"Kangxi Emperor" is a map drawn in the Qing Dynasty. In 1708, it was preformed with Kangxi, and the astronomical observation was carried out in terms of astronomical observation, and the trapezoidal projection method was drawn, the proportion of 40,000 is one. After ten years of field surveying, the map was completed in 1718, but since Mongolian Junggar Khan has not returned to the Qing Dynasty, the Xinjiang has not been detailed until the Emperor Emperor Emperor Qianlong has been detained.
The first stage
Qing Dynasty Kangxi Emperor Xuanzang is also very concerned about geography. Take back the source, may still be affected by Nanhuai and others. Not long after Nanhuai, he wrote a "Western Judicial" and plotted the world map "The Full picture" of the world, introduced Xuan Zang to Western geographical knowledge, causing his interest. In the future, he learned the traditional geographic book "Water", "Luoyang Galan", "Xu Xiake Travel Notes", etc., while looking for all possible opportunities for field investment.
The second stage
A feudal emperor's activity is very limited, it is difficult to leave the palace, and Xuanzang is no exception. In this way, the battle, the battle has become a good opportunity for Xuanzang to investigate geography. Every time you visit Beijing, he has brought Shangqin Tianjian officials and measuring instruments, one to the station, and it is necessary to investigate the local astronomical geography. There are several famous rivers such as the Yangtze River, the Yellow River, Heilongjiang, Jinsha River, Lanjiang, etc., Xuanzang sent people to investigate. In addition to many times in the South Tour, he plans and inspects the procedure of Zi Yulan to Ningxia, and take the river in Yingxiao, and experience the rush of the Yellow River. Kangxi forty-three years, Xuanzang also sent the satellite and other people to investigate the source of the Yellow River. He instructions: "The source of the Yellow River, although Naul Barbarobo, in fact, there is no one to arrive. 尔 等 直 其 源 源 源 视 视 视 视 视During the flow, etc.. "(" Kangxi Policy ") Rajuxi is in the fourth day of April, at the beginning of April, arrived in Qinghai on May 13, accompanied by local officials, they examined the Yellow River The size and formation of the Sales of the Saitland, the size and formation of the Holong Lake, and the road from the Yundu Lake from Eubao, and draws a map. It can be seen from the trial of Raji and others with Xuanzang. The results of this examination are basically consistent with modern geologists. This is a feat in the history of China's geography in the history of China's geography in the history of China's geography in nearly three hundred years ago. Since then, on the basis of Radi Lingla, Xuan Zang wrote a short term "Star Sea" to describe the source of the Yellow River.
The third stage
Soon, Xuanzang has organized a large-scale, and it is said that there is an unprecedented national map survey. Xuanzang is a military home, from the 12th year of Kangxi to 36 years, he continuously deployed a stagnation of the Sanchard rebellion, fighting the invasion of the Sand Russia and saving the Rutmoun aristocracy, and visited the front line and directed some important battles. . The war has given him a deep need for an accurate map. After the Signing of the Nibec Treaty, the French missionary, the French missionary, Zeng Xuanzhong, is a map from Europe's lack of Chinese details. Xuanzang has been inspired by this map, intended to use the Western surveying and mapping technology of Zhang Cheng and others, and organize manpower to draw a national map. China has a vast, complex terrain, and is not convenient. At that time, it is necessary to draw a national map according to scientific methods. It is difficult to know that only a few missionaries cannot be better. It has been a long-term plan for this, and he continues to have a missionary missionary with science and technology, and order Zhang Cheng and others to train Chinese students. At the same time, he also sent missionaries to Guangzhou, Macau, and go back to the country to recruit people, and take an instrument. After nearly ten years of cultivating talents, purchasing instruments, determination of latitude, drawing local maps, etc., and mapping the work of the national map will begin.
Kangxi forty-seven years, Xuanzang "传 分 will go to Ministry of Inner Mongolia, all provinces in China, all over the mountain water city, Use a Western Society to draw a map. Conghua, choose the minister, choose a business, and take care of the generals, the generals of the provinces, and the officials of the local officials, supply all the needs "(" Zhizheng "). From Kangxi forty-seventh year to fiftyth year, this measurement team has spread all over the northeast, North China, East China, China, China, and draws a map of various provinces. Kangxi fifty-six years, full map is made. Xuan Zang named it as "Emperor Quality Full View". This figure adopts the latitude and latitude graphics, trapezoidal projections, 1: 1400000. It is a map of my country's first large-scale measurement, with scientific methods, although there is still inaccurate, after all, "is the best one in all maps at the time in Asia. And all European maps are better than all of the European maps. , More accurate "(Li Joshi). During the drawing of this map, people discovered that the length of the Earth's wire is different from the latitude, so that the theory of Newton's ellipse is confirmed in practice. The surveying and mapping of "Emperor Quality Tour" has become a big event in the history of geography of the world.
1717 (Kangxi 56)
出 版 "舆 图 全", There is a total picture, divided into maps and regional maps, but Tibet and Mongolian pole western places are blank.
1719 (Kangxi 58 years)
print copper layout, with a weft difference 8 degree of 1 row, a total of 8 rows, 41, this latitude latitude The method is the first time in China. Text Notes Note Chinese characters in the Mainland, Northeast and Mongolian areas. Therefore, the latter is titled "The Han Han Heqing Qiqi Fuki Corical Mixi", which is widely circulated.
has been described in Tibet and Mongolian pole, and the provinces and regional maps have increased to 32, and the range of Northeast to Tuba island (Sakhalin), southeast to Taiwan, north to Baikal Lake, south to Hainan Island, northwest to Yili River, west to the city to the city. In the Tibet border, Zhu Malialin (Everest) was labeled. On the picture, the lapentry projection method is used through Beijing through Beijing.
1721 (Kangxi 60 Years)
is published in a woodcut version, the area range contained in the woodcut version is similar to the 1719 copper episode.
Later, in order to adapt to the needs of administrative management, the wood version of the small leaves, with 227 pieces of provincial, government. Do not paint the weft and only include the provinces of the mainland.
Appreciation of the work
"Kangxi Emperor Quality Full View" is a national map with Jingwei.com. The Western missionaries hired by latitude and longitude. Among them, there are more than six hundreds of latitude and latitude values, using a triangular measurement method and use a small number of astronomical measurements.