Hans Oster

synonym Oster General refers to Hans Outter

Basic introduction


Hans Oster (Hanschristianørsted August 14, 1851, March 9, 1851. Danish physicist, chemist. A pharmacist, a pharmacist, Range Lane Rudo, Denmark, August 14, 1777. At the age of 12, he began to help his father work in pharmacies while adhering to learning chemistry. Due to hard work, 17-year-old adopted free birth, learning medicine and natural science in Copenhagen University with excellent results. He is a family teacher, while studying pharmacology, astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, etc. In the field of physics, he first discovered that the current of the carrier wire generates a force to make the magnetic needle to change the direction of the magnetic needle. In the chemistry field, aluminum element is his first discovery. In the late 19th century, after the scientific side of the scientific philosophy and evolution, the prototypes were more important because of his writing. He is also the first modern thinker who clearly describes the ideological experiment, invented the words of genkenkenexperiment.

Get a doctorate in 1799. 1801 - 1803 He travels Germany, France, etc., returned to China in 1804. In 1806, he was hired as a physical, chemistry professor, research current and sound in Copenhagen University. In 1815, he served as a senior secretary of the Royal Society of Denmark. In 1820, the outstanding discovery of current magnet effect was found to receive the British Royal Society Coprid Medal. In 1824, the Danish Natural Science Promotion Association was initiated, and in 1829, he served as the principal of Danish Technology, until March 9, 1851, died in Copenhagen, at the age of 74.


Hans Oster is born on a small town on Langeland, Denmark. Rudkøbing. His father Sørenchristianørsted is a pharmacist and opened a pharmacumn in the town. Because there is no official school in the town, Hans and your brother Andersted andrssandøeørsted can only follow the elders with higher education levels to learn a variety of knowledge. Hans often help their father working in the drug bureau, so I learned a little basic chemistry. Even so, they are still able to pass the admission examinations in the University of Copenhagen by excellent results. Anders wants to engage in lawyers, and Hans has a strong interest in literature and philosophy. In 1799, Hans got a doctorate, the theory of the thesis was "the knowledge structure of nature and school".

After graduation, Hans Ostra became a university lecturer. In addition, he also made a pharmacist in a pharmacist professor. In 1801, Hans Oster got a three-year study scholarship and can go abroad. He encountered Johanwil Helmritter in Germany, an excellent physicist, and the two became a friend. Standard is confident between the electric field and the magnetic field, hidden a physical relationship. Oster thinks this is quite interesting. He began to learn from this academic direction. Oster has the talents of teaching, and his lecture is widely welcomed. In 1806, he could hire professors of the University of Codenhagen. His research areas are electrical and acoustic. Under his efforts and implementation, Copenhagen has developed a complete physical and chemical courses and has established a range of new laboratory.

In 1814, Oster and Ingerbellum have a total of four men and four women in Copenhagen.

in 1820, Oster found that he found that the current of the carrier wire acts acts on the magnetic needle, making the magnetic needle change direction, and has a lot of medals and honor. In 1822, he was elected as a Swedish Royal Academy of Foreign Affairs. In order to enhance the technology level of Denmark, in 1829, he created collegeofadvancedtechnology (Denmark: Denpolytekniskelæreanstalt, renamed Danish Technology University in 1933), and served as the principal, until he went to life. He buried with Assistenscetery of Copenhagen.

Oster is an extraordinary in the legal and political community. His sister, Mr. Barbaraalbertineørsted, later became the Supreme Court of Norwegian, from 1814 to 1827, the Chief Justice of Barbara, and the son of Barbara became the Norwegian National Defense Minister and the Mayor of Oslo; His younger brother Des Ostra became the Temperature of Denmark during 1853 to 1854.

The impact and achievement

Oster is a teacher who passionate attention to scientific research and experiments. He said: "I don't like the boring lecture without experiments, all Scientific research started from experiments. " So being welcomed by students. He is still a superior lecturer and natural science popularization worker, and in 1824, he has initiated the establishment of the Denmark Science Promotion Association, and created the first physical laboratory in Denmark.

1908 Danish Natural Science Promotion Association established the "Oster Medal" to recognize a significant physicist. Oster's achievements were recognized by the academic community. In order to commemorate him, the unit named the magnetic field strength from 1934 was Outter, referred to as "Oly". In 1937, the American Physical Teacher Association set up a "Oster Medal", rewarding physics teachers who contribute to physics teaching.

His important papers organizes published in 1920, and the title is "Oster Science Paper".

Experimental Information


Oster is deeply influenced by Kant's philosophical idea, and it is believed that all natural power comes from the same source. Transformation. He has always believed that there must be some relationship between electricity and magnet, and the electricity can be converted to magnetic. It is a matter of urgent how to find the conditions that achieve this conversion. Oster carefully reviewed Coulomb's argument, found that the object of Coulomb Research is static and static, and it is indeed possible to transform. He guess that non-electrostatic, non-static magnets may be transformed conditions, should focus on current and magnets without interaction.


In the first half of 1819, in the second half of the year, Oster as the main talk of electricity, magnetic lectures, and continued to study electricity and magnetic relationships. In April 1820, when a speech was over, Ostri had an experiment with the mood tried. He put a very fine platinum wire over a small magnetic needle with a glass mask, turned on the moment, and found that the magnetic needle beat it. This jump, so that the heart is expected, I am actually excited to fall on the podium. But because the deflection angle is small, this jump does not cause the audience. In the future, Oster spent three months, many experiments, found that the magnetic needle will deflect around the current. The magnetic needle deflection direction is opposite to the direction of the wire and the direction of the wire. A non-magnetic substance is placed between the conductor and the magnetic needle, such as wood, glass, water, rosin, etc., does not affect the deflection of the magnetic needle.

