, lived with the life of the paper, but they follow the prohibition, just ask Christians, Greeks and other Muslim craftsmen to draw their palace.
The most manifested Islamic architecture is the mosque and related religious buildings. Early Islamic architecture, with Jerusalem's rock Dome Temple (691) as an example (705) as an example, with Christian architecture such as dome, cylindrical arch, tone porcelain, but also The vast atrium used by the congregation. Religious buildings have been going to the Harry Age, Iraq and Egypt, have created a multi-column mosque after the formation of a multi-column mosque. This style of buildings are roofed on the column of columns, and their squares or rectangular design can be changed, and they need to be enlarged or removed from the pillars to expand or narrow the area. The Persian of the Searz period and Savari (1501~1736) uses different mosque architectural design, which is composed of 4 faces of the DPRC. These brick mosque are also in use with dome and decorated inner corners. The impact of Persian's architectural characteristics can be found in the Pearl Mosque (1653) and Taj Mahal. Ottoman buildings from Islamic and Byzantine buildings are taken in the Selimiye Mosque, 1575) in EDirne, Turkey, with a large dome in the center of the building, as well as elongated tits. As for non-religious Islamic buildings, one of the best examples of Spain's Alhambra (Alhambra, 13~14).
Since modern times, it is slowly derived from various architectural characteristics and building materials, which combines different architectural buildings, especially in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The traditional architectural style of Islam is greater. There is currently a Islamic building with Chinese characteristics.
Islamic literature writes in 4 main languages: Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Urdu (URDU). Arabic is an absolutely important position as a language that reveals Islam and "Can Lan". The "Canlan" is an excellent literary model in Muslim eyes. The basic elements of Arabic poetry continue to be the model before Islam, using a single rhyme (referring to each of the rows of rhymes in a poem) and rhyme (refer to the long and short sound festival as 16 grams). Arabic poem can be divided into three basic types, of which Ghazal is usually love poems, and is a single rhyme poety in 5 to 12. The Qasida is 20 or even 100 or more monetic poems. Usually used to express formal and refined praise. The Persian uses the type of Arabic poetry, the form and the rules for poetry, and improved. They also develop new poems - Masnavi, such poems are composed of a series of rhyme. The Persian uses it to write narrative poems (this form is not known for the Arab), representing the "Wang Shu" written by Ferdowsi, 1020 serpentry. Persian literature has affected Urdu literature and Turkish literature, especially on vocabulary and partners. Turkish literature also has a rich and independent folk song tradition. Islamic literature also includes pure literature, teachings and popular prose. The literary form that is most sufficient to represent the Islamic prose is a maqama body. This stylistic uses a complicated technique to tell a quite simple story, and there are many metaphors, twists and other text games. In the field of popular literature, the most famous works should be "Tianfang Night", this work is assembled with a rich mythology in each Muslim area.
Islamic music is a single sound music, no summit, its features are the rhythm and melody are two different systems, and the melodies made by single lines Decoration, and pay attention to the maste performance of the music. Orchestration of rhythm and melody follows a certain rule or hierarchy. Islamic music utilizes fine-tone, that is, unsatisfactory half-tone, such as quarters, etc., to reach the decorative effect of the melody, which also uses small audio or large phonology to obtain this effect. Islamic music is usually played by a small ensemble, namely a singer and several musical instruments alternately perform with solo and instruments. The singer or musical instrument is responsible for guiding the melody, the rhythm is responsible by the striking instrument, which includes a wooden rod with frame drums, cymbals, and tapping. Tube instruments include 唢唢 (Zorna, a kind of clarinet instrument), different types of flute, long speakers, horn, and two-tube clamps with the same. However, the stringed instrument is most loved, the most famous man is Udhen (UD), which is a four-string or five-string short neck Rotter. In addition, there are some ladder instruments, such as Santur, playing with two 椽椽 的 小 的 小 来, as well as the card, Qanun. Other stringed instruments include violins and bows, such as Kaman, Kamanja, and Rababs.
(Figure is a flash ceramic bowl manufactured by Sad Tacher, which describes the Christian priests, making in the first half of the 12th century. Trab Titan Victoria and Albert Museum.)