The form of equipment wear
Equipment update is mainly caused by wear. There are two types of equipment wear: ① Physical wear (or material wear). That is, the physical wear and tear of the equipment, mainly in use and natural wear and tear. ② Invisible wear (or mental wear). That is, the loss of value caused by technological progress and increased labor productivity. There are two forms of invisible wear and tear of equipment: a. Due to the increase in labor productivity, the amount of socially necessary labor consumed to reproduce the same equipment is reduced, so that the original equipment depreciates. b. Due to technological progress, more efficient equipment has been produced, which relatively reduces the value of the original equipment.
Compensation methods for equipment wear
The equipment needs to be compensated for wear. Different forms of equipment wear require different compensation methods. Compensation methods generally include major repairs, modernization and renewal. If the tangible wear is light, it can be compensated through repairs. If the wear is serious, it can be compensated through major repairs or updates; the compensation for intangible wear can be modern modifications or updates. Equipment compensation can be divided into partial compensation and full compensation. Equipment overhaul is a partial compensation; equipment renewal is a complete compensation.
Analysis before update
Equipment update is an important means to eliminate tangible and invisible wear of equipment. The three lifespans of equipment should be subjected to technical and economic analysis when updating:
①The material life (or natural life) of the equipment. Refers to the time elapsed from the time the equipment is put into use, the equipment is aged and damaged due to material wear, until it is scrapped.
②The technical life of the equipment. Refers to the time from the beginning of the use of equipment until the emergence of more advanced and economical new equipment due to technological progress, so that the existing equipment is eliminated before the material life is over.
③The economic life of the equipment. Refers to the time from when the equipment is put into use until it is updated in advance due to uneconomical continued use. When making equipment transformation and renewal decisions, one should not only consider the material life of the equipment, but also the economic life and technical life of the equipment.
Due to the different requirements for equipment update, different equipment update forms can be used in actual work:
①The equipment prototype update (or Called simple update). Refers to the replacement of the equipment with the same equipment when it has worn out to the extent that it cannot be used.
②Technical transformation of equipment (or modernization). Refers to the use of advanced technology to change the structure of existing equipment or to install old equipment with automatic loading and unloading, automatic measurement, automatic control and other devices to improve the performance of existing equipment to achieve or partially reach the level of new equipment.
③Technical update of equipment. Refers to replacing old equipment with outdated technology and outdated technology with new equipment that is more technologically advanced and economically more reasonable.
The three forms of equipment update mentioned above all have certain objective necessity and constraints. Therefore, they are mutually complementary. However, technological transformation and technological renewal are the main forms. In the process of equipment renewal, it is necessary to combine the renewal of equipment with strengthening the maintenance and repair of the original equipment. Under normal circumstances, the existing equipment is the main force to complete the production tasks. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the management of the existing equipment and do a good job in maintenance and repair work. When the equipment is updated, the old equipment should be handled reasonably. Old equipment decommissioned due to equipment renewal, if it is downgraded and converted, must meet the process requirements for the new use, and shall not cause product quality degradation and consumption increase, and old equipment that is not suitable for conversion shall be scrapped.
The content includes:
1. Modernization of equipment (ie equipment modification). It is a partial renewal of equipment that is not economically suitable for continued use due to the emergence of new technologies, that is, partial compensation for the second type of invisible wear of the equipment.
2. Equipment replacement. It is an important form of equipment update, divided into prototype update and technology update. The prototype update is a simple update, replacing the old equipment that is technically unsuitable for continued use due to severe physical wear and tear with new equipment of the same structure. This kind of replacement mainly solves the problem of equipment damage and does not have the nature of technological advancement.
3. Technology update, use more technologically advanced equipment to replace technically obsolete equipment. It can not only restore the performance of the original equipment, but also make the equipment have a more advanced level of technology, with the nature of technological progress.