Evangelistatorricelli, also translated Ricley, October 15, 1608, October 25, 1647, Italy, physics and mathematicians, known for the inventive pressure. He suddenly became down in the 39th birthday. He has achieved many outstanding achievements in a short life, and has won a high reputation.
Galileo's defender Tori is born in the wealthy aristocratic family of Huaycha City, Italy. He has received good mathematics education since childhood. At the age of 178, excellent mathematics can be thrown. So when he was twenty years old, the uncle took him to Rome, and the student who was tempted by Galileo was Casteley. Casteley is a math and water conservancy engineer who is far from famous at the time. He has outstanding achievements in many ways in the field of mathematics, and has also founded scientific foundation for hydraulics. Castel saw Tori's young and intelligent, very loved, assigned him for his private secretary, giving him guidance in academic.
1642 After the death of Galist, Tori will take the greery of the Florence Academy of Physics and Mathematics, and is appointed as the chief mathematician of the court. Since then, he can do some experimental research, no longer as in the past, it can only engage in theoretical exploration. Later, Tori broke through the "two new science dialogue", "the two new science dialogues".
Torre is a five-year life in Florence until you die. In these five years, he conducted a lot of scientific research, and I also met the painter Rosa, ancient Greek civilized scholar Di and water conservancy engineer Ali Gusti, and received the general respect of the upper people. He was also invited to have 12 academic presentations in the 秕 bran, and the speech theme is wide, and 6 is about physics. These speeches can be picked in words in words, and they are typical Italian literary works for ordinary people. His speech is also filled with the spirit of the struggle in the era of literature and culture, and attacking the Catholic idea of doing the stubborn and stubborn old power, and she has a lot of cheering of Gali Division, defending Galist's school.
Tori is born in the part of Italian Faenza, the Pope. He was abandoned by his orphan by Dad, and his uncle took care of and educated, his uncle, a monk named Kamardis, in 1624 to send younger Tori to Jesus The school is studying mathematics and philosophy, and he has learned 1626. In 1627, Tori broke the Rome study science, and the teacher from Pisa's Mathematics Professor Benedict Benevo Bedaldo Castelli.
Tori is deeply studied in depth of Galileo's "two new science dialogues". And many inspirations for the development of mechanics principles from the book. In 1641, Tori disassembles the book of "The Sports of the Head", attempting to make new self-cultivation laws in the dynamics law of Galileo. When Casteley visited Galileo, Castelli looked at Galilei in a visit to Galileo, but also recommended Tori disassembly. After Galileo read the imperialism of Togli, he said that he was very enjoying his excellence, and he invited him to come to act as a assistant. Tori is coming to Florence, meets Galileo, at this time, Galileo has blindly blindly, and it is on the hospital bed. In the last three months of his life, Torre's dumpy and his students have served as a pen reporter of Galilea, which became the last student of Galileo.
In addition to some letters, few information involve Torre's activities in 1632 and 1641 years, that is, Castelli will take Tori to the paper about the path of the political path. The time sent to Galileo (later Galileo was hamolded in his villa in Archer). Although Galileo Rapida invites Tori to visit, he is invited to go until Galileo has passed the death. During the visit, he also recorded Galileo's "Fifth Discussion". After the death of Galileo on January 8, 1642, Daxi Dienan II Dermine invited him to take responsibility of the Mathematics Duke of Galileo and the mathematics professor at the University of Pizza. During the period, he solved many important mathematics issues at that time, such as looking for the area and gravity of the tang line. He also designed and produced many telescope and simple microscope.
After a few days of typhoid fever in Florence, Tori died and was buried in San Lorenso. In order to commemorate him, the asteroid 7437 was named Torre. He left all the heritage to his adoption son Alexander.
Tori's premier inventions are mercury air pressure gauges.
The problem of whether the academic community has weight and vacuum may be unclear, mainly affected by the legacy of Aristotle's thought, and believe that "all things in the world are fire and air. There are respective weights, "and adhere to the" fear of vacuum "in nature. Galileo expressed doubts about this saying, "We can't believe that Aristotle said, just think something is light, something is heavy, but it should be recognized that all objects have their own Weight, only have a different size of the weight and the texture of the texture. "" If people can not realize the existence of vacuum with the feeling and understanding, how can I recognize the existence? "Galileo It has been found that the pumping machine does not take the water to the height of more than 10 meters, and he is attributed to the water column
I can't stand itself, and I can't find reasonable satisfactory explanation. .
