Guinan War

Campaign Setting

1938 October after the fall of Guangzhou, China from Hong Kong to the mainland's main international lines of communication were cut off. But China still by the West River in southern coastal areas, Shenzhen, Shantou and Guiyue Gong Road, Vietnam Railway, the Burma Road, the input section of supplies. Therefore, after the Japanese occupation of Hainan, Shenzhen and other places, ready to attack Guinan, to achieve complete blockade of China.

1939 January-August, the Japanese have invaded the southeast coast of China's Hainan Island, Shantou, Shenzhen and other places, southwest China only a few international lines of communication, Guinan strategic position highlights the important . Nanning is located in the territory of China Gui Yuegong the end of the road, and guardian of the western territory of Vietnam Railway and Yunnan Burma Road (Vietnam when it was French colony; Myanmar British colony), the defensive front. But the Chinese side of the Japanese attack attempt misjudged, resulting in a passive situation of the war.

Battle cause

1939 In November 2009, the Japanese army to cut off the lines of communication Guiyue Guo occasion, forcing the Kuomintang government to surrender, sent Fifth Division, Taiwan and Marines were mixed brigades group more than 30,000 people in 15, 16, two days many landed in the Bay of Qinzhou, Fangcheng occupied the north after advance Qinzhou, Nanning 24th occupation, guarding the perimeter and narrow peak of Kunlun pass two strategic positions, cut off the lines of communication between Guangxi and Vietnam , the KMT government pose a serious threat. So Chiang Kai-shek from Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi and other provinces tune into the army, along with two military Guangxi total of about 20 million people, the Japanese like to take it on weak footing in one fell swoop wiped out. Sui Ming Pai Chung-hsi, director of the command line of business Guilin Battle of South Guangxi, sent Chen Cheng, Li Chi-shen is jianjun. December 28, the KMT launched to the Japanese counterattack, the battle hundreds of miles around the Nanning, the main battlefield in the Kunlun Pass. Kunlunguan keep the Japanese one, research the Kuomintang army to Du Yuming Fifth Army as the main force for the Fifth Division. Fierce fighting, heavy casualties each other, the Fifth Army after more than 10 days of hard work, to break 31 Kunlunguan natural barrier. Japanese annihilation of more than 4,000 people killed daily brigade commander Major General Masao Nakamura, achieved a major victory in the war since the Chinese army's battle.

Battle through

Japanese troops landed

1939 In November 2009, the Japanese army was cut off between Guangxi and Vietnam (China Nanning - Lang Son in Vietnam) transit by 21 army Ando Liji commander of the 5th division headquarters, mixed brigades in Taiwan Navy fleet dispatched the second, third joint air force support, the attempt from Qinzhou Bay landing, captured the southern Guangxi region. Chinese fourth theater 16th Army commander Xiawei his troops will be deployed in Guangdong Fangcheng (now part of Guangxi), Yangjiang and Guangxi your County, Nanning between the vast region, the area south of Yujiang attempt to use against established positions to resist successive Japanese consumption; later, the camera to the offensive.

Japanese troops landed at the port of Qinzhou Bay goal, breaking the first line of defenders defensive positions, captured the 24th Nanning. Japanese troops spin north, has captured the peak narrow, Kunlunguan; a strength westward, depression Longzhou, cut Guiyue Guo occasion transit. Chairman of the Military Affairs Commission determination to recover Chiang Kai-shek Nanning, has mobilized 14 divisions, 100 aircraft, commanded by Pai Chung-hsi, director of Guilin, line of business, defeated three road counterattack Nanning. Chinese military attack. North main army Fifth Army commanded by Du Yuming, to guide the chariot infantry gunfire in front to attack Kunlun Pass, the other to a roundabout Kunlunguan lateral forces, has to win Kunlunguan the forefront of the Japanese pond and five or six ponds ground. Chinese air force deployed to support ground forces operations. East, West Army also has separately to attack Qin County, Long states, narrow peaks and other places. In the Chinese military attack, the Japanese were forced to abandon the Long states, the aid back to Nanning. Japanese troops stationed in Nanning 5th Division 21 brigades rush to the rescue of Kunlun Pass.

