Industrial gathering is gradually formed, 489 industrial enterprises, 130 high-tech enterprises, including 3 companies with annual sales income of 10 billion yuan. Four major leading industries such as advanced manufacturing, and actively develop new energy, energy-saving and environmental protection and other emerging industries, rail transportation equipment, aviation industry, automotive and spare parts and other three hundred billion industrial clusters are also gradually formed. At present, the area of rail transportation equipment sets with a large number of electric locomotives, era electrical, and South car motors, etc., with a total sales scale of 50 billion yuan. The aviation industry has backbone enterprises such as NAV industry, Southern Aerospace, Shanhe Smart (market share bidding point). In 2011, the output value exceeded 10 billion yuan; Implement the new car offline, the joint ventures of the South Car Zhuzhou Office and Shuguang Automobile Group Construction Hunan South Bus Huanghai Electric Automobile Co., Ltd. is building the largest new energy bus industrialization base in China.
Market creation mode: The first specialized market will first have an important market trading condition and information for the formation of industrial agglomeration. Conditions, in the end, the production process of the industry also gathered near the market. In my country, the typical area of the formation of industrial agglomeration in China is Zhejiang Province. There are many specialized markets in the province, and eventually formed a industrial cluster with complete industrial chain.
Capital transfer mode: Generally occurring in the context of industrial transfer, when a large-scale company is approaching the market or saving business costs, in production location When you make a reselection and invest in a new region, it is possible to raise similar companies and related companies to bring together this region. Such an industrial agglomeration is mainly moved from the outside by a certain amount of capital. We regard the industrial agglomeration of capital migration and flow, called capital migration mode. At present, there are many industrial agglomerations or industrial clusters formed in capital migration mode, and the migrational capital that promotes and promotes the role is mainly direct investment.
Directive agglomeration: This is an industrial (enterprise) group formed to take advantage of the region. Usually, there are a large number of cheap labor, raw materials centralized, market centralized districts or transportation hub nodes. These location advantage are certain as an important point to attract industries (enterprise) agglomerates.
Economic contact agglomeration: The purpose of this agglomeration is to strengthen the economic relationship between enterprises within the region, create more favorable external conditions for enterprise development. It is divided into two types: one is the agglomeration formed by longitudinal economic contact. Longitudinal economic connection refers to the output of another company, which is an industrial agglomeration of the transverse economy. The transverse economic connection refers to the relationship between the industrial set groups formed around the regional leading industry and the department.
Industrial agglomeration refers to a number of different enterprises in a proper area, producing certain products, and These enterprises are supported by upstream and downstream companies, related services, and highly intensively gathered together. Industrial transfer refers to the process of transferring some industries from a country or region to another country or region. According to the regional range involved, industrial transfer is generally divided into three types of international industrial transfer, inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-inter-average industry transfer and urban and rural industries. Some scholars believe that industrial agglomeration has an important challenge to the current popular industrial transfer theory. Industrial gathering has formed a very important "late day advantage" in the southeastern coastal area. That is, the industrial supporting conditions on the basis of highly specialized division of labor. Once this condition is formed and turned into ripe, the cost of turning to other regions is greatly improved. He believes that the labor-intensive industry we expect, such as light industry, textile and other industries, and how to gradually transfer with economic growth, it is worth studying. However, we believe that industrial agglomeration and industrial transfer are not contradictory, and it is the opposite, and they are interactive relationships.
First, we look from the process of industrial agglomeration, accompanied by regional resource development, infrastructure construction, production facilities and its supporting facilities construction, subject to scale The required drivers will inevitably lead to different grades of production of the same product or similar products, or to produce their centralized coil layout of the upper and downstream industrial products. As a result, under the role of agglomeration mechanism, the different towns are related to the industry. Some other economic contacts are set together. The "centralized linked layout" mentioned herein contains the factors of industrial transfer. Within a certain range, enterprises that are the same, similar products, or enterprises that produce upstream products, under the driving force of the external economy, to improve production efficiency, reduce trading and information cost, enhance the competitiveness of enterprises, will gradually The company is transferred to the development of the relevant products.
Industrial agglomerates contain industrial transfer factors, and also reflects the formation of foreign investment to facilitate industrial agglomeration. Foreign investment plans, and a phenomenon of forming agglomeration through industrial transfer. Foreign business investment in the Mainland is two cases:
One is that foreign companies transfers the relative disadvantage industry in their own country or region to some regional development potential areas, so that the transfer is fully utilized Conditions such as natural resources and labor, develop new industries, driving economic growth, to form industrial agglomeration creative conditions;
Another way to transfer production lines to region with potential, including management agencies, research The company headquarters, including the development institution, left the local.
This way, on the one hand, from the industry, it is conducive to the development of related industries related to the region, which is conducive to the development of related industries; on the other hand According to the industry, the production line of the company is transferred to the company's production line, which is conducive to the company's headquarters to develop new products to create a high agglomeration of new technology content. Second, from the development trend of industrial agglomeration, industrial agglomeration will also cause industrial transfer. After the industrial agglomeration in a certain area, the economic competitiveness in the agglomeration method is significantly higher than that of the region without this approach, and the enterprise will attract industrial transfer to the industrial aggregation area. This not only includes companies that produce similar products from dispersion, but also the transfers of the relevant professional external service industry and supporting facilities. The formation of this agglomeration can not only bring external scale economy, create social value, but also add more employment opportunities.
