1. What is the genetic engineering drug
The so-called genetic engineering drug is to first determine the protein that has prevention and therapeutic effects on certain diseases, and then control the The gene of the protein synthesis process is taken out. After a series of genetic operations, the gene is finally placed in a substantially produced receptor cell (including bacteria, yeast, animal or animal cell, plant or plant cell), in receptor Cells continue to reproduce, large-scale production of proteins having preventive and treating these diseases, namely gene vaccines or drugs.
II, the development of genetic engineering drugs
1977, American scientists have produced active human brain hormones with E. coli - growth hormone Release the inhibitory. This is the first major breakthrough in the history of genetic engineering, which lays a theoretical basis for further clarification of higher biological gene expression, and its huge economic value is also very attractive. Such hormones can inhibit the secretion of growthins, insulin and glucagon, which can be used to treat diseases such as limb fertilizers and acute pancreatitis.
In 1978, American scientists transfer artificially synthetic human insulin gene into E. coli, making the latter to produce people insulin, providing a reliable, large and stable drug source for the majority of diabetes patients. . In 1983, the market was placed using insulin products manufactured by genetic engineering.
1979 American scientists announced the use of genetic engineering methods to produce long hormones. This is a hormone that secrete before the pituitary pituitary, is a special medicine for treating gnome, and can be used to treat senile osteoporosis, hemorrhagic ulcer, burn, trauma, fracture, etc. This drug is strongly specific, and the animal growth hormone cannot be used to replace the treatment of human diseases. In the past, children with pituitary fertilizers were treated with pituitary, and the growth hormone required for one year needs to be extracted from 50 bodies. Therefore, most patients are not treated. In 1983, it entered the market for genetic engineering for genetic engineering, and every international unit was as long as 5 US dollars.
Interferon is an active protein secreted by humans or animal cells. When the cells are infected with foreign viral, they will be stimulated to produce interferon to help cells produce antibodies. Therefore, interferon can be used to treat severe viral infections, such as hepatitis B, herpes, etc., can also inhibit cell proliferation, and have immunoassays, thus exhibiting a certain anti-cancer effect. However, the previous interferon can only be extracted from human body, so the source is difficult, and the price is very expensive. In 1980, US genetic technology companies transferred the human alpha interferon gene to E. coli and produced interferon. In June 1986, the US Food and Drug Administration was approved by the alpha-type interferon produced by Micro.
According to the US Drug Research and Manufacturing Association (PRMA) investigation statistics, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved 24 genetic engineering drugs and vaccines in 1995. From July 1997, it has approved the genetic engineering drug, vaccine and injection of 17 of 39 species. In November 1998, it approval genetic engineering drug interleukin-11 put on the market. There are more than 100 genetic engineering drugs in the United States being in the research phase. Japan's genetic engineering drug research is also very fast, and the products have reached more than 20 kinds.
my country has also given sufficient attention to genetic engineering drug research. It has been approved by the hepatitis B vaccine, interferon, interleukin-2 and other about 10 genetic engineering drugs.
three, genetic engineering drug status
According to incomplete statistics, nearly 100 genetic engineering drugs that Europe and the United States are currently listed, about 300 The drug is in the clinical trial stage, and the varieties in research and development are about 2,000. It is worth noting that the cycle of gene drugs listed in the past two years is significantly shortened. Gene engineering drug research is large compared to general drug research development. In the United States, the research funding of this drug is nearly 10 times the average investment in industrial research, and has increased year by year. Some major multinational companies are involved in the monopoly market, such as the United States Johnson, in order to develop a recombinant human red blood cells (EPO) products, investment ≥ 200 million US dollars, profit is also very rich.