Glial cells

synonym-glial cells generally refers to germilid cells

histological characteristics

gliocytes have complex and diverse structures and expressed rich secretion products, which contain most of the neurotransmitters, nerves Peptide, hormones, neurotrophic factor, ion channel, neuroactive amino acid, cell recognition molecule, and can secrete a variety of neuroreactive substances (growth factors, neurotrophic factors and cytokines, etc.).

Star glial cells

Grotic fibroblast protein (GFAP) molecular weight is 50 to 52 kD, mainly in the central nervous system of star-collagen. The encoding GFAP gene is located in 17Q21, with a high homology of the base sequence of other intermediate filament sequences, especially the protein and the waveform protein, wherein the homology of the protein is 65%, with the homology of the waveform protein. 67%. Star colloid precursor cells primarily express Vimentin, while fake Vimentin and GFAP after mature, so GFAP is considered as markers of astrocytes. Studies have found that GFAP-positive cells have deep-dyed "star" shaped "in central nerve cells in postpartum mice and adult rats, mainly positioned in the cells and protrusions of astrocytes, in the forehead leather molecular layer The outer particulate layer and the cone cell layer, the hippocampus and the dark are intensive distribution, the striped body has only a small amount of positive cell expression; the ash of the spinal cord is mainly distributed in a large number of expression near the centrinary cord. In the human brain, GFAP first appeared on the 8th week of embryonic development, gradually expressed in gliocytes, mainly expressed in astrocytes, and gliocytes such as ventricular, less epitonal cells There is also a small amount of distribution. In addition, GFAP can also be expressed in non-central nervous system (CNS) cells such as Xuang cells, fibroblasts, and liver star cells. GFAP protein as a part of the mid-mid-mid-midstallow, with regulating cell metabolism, forming and maintenance of blood brain barriers, producing and released nutritional factors, and has an important role in maintaining star cell morphology and function : If the connection of the cell core and cell membrane is formed, the structure of the cell skeleton recombination, adhesion, and stabilizing the neurons is involved, and the intrained formation of myelin is maintained and the cell signal transduction passage is maintained.

less protrusion

O1 / O4 has studies O1, O2, O3, and O4 antigen labeling early in the study by indirect immunofluorescence In the steroidal cell, the brain, the spinal cord, the optic nerve, the retinal cells were found in the surface of astrocytes, nerve cells, and fibroblasts did not detect O antibodies, while the surface of less epithelial cells was detected, and O antigen It has been expressed in mice, rats, chickens and human central nervous systems. The O4 and O1 antigen are all subtilous cell markers, all of which are a cerebral thione in the surface of the membrane, and O4 can be expressed in advanced less gelatinous cell precursor cells, and can also be expressed in an unstipestable neutral adhesive quality. Cells, Q1 is mainly expressed in immature undemetriggers. O4 positive cells can become less murmorous cells that are differentiated into mature MBP-positive, which is GC positive cells (less protoprous precursor cells), so that O4 also specifically expresses less prematched precursor cells. Almost all O4-positive cells also express Ng2 (glue precursor cells) in mature cerebral cortex, while Ng2 positive cells did not express OX-42 monoclonal antibodies, indicating that O4 / NG2 positive cells were not small colloidal cells. In order to study whether O4 is only expressed in less epitonal cells, O4 and GFAP, NFP antibody immunization double-standard detection, found that NFP positive neuronal cells in cortical graymes, GFAP positive astrocytes Not expressed. Therefore, it is considered that O4 antibody and GC, NG2 can be used as a marker of less protruded precursor cells, but an immature undemelled cell, a non-labeled neuronal cell, a star gum cell, a small glue? Summary cells; O1 is only a marker of immature undeglastic cells.

Less epitonal cytokine (OLIG) is a family of alkaline helix-ring-helical structural transcription factor, using Northernblot technology analysis, Olig1 (2.2kb) and Olig2 (2.4kb) specifically expressed in the brain. In adult rodent brain tissue, OLIG1 / 2 is specific to less protriocyte cells, while in terms of astrocytes and neuronal cells. Olig1 and Olig2 were located in the 16th chromosome in the murderene, located in a chromosome 21 in human beings. These two genes start on the spinal region of the embryonic period, have expressed in the neurons of the embryonic period, the spinal cord, and hypothakes are expressed, and they can also be widely expressed in the body, cerebral whiteness, and hippocampus, but the gray expression is very small. The distribution of OLIG2 is wide than the OLIG1, in the ventricle (Vz), the SVZ transverse (LGE) region and the inner ganglion E10.5 to E14.5, OLIG2 can be positive, and there are few in these cells. Express Olig1, which indicates that OLIG2 is not limited to less epithelial cell lines, which can be expressed in a variety of neuronal progenitor cells, including plurality of neurons, goblastic progenitor cells. Olig1 is located in the nucleus of less epithelial cells and its precursor cells in the embryo period. After birth, it is migrated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, but Olig1 occurs in the nucleus after myeloid damage occurs; and Olig2 always exists. Migration phenomenon will not occur in the corneal core. OLIG1 and OLIG2 gene were expressed using gene transfection techniques, and excessive expression can increase the production of less prematched precursor cells and the production of motor neuron precursor cells, wherein OLIG1 acts on the maturity of less epithelial cells. OLIG2 play a role in the development of spinal cord and the bacchanal motor neuronal development of the back, also participating in the development of less ephesomecier cells; OLIG1 can partially compensate OLIG2 in the development of the developed brain.