bloody battle of Kunlun Pass

24, the 5th Army honor to the 1st Division brigade attacked at 9 withered peach pond northeast ridge to the enemy hit, killed Major General Brigadier Masao Nakamura. 29, 5th Army launched a general offensive in collaboration neighbor, fight to regain Kunlunguan 31, was Kunlunguan victory. Japanese annihilation of more than 4,000 people, shot down, destroyed more than 20 Japanese aircraft. 21 Japanese Army in view of the failure of Kunlun Pass, dispatched the 18th Division stationed in Guangdong, southern Guangxi region Guards mixed brigades reinforcements, Zaigong Kunlunguan. Chiang also Guinan reinforcements from the mainland troop movements. But the Chinese army has not yet focused, the Japanese soldiers that is on January 28, 1940 began to attack, 5th Division, Taiwan mixed brigades of the narrow peak Wataru Kunlunguan wire with a frontal attack; 18 divisions, divided by the mixed brigades Guards Qing Liang, seven Gantang by the pond, the river that Binyang roundabout. February 1, fourth theater commander Zhang Fakui take over command of Pai Chung-hsi Guinan operations.

Japanese captured Binyang, winning Kunlunguan 3, 8 wuming depression, 9 onwards retracement. Guangdong transferred back to the 18th Division; 5th Division, Guards mixed brigades, Taiwan mixed brigades grouped into 22 Army, stationed in Nanning, Qin County, Fangcheng and peripheral positions. Chinese army to chase momentum, has recovered Binyang, Wuming, Kunlun Pass and other places. Since then, the standoff. In July, it fell to the Japanese Longzhou. In September, the Japanese 21 Army main force moved into Vietnam. In October, the fourth theater. 16, No. 35 Army (6 divisions) counter-offensive momentum, has recovered Longzhou, Nanning, Qin County. Recaptured town of South Gate (now Friendship Gate), will be expelled from all the Japanese Guangxi, the end of the battle.

fighting forces

Chinese Army

The new 6 Army: including 13 independent groups, two mountain artillery brigade, a heavy artillery brigade and four tank battalions, plus medical units and other units of the total strength of 30,000 people. 46 Department of the Kuomintang army He Xuanbu, 99 Jun Yao pure Department, Guangxi total security group, a total of 1.2 million people affected by the new 6 army command, in addition to the levy made 20,000 porters.

Japanese Army

Japanese: Army 22, Army will be long satisfied Seiichi

subordinates Taiwan Brigade: Yantian given seven brigade commander, Major General

subordinates Guards mixed brigades group: brigade commander in the military Sakurada

subordinates 5th division: division commander in the village in the Ming

5th division subordinates: 9th brigade, brigade commander and Chuanyuan seven Major General (11th infantry, 14th Wing). 21 Brigade, brigade commander Major General Nagasaka Tian Yuan (infantry. 21, No. 42 Wing). 5th Cavalry Regiment. Field artillery regiment. Several heavily baggage and other forces total strength of 40,000 troops 22. Difficulties such as war, is on the Japanese 22 army commander Ando Liji South China Army generals can deploy troop reinforcements from Guangdong, Guangxi and other occupied territories of 18,38,104,106 4th Infantry Division in. The reinforcements Guangxi in actual combat is a break in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Kumamoto division and battleship task forces.

Japanese Navy

battleship artillery supremacy at sea, a total of 12 Japanese Navy battleship, is divided into five levels, in 1940, Japan's Yamato-class battleship of three just started , which was later transformed into Shinano aircraft carrier, as Fuso and Ise-class level 4 because speed is too slow, we can not afford to become incorporated into the training ship and aircraft carrier battle groups. The remaining six trump card is the core of Japan's Pacific Fleet.

