Non-governmental investment corresponding to government investment refers to an investment in microeconomics with independent economic benefits.
In a society, the proportion of government investment and non-government investment accounts, depending on the following two factors:
1. The social and economic system is different. In general, countries that implement market economy, government investment accounts for relatively small, and the proportion of non-governmental investment is relatively large; the proportion of government investment is relatively large, government investment is relatively large, non-government investment The proportion is relatively small.
Second, the economic development phase is different. In economic developed countries, government investment accounts for small social investment, and the proportion of non-governmental investment is large. In terms of undress and secondary countries, government investment accounts for large proportion of social investment, and the proportion of non-governmental investment Small.
In general, under market economy conditions, government investment choices must follow the following principles:
1. Make up the market failure principle < / p>
Second, the principle of maintaining market configuration function
three, the principle of adjusting national economic operation
Government investment is the necessary means of national macroeconomic regulation, and plays an important macro-oriented role in social investment and resource allocation. Government investment can make up for the market failure, coordinate the major investment proportional relationship between the whole society, and promote economic development and structural optimization. Government investment functions generally manifest the following aspects:
(1) Balanced social investment governments play a macro-regulatory role. Under the conditions of market economy, although government investment volume does not occupy the main position, the balance of the total social investment can play a role. When the amount of social investment is expanding, the inflation trend is serious, and the government investment subject will relieve investment expansion by reducing investment. When economic is not booming, when social investment is sluggish, government investment subjects take the way to increase investment, expand social needs, and promote economic development.
(2) Government investment plays an important role in adjusting the investment structure and guiding social investment. Different industrial policies need to develop different industrial policies in different periods in economic development, identify the order of industrial development, the basic direction of investment is the industrial industry, especially the weak session of the national economy, and the economic benefits of social benefits are not significant. The industry is focused on support, which is conducive to optimizing investment structures, coordinating investment proportional relationships. Under the conditions of market economy, the government is not the only investment subject, even the infrastructure and other important industries that need key support must encourage social investment intervention, but government investment has played a pilot and demonstration role. It is used Direct investment and indirect investment means (such as investment subsidies, investment credits, investment loans, etc.), guide the whole society to invest more industries and areas of the country to encourage development.
(3) Creating a good investment environment for social civil investment. The environmental quality of investment is a very important aspect is to improve the public facilities and social infrastructure. Public facilities and social infrastructure and soft environmental construction, a considerable part is unable to achieve commodity management or low commercialization, that is, the benign circulation of investment economic activities, so investment in this area is the obligation to invest in government investment And responsibility is a focus of government investment.
(4) Support for the construction of national key projects in the region. Government investment provides protection from the construction of funds, immigration relocation, labor supply and other aspects, assumes foreign public welfare project investment, focusing on projects in basic projects and pillar industries, and promoting various policies and economic means The restructuring of the asset is adjusted. Promote the construction of modern enterprise system, so that companies have become the basic subject of investment.
1. Government investment should strictly restrict in public areas, including public welfare projects and infrastructure projects, and allow enterprise groups, strong private companies to invest in profitability and infrastructure. Government investment should be further divided into public utility investment and industrial investment and implement different investment management models. Government investment projects must implement project legal person responsibility system, strictly operate management in accordance with modern enterprise systems, ensuring that investors, interests and risk constraints have been implemented. At the same time, the reform of the extrabudgetary fund management system, variable dispersion management is the necessary centralized management, weakening department interests, blocking management vulnerabilities, and strengthening government investment strength. Establish a government investment project assessment system and the wrong case investigation system, and promote investment decision-making democratization, scientific. Extensive introduction of competition mechanisms, vigorously promote the bidding system of the standard.
2. Create a public financial expenditure framework, adjust the expenditure structure, and determine the expenditure range. Guarantee the normal operation of the national machine, increase the support of social welfare undertakings, support agricultural and animal husbandry production and poverty alleviation, and do a good job in non-operating infrastructure construction. Implement functional return, compressed productive basic construction investment and enterprises to dig their own funds, and financial funds have resolutely quit productivity and competitive fields. The relationship between the financial functions and the development of the company, the financial support of enterprises is limited to the basic living security and re-employment subsidies of laid-off employees, and stripped social institutions in the enterprise. On the basis of completing the reform of the institutional institution, according to the "public welfare" standard, the business unit category, the difference is arranged.
3. Government investment on operating infrastructure projects, to actively promote industrial management, and change the current infrastructure project mainly by the government "one raise" situation, reducing financial burden. For the income infrastructure projects such as rail transit, toll roads, tap water plants, gas, heat, and sewage, garbage disposal facilities, etc. should be selected to choose investment companies, and the government gives the investment enterprise project. Take BOT (Construction - Business - Transfer), BOOT (Construction - Has - Management - Transfer), BOOT (Construction - Manufacturers) and BTO (Construction - Transfer - Operating) many kinds of construction methods.
4. It is necessary to arrange an investment layout to adjust the regional industrial structure. The investment layout is the proportional relationship between government investment in all regions, is an important part of government investment policy. my country's region is vast, regional economy is extremely imbalance, and it is reasonable arrangement of layout. It is not only conducive to the adjustment of productivity layout and regional industrial structure, but also the necessary means of regulating regional gaps and promoting regional coordinated development.