Geological exploration work, in order to explore the morphology, production, depth, scale, structure and reserves of hidden minerals or certain geometries, and remarkably Engineering technology of physical geological materials. Research on this engineering technology called exploration engineering or exploration projects. Its content includes drilling projects, pit engineering and exploration machinery.
With the development of production technology, the application of engineering drilling continues to expand, such as the grouting and consumption of the dam or other engineering building foundation, the drilling of frozen holes in mine shaft construction, and underground tunnel Drilling, and cable holes, etc., are the category of drilling projects. The pit detective project refers to the gas tracing of the exploration roadway, ie the geological design is used in the rock formation, which is directly supplied to personnel and equipment, directly collecting the required real sample, and observed, described in it, thus Ground and mineral conditions provide information. According to the content of business work, the exploration project is also divided into two aspects regarding mechanical equipment and process technology.
After the Second World War, science and technology has developed rapidly, and the demand for mineral resources has soared, thus promoting the technical progress of geological work:
1 geological exploration Single geological survey is developed into multi-work integrated geological exploration;
2 geological work from the past, shallow, qualitative description stage steering the vertical depth direction and quantitative measurement of the crustal;
3 exploration project is the only way to directly obtain a large number of underground physical geological materials and geophysical information, and as a reliable basis for calculating mineral reserves or proposing geometric scientific conclusions;
4 geological exploration work should strive Less investment, large operating efficiency, short exploration period, exploration engineering can accelerate the exploration speed and shorten the exploration cycle.
In geological exploration and building infrastructure, according to geological design exploration lines and network Degree, with a dedicated drilling machine, according to the drilling of the design angle, the orientation, and the drilling trajectory, through the drilling, the rock (ore) heart, the cutting, and the following test instrument can detect the inner floor, ore body, oil and gas And geothermal, etc. Abbreviation drilling. Broken rocks in the drilling, mainly using mechanical methods. Other physical or chemical crusher methods are still in the experimental research stage. According to the external force of broken rock, the drilling method can be divided into a rotary drilling, impact drilling, impact rotary drilling, vibration drilling and jet drilling.
The purpose of
The purpose of the drilling is to detect, first take the rock (ore) heart from the drilling hole (see the heart and mine heart ), Transesis, liquid sample (oil, water, water, mineralized water, crystalline water, etc.), gas-like (natural gas, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, helium, etc.), for observation, material ingredient assay and Material measurement to obtain complete qualitative quantitative data.
Drilling can verify that the surface geophysical data is accurate and reliable, providing channels for the physical test in the well to obtain the physical information of the rock mineral layer. Some large diameter drilling holes can be used as mining groundwater, geothermal energy, oil and gas, observation groundwater dynamics, and drilling and resettlement instruments can be used to monitor forecasting earthquakes or to reinforcement and reinforcement. Based on the base pile, reinforce building foundation, rectify the mudslide. , Landslide, etc.
The process of geological drilling project, process technology and basic theory are generally similar to oil and gas development drilling projects. However, there are many drilled holes, smaller equipment, and there are many varieties of rock mineral layers, and the process technology of rock (ore) heart samples is much more complicated. The diameter and depth of the drilling depends on the use of the buried depth and drilling of the mineral layer. 1 solid mineral drilling. The drilling diameter is small (generally 46 ~ 94 mm); we must take a full hole to take the rock (ore) heart and mine; depending on the mineral, the depth from dozens of meters to more than 2,000 meters; China's eastern region is the most deep rock heart drilling It is 4006.17 meters, and the most deep rock heart drilling in the central region is 2818.88 meters. The most dark rock heart drilling hole in the western region is 2472.66 meters. The world's most dark rock heart drilling is 5424 meters (1988, South Africa Witland). 2 hydrological geological drilling. The census hole diameter is less than 150 mm; the diameter of the exploration hole is generally 150 ~ 350 mm; the water well diameter is generally 150 ~ 550 mm, the depth is generally around 300 meters, China's most deep water well 1200 meters. 3 Petroleum gas drilling. The diameter is large (generally opened 915 mm, the end hole 216 mm), deeper (generally 1000 to 7000 meters), mainly drilling deposition rocks, less heart, focusing on the crystallow, to use large oil drilling machine construction, In order to prevent blowout in the high pressure oil and gas layer, the wellhead should be installed to install the spray instrument. 4 geothermal drilling. The high temperature thermal fluid (generally 100 ~ 200 ° C), drilling, drilling diameter in deposition, drilling diameter, construction method and oil and gas well in sedimentary rock or fire, to install high-voltage heat-resistant anti-engaging, using high temperature treatment agent from preventing drilling Liquid loss stability at high temperatures, and prevents high temperature thermal expansion to make the sleeve break. The well depth is generally 1000 ~ 3000 meters, the world's deepest well is the Wellness well (1986), 3220 meters deep, and the well is 365 ° C.