Tori dismissal endorses Galare's statement about the air weight and vacuum. On the basis of summarizing the theory and experiment of the predecessor, Tori is a large number of experiments, achieving vacuum, verifying the fact that the air has a weight, denies Galileo's statement about vacuum.
In 1641, a famous mathematician, astronomer Belke has made a vacuum experiment with a 10-meter lead tube. Tori dismantling is inspired by this experiment, thinking of experiment with large density of seawater, honey, mercury, etc. He chose the mercury experiment and achieved the most successful results. He filled with a glass tube with a length of 1 meter, and then took his finger to hold the tube, put it into a mercury with mercury with mercury, after the fingers, it can be seen that the ones on the top of the tube have fallen. Leave a space, and the part below is still filled with mercury. In order to further prove that the upper part of the silver surface in the tube is indeed vacuum, Tori disassembly has improved the experiment. He put its mercury noodles until the cylinder tank was brought down to the cylinder tank, and then slowly lifted the glass tube. When the glass tube mouth increases to the mason and water interface, the mercury in the tube is very fast. Diamaing, and simultaneous water is sloppy, until the top of the tube. It can be seen that the above part of the original tube is indeed empty space. Before the water and silver columns and the current water columns were not attracted to the vacuum power, but the pressure generated by the air weight on the silver surface of the tube. The experiment of Torre is the final fatal blow to Aristotle's mechanics, so some people have intempt to negate the research results of the Tori Deli, and propose "pure air" in the upper end of the glass tube, not vacuum. Everyone has seen it, and the people have caused a fierce argument. The debate has continued to successfully confirm the theory of Tori's disassembly to the Pasca.
Tori is also found in the experiment, regardless of the length of the glass tube, no matter how the glass tube is tilted, the vertical height of the hydrolyzing column in the tube is always 76 cm, so he proposes a high degree of mercury column To measure the atmosphere, in 1644, Vivani cooperated to make the world's first mercury pressure gauge. This finding makes his fame forever, and the unit of vacuum measurement is named with his name.
Tori dismantling law
Tori-profit also found Tori disassembly law, this is a law of flow rate from the flow of fluid from the opening, that is, the bottom of the water tank The speed of the liquid is equal to the square root of twice the gravity acceleration and the liquid height product. This later proved to be a special situation in the law of Bernoulli.
At that time, hydraulics authoritative Casteli believed that the speed of the water flow and the distance to the water, and this instead got Galileo, no one doubted. Tori dismantling is to figure out this truth, seriously do experiment, and have a careful measurement. It is found that the speed of the water flow flowing out of the pore wall is not proportional to the distance to the water surface, but is proportional to the square root of this distance. The relationship between the water current initial V. The water surface in the barrel is relative to the aperture height difference H is V = a√h (a constant). The latter is called this type of jet law. In his century, Daniel Bernoull got the results of V = √2GH. Tori is subjected to experiments to prove that the trajectory of the water flow from the side walls is parabolic shape. These findings of Tori will laid the foundation for a separate branch of fluid mechanics into mechanics.
Describes the shape of the wind
Tori is the first person to describe the wind in a scientific manner, he wrote: "The wind produces two regions on the earth. The temperature difference and the air density are poor. "
Tori is also highly mathematical attainments. His biggest contribution to mathematics is to further develop the "uneasid principle" in Kava Lee, helping it to go to the subcomponalization of Newton and Leibniz. He proposed a lot of new theorem in the "Geometry Society", such as: the method of converting the right angle coordinates into a cylindrical coordinate, and calculates the theorem of the center of gravity of the regular geometry plate. Also succeed in combining mechanical problems to study geometry. For example, he studied the problem of tangent on the parabola to throw an object in a certain speed within the horizontal speed, and also studied the envelope of the parabolic depicted by the object. He has determined the area of the parabolic bow, the volume of the parabolic and the problem of other complex geometric problems.
Torre will also write the indistinguishable principle of Kavarry in a popular man-to-understand way, and play a promotion of unacceptable principles.