Hohenz Tufen Dynasty ( Hohenstaufen ) (German Name Staufer ) 1138--1254 is a royal family in the Holy Roman Empire in Europe. The initial Hohenzaofen is currently the attacking count and the rule of the family in southern Southern Southern Southern Shiwatben (also known as Swebia). There is a castle called "Scowfen", this is the reason why the family is named, "Hohen" is a glorious, distinguished prefix word (such as Hohen Solen). In 1079, Philui I greeted the daughter of the Emperor Henry II, which was the Duke of Jiwuen, who was the Duke of the Hohenz Taufen.
and royal marriage make Hohenzaofen's families in the highest ruling class, and because the brothers of the Agni silk did not have a child, the Frankian Dynasty reported final. Hohenz Taifen family became a reasonable Queen's heir. 1138 this family has taken the German throne. In the period of red beard, Fredermia and Fati-Freders, the power of Hohenzaofen was the highest, and the struggle against the Roman Holy See and invaded Italy and won the rule of Sicily in Sidi, Italy. However, after the death of Philui Second, this family has been declined. In 1254, the End of the Hohenz Taifen Dynasty ended. In 1268, the last male descendants of Johenz Taifen family was in Naples, and the family was extinct.
In 1138, the emperor Luo returned to the world, and the throne was passed to his son-in-law: Saxony and Bavaria Henry (proud). However, the German aristocrats were afraid of powerful king, so they chose weak Hoyhenzen's Kangrad as the king, which is Kangrad II. Kangrad II was unwilling, and the other family Wilf family with German has made long-term struggles, and there is no loss to death. Because of this, Kang Lad has not been able to go to Rome. He is the first king that is the first of the sacred Roman Empire.
Conrad III and the Fati-Aviyi, Wilf family is the biggest enemy of the emperor's regime. At this time, the emperor took a strong attitude toward the princes. In the Era of Conrad, Zeng Saxony and Bavaria have been deprived of the Wilf family. After Henry II (proud), Sophlinburg's Gtrore (Female I I II) supported the family's career, and recovered Saxony in 1142. After Henry II (Lion), I gave a good job in 1156 and Fredermia, chasing Bavaria.
The role of lion Henry in the history of Germany is not suspicious. He has across the Yibei River, defeating Slava, has established the order of the German nation on these land, and the establishment also includes some famous cities: Brunswick, Luneburg and famous "Lion City" Munich.
The policy of Lion Henry Obstruction has caused panic of German princes including the emperor. In 1166, he has defeated his German princes alliance, but Feijjie has saved him all the territories in 1180. Due to the need to fight the princes of the princes, the emperor's policy has changed, and the Fredermate is a constant policy of other princes. 1156 Babao family received Austria as a margin, 1180, after the 1180 melon Saxony and Bavaria, German princes have conducted a profit.
After Fredermia, the German monarch of the Hohenzen Fen family is more accommodating. During the period in Fati-bless, almost a self-ceremonies of the German princes, the princes enjoy a high autonomy in their own territory, and the emperor did not have a substantive policy to restrict the development of the princes. These reasons have led to the root of the Hohenz Dao Dynasty. History prove, in Fredermate 2nd, the center of the empire from Shishimen to Sicily < B>, here is the hometown of Frederi II.
During the period in Kangrad, there is no large-scale action on Italy, mainly because the strength of the family is weak, mainly It is placed in a German prince. Friedrie Emperor, Henry Liuhe and Frederie, two changes in Italy's policies.
Fredermate, the empire is mainly invaded in Italy. This policy has caused fear and hate including the Pope and Italy. Lombardy, Parma, Venice and the Pope form a strong Lombardy Alliance, and the German army of Feiteriyi launched a struggle. 1153 Italian war threatened the political power of the Pope, although Fredermate I reached the purpose of intimidating the Pope, the pope of disappointment was obstructed on the emperor. After the War of the Rome in 1166, Lombardy Alliance was established (1167) and completely defeated the emperor in the 1176 Rena War (the Battle of Lennyo). Fredermia Yi was forced to sign "Constantz and Treaty", which did not get any benefits in the Emperor Italy - except for his son Henry Liu and Sicily Queen's marriage.
Singun "famous female biography" recorded that the princess of Sicily Constant was predicted to subversion to the Xi Xi Kingdom, which was sent to the monastery as a cultivation, until the age of 32 I have a young Henry, the young Henry is married. Because the King of Siyi has never had a child, Constant has become his unique throne, and Gulier II also allows the princes to swear loyal to Henry and Constant, support them inherited the throne. After the death of Guller Mo, Sicily, in order to stop being ruled by the Germans, the princes of Gulier II had the king of the priestan. In 1191, Henry Liu is crowned to the Emperor and south of Sicily to capture the throne, but he was defeated, and Constant was captured, and the following year was released under the involvement of the Pope Seles Thirteen; until Tank Leed Drake in 1194. Henry Chao could conquer the Sicily. In the same year, 40-year-old Constant is born with the only child. This marriage of Henry Liu has changed the Italian policy of Hohenz Daofen's family, which has achieved the results of the Fat Reriprid's gods. This is the first shift of the Dynasty to Italy's policy. After that, Italy became the object of the dynasty, and the emperor also served as the identity of the King of Sicily won the relationship between the Pope and the emperor, and eventually leading to the tragic ending of the family.