It can be seen that the formation and development of industrial agglomeration is inseparable from industrial transfer, and the industrial agglomeration itself contains industrial transfer factors, and the industrial agglomeration is the result of industrial transfer. . On the one hand, due to the advantages of certain local resources or labor, it is scattered in a vicinity of similar enterprises, in order to chase the exterior economy gradually transfer to the ground, and high-density agglomerate together form a industrial agglomeration; on the other hand, according to the local The comparative advantage, introducing foreign investment, transfer abroad or regional industries to local, developing local advantage industries, and then forming agglomeration. This industrial transfer forms the process of industrial agglomeration, we are defined as "absorbing effect." With the development of agglomeration, the economic growth of the aggregation area is rapid. However, due to the increasing competition, on the one hand, the original technical content of the coastal area is low, the labor-intensive agglomeration industry has developed to a certain extent, due to the variation of supply and demand, the cost-effective factors will agglomerate uneconomic phenomenon. On the other hand, industrial structure is continuously optimized and upgraded, and it is bound to lead to a slow development of some of the proven technology relatively backward mature agglomeration industries to a certain extent, to a certain extent.
In order to maintain competitive advantage, implement external scale economy in competition, requiring the original collection area to continuously carry out technical innovation, seeking to develop high-tech industrial agglomeration; in addition, the original labor-intensive industry should be transferred according to industrial gradient Theory has gradually transferred to the Midwest of the Central and Western Regions with the ability to accept the ability to take advantage of their natural raw materials and sufficient cheap labor. We will refer to the "release effect" in the industrial structure optimization and upgrading of the economy.
Above the above discussion, we believe that industrial agglomeration and industrial transfer are not contradictory, and they are interactive relationships. On the one hand, the initial formation process of industrial agglomeration is to disperse some relevant industries in the surrounding area, gradually transferred to the region to form agglomeration. After forming the trend of industrial agglomeration, with the development of the economy, the aggregation area will attract more companies to carry out industrial transfer to the land, form industrial agglomeration and industrial transfer interaction. On the other hand, with the fierce competition of the market economy, when this agglomerate exceeds a certain reasonable scale, the scale benefits will present the decreasing trend, and they have to implement industries to the surrounding economic undressed areas. Transfer, and develop a new round of agglomeration industry based on dynamic comparative advantages.
The economy has an external economy and internal scale economy. The former refers to the external economic benefits of the industrial agglomeration, the latter is Refers to the economic benefits of the product cost reduction with the size of the company's own size. Industrial agglomeration can improve labor productivity. British economists Marshall have found that the manufacturers concentrated more efficiently (external economy) than a single isolated manufacturer. Enterprises in related industries can promote the division of labor and cooperation in the region. This is mainly reflected in:
(1) helps upstream enterprises reduce the cost and transaction costs of searching for raw materials products, making product production costs significantly.
(2) The cluster enterprises in order to improve collaboration efficiency, divide the production chain, help to promote the increase in labor productivity.
(3) gathering makes the manufacturer more stable, more efficiently supplier service, more easy to obtain supporting products and services, timely understanding of the competition in this industry Information.
(4) collectively forms a corporate cluster, which helps improve negotiation capabilities, can obtain public goods or services from the government and other public institutions at a lower price. (5) Since the agglomerates itself provides sufficient employment opportunities and development opportunities, they will generate magnetic field effects on external relevant talents. There are a large number of talents with a variety of specialized skills in the aggregation area, which allows companies to find suitable job talents with lower costs in a short period of time, reducing employer costs.
Industrial agglomeration can promote innovation. Enterprises' innovation often comes from interaction between enterprises and users. In industrial agglomeration, new processes, new technologies can quickly spread. Enterprises are easier to find the gap of products or services, inspired, discover market opportunities, develop new products. Due to the gathering, contact communication between different companies employees, helps to create innovative thinking in mutual ideology. The regular exchange of business management personnel and technicians in the same park will bring innovation inspiration to various companies, which is an embodiment of knowledge technology.
Potter's business competitive advantage of the Diamond model is: production factors, demand conditions, related and support industries, corporate strategic structures and peers competition These four factors are the necessary conditions for enterprises with competitive advantage. Enterprises are the main body of regional economic development, and the agglomeration enterprises in the industrial park have these conditions, providing possibilities for increasing the competitiveness of the industry, the industry and even the region. Industrial gathering has exacerbated competition, competition is an important source of competitive advantage. Competition is not only the battle for the market, but also in other respects: the same industry company has a scale of performance evaluation, which can be compared to each other. This brings innovative pressure and motivation to enterprises, forcing companies to continue to reduce costs, improve products and improve services, and catch up with technology changes. Companies in the collection area have stronger competitive advantage than companies that are scattered in the region, and it is easier to enter the frontier of this industry.