Myelin alkaline protein (MBP) Mature less epitocyte cell markers are widely present in the skeletal protein of less epitonal cells and their myelin, With four main types, according to the molecular weight divided into 21500KB, 18500KB, 17000KB, 14000KB. The MBP gene of human and murine is located at the distal end of the chromosome, 18q22-23. MBP is pivoty and surrounding, the central MBP is synthesized and secreted by less elastic cells, the content is the highest in the white matter, mainly in the lower neat glue, combined with a covarian slurry surface, At the same time, it is also connected to the cell skeleton, microtube, microfilament; the peripheral MBP is synthesized and secreted by Snow Want cells, existed in the peripheral neurodejusherahelin; in addition to neural tissue, heart, liver, kidney, adrenal, skeletal muscle, etc. organic tissue Also exists, but the content is very low, it is difficult to measure. The expression of MBP genes in myeloid alkaline protein development in the nerve glial cell culture in neovascular mice, a large number of MBP-specific mRNAs in postpartum 5 ~ 6d immature Suddenly occurred in quality cells, slowly increase in the maturity process, about 60% to 80% of cells can express MBP, but there is no expression in neuronal cells. It has been found that in the murder, 8 ~ 9d, MBP is expressed in a small amount of GC-positive cells, 10 to 13 days after birth, all GC positive cells MBP, positive, 13 to 14 days after delivery The MBP-labeled cell proportion is the highest, GC is a marker of a specific immature eliminate cell, and MBP is expressed in Cellular Cells in GC, which is strongly illustrated by MBP expression of less pre-gel cells. Therefore, it is considered that MBP-specific marks less prematched cells rather than neuronal cells.

Less protocol cell specific antibody ( rip ) There is a method of research immunohistochemistry to find RIP positive Cells are mainly distributed in mouse spinal cord and small brain less epitocycmus myelin. In addition, RIP and MBP, GFAP immunogencytic cell label showed that RIP was stained in MBP-positive cells, while in GFAP-positive cells did not stain, indicating RIP selective staining less prematched cells, non-star colloid cell.

Small gum cells

CD11B monoclonal antibody (OX42) specific labeling small colloidal cells, due to CR3 receptors, CR3 The receptor is located in the branches of small columns, so the OX42 antibody specifically labels small colloidal cells. In normal incubation brain tissue, small columns are in a restless state, the cells are small, the protrusions are very fine, and OX42 is negative or weakly positive, called "resting type" small colloidal cells. When the body is activated by some stimulus (such as trauma, infection, physical chemistry or electrical stimulation), the early cells become large, the protrusions become thick, the spine is clear, and the ox42 dyeing has become an early response, called "Early reactive" small columns. With the presence of stimulating stoves, the cells of small columns are further fat, the protrusion is short, and the "phagochemical" small collide-like cells are made of macrophages. In the young group, there was no positive microgliocytes of OX42 in the normal brain tissue sections, and in the cerebral hemorrhage group, the primary group of activated OX42 positive microglia increased significantly, and more than young groups. Therefore, the OX42 monoclonal antibody is considered to be shallow or not in normal small columns, and is dyed or deep in an abnormal microcarbon cell.

Ion calcium binding adhesive 1 (IBA-1) is an EF type protein, specific expression of monocyte spectrum, such as small columns. IBA-1 is a conservancy protein with actin attribute evolution, has been found to be co-positioned with F-actin, and play an important role in membrane pleats and phagocytosis in macrophage colony stimulating factors. IBA-1 has found in small columns in human, monkeys, horses, rats and mice. There is a method of studying IBA-1 protein only in macrophage cells in microgliocytes, cerebrospinal membranes, macrophages and choroidal shallower matrix cells. And these cells have a phagocytic function, a small colloidal cell is a macrophage, further confirmed that IBA-1 specifically expressed in small columns in a central nervous system. Because IBA-1 is rich and stable in small columns, it is considered to be a reliable specific marker of small colloidal cells. In addition, IBA-1 is also the same alone transplant inflammatory factor-1 (AIF1), and can also be expressed in hematopoietic cells.

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