Fuso Class: hibiscus, Yamashiro number

Ise Class: Ise number, date to the number

Nagato level: Nagato, Mutsu No.

Japanese stages: Yamato, Musashi

King Kong: Diamond number, Hiei number, hazel name, Kirishima

flares illumination range: 50 small-scale forcing one kilogram flares, an area of ​​about 100 square meters; 60 to 70 years of super-flares, the total amount of units of tons, the illuminated area of ​​over 1000 square kilometers, requires the use of aircraft delivery.

Battle of results

victories and losses

1940 In mid-January, the Japanese Eighteenth Division transferred from Guangdong and mixed brigades Guards regiment of about 15000 Guinan Japanese people landed reinforcements from Qinzhou. In late, the Japanese army to launch a counterattack, hit by Yong Chun around Binyang, the KMT got hit, give up Kunlunguan other places. In late February meeting, Guinan end of the war. Japanese to avoid being hit again Kuomintang army, waiver of Kunlun Pass, Binyang, Shanglin, Wuming and other places, the army withdrew Nanning, shorten the front, building trenches and stick to Nanning suburbs. Until October 1940, the Japanese army was evacuated Nanning, moved to northern Vietnam. Japanese first invasion of Guangxi last year, scrambling and South Qinzhou Guangxi region 23 counties, killing masses of 11147 people, injured 2161 people, 3986 people missing, public or private property losses 45 billion yuan national currency.

general lifting

Guinan will be after the war, in Liuzhou military meeting, Chiang Kai-shek was very angry, will supervise operations center commander and high-ranking officials Chen Cheng Pai Chung-hsi given a pay cut to leave the post action, the first 38 Army commander Xu Tingyao on the following eight generals dismissed and prosecuted. Liuzhou, staying in mountain ram's horn. That is a traitor tip-night Japanese planes bombed the residence of Chiang mountain ram's horn. 22, Jiang presided over a review meeting. At the end of the 25th meeting, Jiang announced:

Guilin weak line of business director Pai Chung-hsi Dushuai by an admiral reduced on two;

Minister Chen Cheng guidance no political party, on a reduced on the two;

37th Army commander leaf Zhao detained cross Mixed military courts;

38th Army commander Xu Tingyao sacking;

36th Army commander Yao pure sacking;

66th Army commander Chen Ji sacking;

99th Army commander Fu Zhongfang sacking;

36th Army chief of staff Guo Su dismissed and prosecuted;

49th division commander Li Jingyi sacking;

160th division of the Song Shi Taiwan sacking; 9th division Free Zhengzuo Min commander has been killed study, the division designation cancellation, no change teacher;

135 remain division Su Zuxin dismissed;

group heads 405 135 Wu Zongjun division detained cross military court Mixed;

35th Army commander Deng Longguang merit one;

46 army where a declared merit;

76th time division Lingyun merit. (Aggregated by Cheng Siyuan, "recalls political" and other information.)

In addition, Jiang also announced: the abolition of Zhao Ye, Xu Tingyao two Army designation; Guilin line of business is no longer commanding the troops, according to the fourth theater of battle return command; fourth theater headquarters migrated from Shaoguan to Liuzhou.

26 days, the fourth theater commander Zhang Fakui declared: "The current offensive Nanning no longer necessary." Campaign throughout the South Kwai ended.

Battle evaluation

Battle of South Guangxi defeat to China frontal battlefield created new difficulties. After a few months, the Japanese war in Europe by France failed to stimulate the opportunity to capture another point Guiyue Gong Road, Long states, and sent troops into northern Vietnam, completely cut off China Guangxi and Vietnam, Yunnan and Vietnam international transit. But China has also made a fourth theater partial victory, not only beat back the offensive in southern Yunnan momentum to attempt a direct threat to the Japanese Southwest Area, and Guinan time to seize the opportunity to reduce the Japanese troops at the end of October 1940 to overcome Longzhou, Nanning and at the end of November, will be expelled from all the Japanese Guinan.