Due to the identity of Fatishi, the father has given up the German throne, bringing the child to Italy, and Frederi Second is growing in Xishi, and puts Sicili Be your hometown. The Dynasty has changed the second time in Italy - Italy into the center of the empire, while Shimovo and even the whole Germany became an accessory. Unlike his grandfather, German princes will be red beard Friedrichyiyi as heroes, and Friedrie II Disdentity . Frederi II believed that he was an Italian, in Sicily, he was seen as a model of the king, and in Germany, even the emperor did not feel comfortable. "He often claims to be the king of Sicily in his life, only once a public calls yourself for the German emperor."
The change of the Hohenzfen Dynasty on the Italian policy is a main line from the thrill. On the one hand, it caused the emperor to be neglialed by Germany, on the other hand, it triggered the emperor and the pope sharp contradiction, and this became one of the main reasons for the burial.
The fight against the power of the power
in the Middle Ages, a dynasty wants to expand in Italy, it will be To the power of the powerful Catholic Church. In the era of Conrad, the German King (Kang Led did not crowned as the emperor) must confront domestic princes to ensure the consolidation of the king. However, with the strengthening of the Britain, France and the Chinese splitting princes, Friedris decided to use the pope's coronation to consolidate himself as the emperor. In 1153, I violent invaded Italy. The pope is not willing to stop, so refused to crown to the emperor. In the middle of 1153-1155, there were three Pope to take the town of Italy until the Aderian III was on the 1155th place, only gave the Emperor of Germany.
Friedrie believes that it is necessary to control Germany to consolidate the empress of the empress, so it is necessary to change the passive situation of the Emperor by the Pope. He supported Basel II for the Pope, and Roman Pope Alexander Third Different Different Difphones, but with the loss of the German army and the pope army, Frederne gradually lost capital and the capital of Vatican confrontation. In 1177, Fredermatic gave up the idea of supporting the Pope, returning to the Asylum of the Roman Pope, in 1179, the Roman Holy See, which is headed by Alexander, has revised the Pope election method, will be unanimously changed to two third principles, From this podium election, I completely got rid of the chain of the emperor.
Fredermate 2nd period, the Pope has obviously plays the wind in the fight against the Quest. In the juvenile, Fatisher is growing under the shelter of the Pope, Norsen III. In 1215, Frederiki was guaranteed to the Pope, "Never I will never be killed by the Pope of Germany after the two West West West Rirace and Germany. Later, I became the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Therefore, Frederne is not active in the fight against the power. In 1221, the Cross Army was defeated, and Grid Gaoyi's reason why the cause of war has been attributed to Fixi, did not fulfill the promise of the promise of the promise, which triggered the emperor and the Pope's war. In 1229, Fredriti and Pope signed and about.
Hohenzfen Dynasty can be called a failure, from the beginning, the dynasty is urgent to solve the problem: combating domestic princes and consolidating family interest in Fat I have not been achieved after the death of the second world. As for the mid-family target: control Italy, there is no truly realistic. After the death of Philui Second, Italy quickly left the empire. In 1268, Krand was killed in Italy. The Hohenzfen Dynasty was unsuccessful, leaving powerful podium, Britain, France and domestic disputes. These have hindered and affect the power of Germany.
The failure of the Hohenzfen Dynasty, except for the loss of princes, Italy and Pope policies, is a lack of strong family base. The Habsburg family who dominated Germany's more than 500 years was committed to improving and strengthening the Austrian family territory from the founder Rudolph. Later, the center of this dynasty was transferred from Germany to Vienna, Austria, Hungary and Boh. Mia constitutes the center of this national rule, which guarantees that the emperor can have its own source of arms when he is fighting with princes.
The Saxony Dynasty and Saxony before the Hohenz Dang Dynasty - The Sumlinburg Dynasty did not lose the restriction of the empire. The Hohenz Dang Dynasty era is the key era of the sharp increase in the privileges of the princes. Since then, even the Pope's disappearance, Germany still maintains a powerful split forces that have confrontation with the emperor. Thirty-year war, the princes, the Knights, the territory and the bishop, and the bubilization of the bishop, and the big blessing, which seriously hindered the development of Germany. These and the rule of Hohenzfen Dynasty has a direct relationship.
Holy Roman Empire Emperor and German King< P> King of the three generations of Connees 1138-1152
Frederiyi, Deutsche King 1152-1190, the Holy Roman Empire Emperor 155
Henry Six, German King 1190 -1197, Holy Roman Emperor 1191 after 1191
Philip (Shima), Deutsche King 1198-1208
Friedrie II, German King 1208-1250, sacred Rome Emperor's Emperor 1220
Henry Qi Dic Wood 1220 - 1235 (Under His Father
Conradon, German King 1237-1254
本 本 本
Friedrieyi (in place 1079 - 1105)
Friedrich II (in position 1105 - 1147)
Friedrich III (in position 1147 - 1152) '' 1152 said king, 1155 is the sacred Roman Emperor Fengfuyi I .
Friedrich II (in place 1152 - 1167)
Friedry Hiwu (in position 1167 - 1170)
Friedrich Six (in place 1170 - 1191)
Conrad II (in position 1191 - 1196)
Philip, Shimovo Duke (In position 1196 - 1208) '' King in 1198 ''Friedrich Seven World (in position 1212-1216) is the Holy Roman Empire Emperor Philist II
Henry Seven (in position 1216 - 1235), '' King 1220 - 1235 '' German King
Conrad Fourth World (in position 1235 - 1254) '' King in 1237 '' German King
Conradan (Kang Latin) (in position 1254 - 1268)