Gross national product

Historical Level

After the 1990s, the GNP is replaced with GNI in the national total income GNI, and GNP data has been basically no longer statistically and released. GNI is generally considered to be GNP.

In 1994, the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Economic Cooperation and Development Organization, and the European Community Commission jointly issued the 1993 National Accounting System (1993SNA), and the statistical term GNI replaces GNP, national The total revenue (GNI) is the original national product value (GNP).

2001, in order to maintain consistency with the "1993 National Accounting System", the World Bank changes the terminology, GNP is called "national income" or GNI. All GNI data in the World Bank Database (WDI) is equivalent to GNP. According to the definition, the current (nominal) price GNI is equal to GNP. The price gni is equal to GNP and trade condition adjustment. WDI only releases the price GNI, because there is no complete and reliable price GNI data. Current price GNI measures the total increased value created by domestic and foreign countries, including GDP and net income from primary income from non-residential channels (employee compensation and property income). The World Bank uses the per capita GNI in US dollars to classify different countries for analysis, and determines its borrowing qualifications.

In order to adapt to the development of socialist market economy, as well as China's accession to WTO and International Monetary Fund, China has adopted 1993SNA standard title, statistics "terminology" in 2003 GNP changes GNI, and the statistical caliber of the two data is basically consistent.


Main advantages of national product as a comprehensive economic indicator is: First, it only calculates the value of the final product, and there is no calculation of the value of the intermediate product, thus Does not include the portion of the repeated calculation. Second, it not only involves the added value of the material production department, but also the added value of all service sectors, which reflects the changes in modern industrial structure, reflecting the third industry such as education, science and technology, and finance in society. The role of the economy.


The deficiencies of the national product gross value indicators are:

first, and cannot reflect social costs.

Second, it cannot reflect the cost of economic growth.

third, the efficiency and benefit of economic growth cannot be reflected.

fourth, it cannot reflect the quality of life.

fifth, the social income and wealth allocation cannot be reflected.

Potential GDP

Potential GDP refers to the largest production of economic resources available in a certain period of time in a certain period of time, that is, the country is full GDP can produced in the employment state. The GDP here reflects the maximum output capacity during this period.

Fully employment refers to the elimination of "cyclical unemployment", rather than everyone has work, and there is still natural unemployment.

Gross national product

Calculation method

National GDP reflects the economic level of a country. According to the total value of the national product calculated by the price, the economic development speed (economic growth rate) in different regions can be calculated. There are three calculation methods for the GDP:

(1) Production method or claim, is the total output value (income) of various departments (income) to increase the increase in intermediate products and labor consumption. . The sum of the added value of each department is the total national product;

(2) expenditure method or the final product method, that is, personal consumption expenditure + government consumption expenditure + total domestic asset formation (including fixed capital formation and inventory Net increase or net reduction) + Difference of exports and imports;

(3) income method or distribution method is to see the gross national product as a variety of production factors (capital, land, labor) Created increase value. Therefore, it is assigned in various production factors in the form of wages, interest, rent, profit, capital consumption, indirect tax (ie indirect tax reduction government subsidies), etc.. In this way, the above-mentioned various projects of various departments (substance production sectors and non-material production sectors) can be calculated to calculate the total value of the people's livelihood.

Theoretically, the results of the final statistics of the above three modes should be consistent. The general method of calculating the total national product is FPA, and the data it derives is used as a standard.

Calculation formula: Q1 · P1 + Q2 · P2 + ... + Qn · PN = National GDP

Q Represents Various labor and final products, ie Includes parts that have been repeated in each link.

P represents the price of labor and final product.


GNP is more reflecting a national real economic situation than GDP, because GDP is the principle of land, GDP contains foreign companies' income created in their own, and these income is ultimately Flow into foreign countries.