posterity commemorative

Battle of South Guangxi ruins from the "Battle of South Guangxi will review the site" and "protect Chiang hole" constitute ruins. "Battle of South Guangxi will review the site" is located in the southern suburbs of Liuzhou Longtan Hospital Namdaemun fold to over 100 meters at the north, is a two-storey brick structure Western-style building (when the experimental field of Agriculture and Forestry in Guangxi villa), for the year Chiang Kai-shek at the "Guinan battle review will be "temporary residence. "Protect Jiang hole" site is the "Battle of South Guangxi will review the site" in a cave (at the Blood Center hospital in Guangxi), hole 10 meters high, more than 10 meters deep hole. A first hole has two stories, in 1993, the Guangxi center for storing blood alcohol and other chemicals, to break down the middle of the compartment, and chisel width of the wall, built a two-story building in the cave.

1939 In the winter, the Japanese invaders to blockade China, Vietnam and China cut off traffic, further threatening Yunnan and Guizhou, Guangdong from Qinzhou Bay (now Guangxi) November 15 landing, occupied raid Nanning and Binyang divide our forces guarding the Kunlun Pass and Pass Wuming peak. In order to recover Nanning, Guilin, line of business by the time the Pai Chung-hsi, director responsible for the mobilization of troops counterattack. From December of that year to the second year in February, the Chinese side to 150,000 troops and 100,000 Japanese troops fought a fierce battle in southern Guangxi. December 31, after 10 days of fierce fighting, break the Japanese hang on Kunlunguan natural barrier, wiping out more than 4,000 Japanese troops. Battle of South Guangxi in China the number of casualties of 2.3 million people, more than 8100 Japanese casualties. After the withdrawal of Japanese troops from Nanning.

Battle of South Guangxi in China to play more small, but suffered heavy losses, the news reached Chongqing, Chiang Kai-shek infuriated, decided to hold the "Battle of South Guangxi review meeting" in Liuzhou, analyze the causes, tracing responsibility. Unexpectedly meeting beginning on the first day, it was the massive bombing of the enemy. According to Chiang Kai-shek day diary records: "nap waking, quarter past two, the smell and sound of life guards trial of its direction, spin suddenly alert the enemy will be more than fried, is anxious dressed and ready to go out, that rush of love , Yan Almost as good as in the beginning of the Xi'an Incident. I know the enemy Tathagata fried Liu, the goal will be over in, is anxious into the dugout after the top of the mountain. after a short while, bomb the enemy more than twenty join hands hole. Xuanyou to attack, low altitude dive bomb, bomb all the mountains fifty meters to the right of the hole hundred meters, meter hurt guards twelve. "Although the first day of the meeting suffered a bombing incident, but four-day average carried out in a predetermined program. The last day, Chiang Kai-shek ordered the disposal of a number of wartime command would be inappropriate, ineffective Dushuai senior generals. Guilin line of business in which Pai Chung-hsi, director of the political department of the main Renchen Cheng, will drop by on a secondary and more than generals were dismissed and prosecuted, also abolished the designation of several Army. Guilin, then flew back to Chongqing, ending only once in a lifetime trip to Liuzhou him.

According to statistics, more than 50 Japanese aircraft were deployed in batches of horns mountain bombarded. During the war, but Liuzhou is a town of more than 10 million people, there are few "big man" to patronize. Japanese bombers have often hovered over the Dragon, dropped a bomb after sped away. However, February 22, 1940 bombing that afternoon, still feels a bit strange: Liuzhou site is located in the mountains of Henan, when fashion is wilderness, mountain sparsely populated, why the enemy to put so much fighting to attack it? And the target specificity, cast doubt on whether the Japanese mastered what intelligence. After many years, cultural workers interviewed villagers claw foot, where Jila village farmer surnamed Huang said he had seen someone irradiation near the summit with a mirror to the sky, appeared to be sending signals in the Japanese machine, guidelines bombing Target.

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