On July 21, 1820, Oster wrote the paper "discourse the current impact of the magnetic needle", this paper only used 4 sheets of paper, is an extremely simple experimental report. Oster told the results of his experimental devices and more than 60 experiments in the report, summarized from experiments: The effect of current exists only around the carrier wire; along the thread direction is perpendicular to the wire; the current to the magnetic needle It can be passed through various media; the strength of the action is determined in the medium, and it is also determined that the distance between the wires to the magnetic needle and the strength of the current; the needle do the needle of copper and other materials is not current; the energized annular conductor is equivalent to A magnetic needle, two magnetic poles, and so on - officially discover the current magnetic effect to the academic community.


Oster's current magnetic effect is a major discovery in the history of scientific history, which immediately causing attention to people who know its importance and value. After this major discovery, a series of new findings appeared. After two months, the ampere found the interaction between the current, and the Aragua made the first electromagnet, Schweig invented current meter. Ampeted wrote: "Mr. Oster ... has always been associated with his name and a new era." Oster's discovery unveiled a new era in physics history.

Scientific achievement

Electromagnetic effect

Hans Christian Oster Since Coulomb proposes electricity and magnetism, there have been few people. Will consider the connection between them. And the physicists such as ampere and Biio believe that electricity and magnet do not have any contact. However, Outt has always believed in electricity, magnetic, light, heat, etc. There are inner contacts, especially Franklin, once found that Leiden bottles can make steel needle magnetization, and firmly. At that time, some people did experiment, seeking electrical and magnetic contacts, and the result failed. Oster analyzes these experiments that the effect is to find an effect in the direction of the current, it seems impossible, then will the magnetic effect will be horizontally?

In April 1820, there was a lecture at night, and Oster demonstrated the experiment of the current magnetic effect. When the gamavile battery is connected to platinum wire, the small magnetic needle is swung near the platinum wire. This unhappy phenomenon did not attract the attention of the audience, and Oster was very excited. He was deeply studied in three months. On July 21, 1820, he announced an experiment.

Outter connects one end of the wire and the galvini battery, and the wire is placed above the small magnetic needle along the northern direction. When the other end of the wire is connected to the negative electrode, the magnetic needle points to the direction direction. The non-magnetic object such as the glass plate, the wood, and the stone is inserted between the wires and the magnetic needles, and even immersed the small magnetic needle in the copper box of water, the magnetic needle is deflected.

Electromagnetic accepted

Oster believes that a "current impact" occurs around the power-on wire. This impact can only act on magnetic particles, and the non-magnetic object can be passed. When the magnetic material or magnetic particles are hindered, it hinders it through, so that it is driven and deflected.

The wire is placed under the magnetic needle, and the small magnetic needle is deflected in the opposite direction; if the wire is placed in the direction of the thing, the magnetic needle remains stationary regardless of the upper surface of the magnetic needle.

He believes that the current impact is propagated along the helical direction of the wire as the axis, and the thread direction is kept perpendicular to the axis. This is a description of the horizontal effect of the image.

Oster's interpretation of magnetic effects, although it is incomplete, it does not affect this experiment, it demonstrates electricity and magnetic energy to transform each other, which is based on electromagnetic development.

Other aspects

Outter has studied chemical affinity. In 1822, he precisely determined the compression coefficient of water and demonstrated the compressibility of water. In 1823, he also made a successful study on temperature difference. He also made some important improvements to Coulomb scales.

Oster earliest in 1825 (i.e., using dilute potassium aluminum) with aluminum aluminum aluminum, but the purity is not high, so that this achievement belongs to the history of metallurgy. German chemist Friedrich Ville, his last study was the study of anti-magnets in the late 1940s, tried to explain the anti-magnetic resistance of the substance with the reverse sensing effect of the opposite polarity. In the same period, Michael Farah's achievements in this area exceeded the peers of Outter and its France. Faraday proves that there is no so-called anti-magnetic pole. The magnetic and anti-magnetic properties are uniformly interpreted with the concept of magnetic permeability and magnetic lines. However, Oster's method of studying anti-magnets still has a deep impact.


The Ostri University of Copenhagen is named after its name.

Denmark Technology has the honorary title of H.c.ørstedlectler.

American Physical Teacher Association "Oster Medal".

Denmark's first satellite is named Outter.

unit Oster

Oster (OESTED) is a magnetic field strength (H field), magnetization intensity unit, referred to as "Austria" in centimeter-gram-second system. OE). In 1930, the International Electrotechnics Commission was named Oster in order to commemorate the Danish physicist Hans Oster.

Oster is defined for the Dynamic (DY) per unit magnetic in. Convert to the international unit system, 1 Oster is equal to 1000 / 4π (≈79.5774715) amps / m.

  • The H field in the ultra-long solenoid with 1 ampere current is approximately 1 Oster. Hans Oster

  • When 10 amps's steady current is infinitely long, the H field at 2 cm from the wire is 1 Ost.

  • When the 10 ampere current passes the radius of 1 cm, the H field at the ring is 2π Oster.

in cm - gram - second system, the unit of H field is Oster, the unit of magnetic induction strength (B) is Gauss. In the international unit system, the unit of the H field is amps / meters, and the unit B field is Tesla.

Oster is closely related to the unit of B field. In vacuum, if the H field is 1 Outter, the B field is 1 Gauss. In the medium of the magnetic permeability, the relationship between the B field (Gaussian) and the H field (Oster) is b = uh.

Related Articles