National GDP and the total number of social income are different. First, the scope of accounting is different, and the total number of social outputs and national income only calculates the labor results of the material production department, and the national product grown The material production sector and the labor results of the non-material production sector are calculated. The second is different, and the total value of social products is calculated; the total value of the national product is calculated in the production of products and provides the value of the labor process, the value, does not calculate the value of intermediate products and intermediate labor investment, national income Does not calculate the value of the middle product, and does not include fixed assets depreciation value, that is, only the net production value is calculated. The different point of the two will be described in detail:

GDP and GNP is different

(1) GDP and GNP identical point

1, GDP The same is the same as GNP. Both the total value of the national wealth created by the national or region is the most important total indicator of the economy of one country or region. By calculating GDP growth or GNP growth rate, it can measure the speed of economic growth in one country or region; by calculating the per capita GDP or per capita GNP, it can measure the extent of one country or region, or reflect the level of national income and living standards. .

2, GDP is the same as the GNP value. The two are "added value" in value composition.

(2) GDP and GNP different points

1, GDP is different from the GNP computational caliber. GDP calculations use "Land Principles", that is, as long as it is the value of production or creation within the country or in the region, whether it is a foreigner or the value created by the country, it is set to the GDP in the country or the region. The GNP calculation uses the "National Principles", that is, as long as it is a national or regional resident, whether you are in the country or in the region, it is placed or created in foreign or foreign districts. GNP.

2, GDP is different from the GNP side. GDP emphasizes the increased value of creation and is the concept of "production". GNP emphasizes the original income.

Relatively, under open economic conditions, the total amount of wealth of a country is getting better and better than GNP. Therefore, before the 1990s, capitalist countries major focused on GNP and per capita GNP. However, after entering the 1990s, 96% of countries have abandoned GNP and per capita GNP, and the beginning of the GDP and per capita GDP will measure the strength and economic strength of economic growth and economic strength, and generally revenue GNI (GROSS National INCOME) The final result of all residential units in the country or region in a certain period of time is considered to be GNP, and countries (including China) are only published in GDP and GNI data, and GNP data has been basically no longer statistical and released.

From the international organization, due to the difference in functions, IMF only focuses on GDP to analyze the economic growth in the world; the World Bank is paying attention to GNI (GNP), more than a certain extent Pay attention to GNI (GNP) to analyze the difference in the rich and poor in the world.


Samuelson, US economist, believes that GDP is one of the greatest inventions in the 20th century. He will provide a full image of the weather-described satellite cloud map to describe the weather, and can help leaders to determine whether the economy is shrinking or swelling, it is necessary to stimulate or need to be controlled, which is in a serious recession or in a inflation threat. If there is no total indicator like GDP, policy makers will fall into a messy digital ocean without knowing measures.

However, change the extensive economic growth mode, expanding the voices of domestic demands also triggered economic policies to pursue GDP or GNP debate. Mainstream views believe that in economic policies, GDP or GNP will result in different economic growth patterns, namely endogenous economic growth modes or input economic growth models.

(1) If a country or region pays more attention to GDP in economic policies, it will pay more attention to the maturity and development of the country, not to support the development of these industries, domestic enterprises are still foreign companies. Of course, with GDP growth, the government will have corresponding taxes. If you pay more attention to GNP in an economic policy, it is not only the development of domestic industries, but it should be that domestic companies have supported the development of their industries, not only to increase taxes, but also have real profitable. So, the former will be more increasingly attracted by investment, will invest investment as the top priority of economic work, and the latter will pay attention to domestic companies, including state-owned enterprises and private enterprises.

(2) as the main pursuit of economic policies in GDP or GNP, under certain GDP levels, will lead to different levels of wealth of the country. A typical case in this area is a comparison of the new Soutannan model and Wenzhou mode. In 2004, with the Suzhou economy all the way, the total amount of GDP was first super Shenzhen, and the new Southern Southern model reached the high point of China's economic development model. However, these masks can't cover the shortcomings of the new Soutan model. It is called "long bones,", "GDP, the government's fiscal revenue, the people's pockets still can't get up, the sharp head is taken away by foreign companies Local people are just a little money. In 2004, Suzhou's GDP was twice as Wenzhou, but the per capita income of Suzhou people was half in Wenzhou.

(3) Advision GNP contains an endogenous growth mode, the internal growth mode power source (4.58, -0.0.43%) Springs come from the impulse of the folk development economy. The GDP is actually an input growth mode. The power source is from the government. It is the local government in the development of local economy, including the driver of political achievements, with preferential conditions. The endogenous economic growth model is relatively solid, the input growth mode is due to the inclination of capital. If there is a better investment area, capital will flow away.

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