With the rapid development of industry and construction, the application of drilling engineering applications is growing. The geological find mine has been transferred to the district test energy, water resources, precious metals and non-metals. The census is large, and the scale of mineral prediction is large, and it is necessary to explore deeper hidden minerals. With the expansion of aerial insulation, remote sensing areas, drilling verification work has increased dramatically. Coal, geothermal, water, precious metals and non-metallic mineral drilling work have also increased. The drilling caliber and the well depth will develop to the two poles. It is necessary to use the diamond small diameter drilling, and use large rig to ground a hot well and 1 to 3 meters large diameter base pile holes. It is also necessary to study deep wells in deep geology and ultra-deep wells.
Pit Exploration Engineering
In geological exploration work, it is used to disclose and track geological phenomena, ore bodies, from surface or underground excavation pits, well , Slots, lane projects. It is an integral part of the exploration project and a branch of mining projects.
1 For geological staff to enter the tunnel directly observe the research geological structure and ore body, carry out geological sketch;
2 directly collect samples, In order to explore high-grade reserves, as well as subsequent mine design, mining, mineralization and safety protection measures;
3 Several colored and rare valuable metal deposits must use pit engineering verification, chemical probe and drilling materials
4 partial tunnel is used to explore the combination.
1 section small section, the migration level potholes is generally 1.8 × 2.0 ~ 2.2 × 2.2 square meters, the agent is typically 1.2 to 1.5 square meters;
2 tunnels are generally short, due to preparation, relocation, should be used in small and lightweight, self-contained mechanical equipment;
3 to prevent harmful gas from spillage, human animals fall into and protect the mine complete, After the pit is completed, fill or enclose the tunnel.
The pit exploration project except in the exploration of rare metals, precious metals, non-ferrous metals, and has also expanded to tunnels, quarry, small mines in recent years. Exploration of mining and sand mines.
The general title of drilling and pitting construction equipment. Drilling the drilling process to drive the drill to the ground to drill samples, including drilling machines, mud pumps, power machines and drill towers, called drilling machinery. Special equipment such as rock, contrast, rock, ventilation, etc. used during the tunneling process, known as pit exploration machinery. Compared with petroleum mining and mining machinery, it features a small and lightweight mechanical equipment; 2 mines more mechanical for pressure-winding power, while pit exploits short shallow channel, more electricity and internal combustion power, only Deep pitway is only used as a pressure.
Due to the evolution of oil and gas and other mineral drilling and mining work, it is developed. Therefore, the basic theory of its application is also similar to its difference. It uses some of the theoretical foundations established by the former, combined with its own characteristics, and has established and developed some unique things.
Drilling Rock Mechanics Studies During the Drilling process, the mechanism and method of maintaining the stability of the aperture wall and the complete mechanism and method of the integrity of the rock (ore) heart. It applies both the hole of the oil and gas drilling and pressure balance to maintain the stability of geological core drilling and hydrology, engineering geological drilling, etc., but also uses rock strength to compress and resist the resistance. Bending, bending is greater than the principle of tensile, developing impact swing drilling, and reducing vibration and wear using a variety of single-layer rock core tubes, semi-adhesive and wear methods to protect the completeness of the rock (ore) heart.
The core drill resistance study in this regard is the technical conditions combined with geological drilling and pit, through research, excavation of the relationship between the physical mechanics of the core of the core and drilling and the rock, the drilling and pits are explored. The rock core of rock drill is established on the basis of rock test mechanics and rock drilling related relationships and rock crushing theory (see the physical mechanical properties of rocks and drilling, pits to explore rock grading).
In addition, the application and research of colloidal chemistry, high molecular chemistry and rheology in drilling fluid is applied to the application and research of hydraulics in a drill bit design, and the application and research of optimization theory and optimization method in exploration engineering , Remote sensing, remote control technology, and computing technology have also have certain development and results in the application and research of exploration engineering.
Exploration project will be committed to:
1 development high-tech application, including optimizing drilling and excavation parameters, establish multi-functional database, carrying out " CAD "mechanical design, research new types of drill measurement (MWD) instruments, trial drilling water, coal gasification drilling system, etc.;
2 research new generation small and lightweight and high efficiency equipment;
3 actively carry out research work of continental science deep diamonds (ultra-deep hole drilling), develop new deep diamond equipment.
"Geological Mind Drilling Regulations" (DZ / T0227-2010) is the standard of geological drilling industry, released by the Ministry of Land and Resources of the People's Republic of China, December 31, 2010 From now on.
The well-known institutions related to China's Proposal Engineering (Exploration Technology and Engineering) have China University of Geosciences, Jilin University, Chengdu University of Technology.