Since the 1990s e-government production, there has been a lot of definitions of e-government (ElectronicGovernment), and continuously updated with the development of practice.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council defines e-government as that the government's intensive and strategic applications of information communication technologies, the way public management is intended to improve efficiency, enhance the government's transparency, and improve financial constraints. , Improving the quality and decision of public policy, establish a good government, government and social, community, and government relationships between government and government and citizens, improve the quality of public services, and win a wide range of social participation.
World Bank believes that the e-government is mainly concerned about the use of information technology (such as the World Wide Web, Internet and Mobile Calculation), which gives government departments with unique ability, transforming its and citizens, enterprises, government departments. The relationship is related. These technologies can serve different purposes: providing citizens with more effective government services, improving the relationship between governments and enterprises and industry, and better performing civilians by using information, and increasing government management efficiency. Therefore, income can reduce corruption, provide transparency, and promote government services more convenient, increase government revenue or reduce government operating costs.
E-government is a system engineering, which should meet three basic conditions:
The first e-government must use electronic information hardware system, digital network technology and related software technology Integrated service system; hardware part: including internal local area network, external Internet, system communication system, and special lines, etc. Software part: large database management system, information transmission platform, authority management platform, file formation and approval upload system, press release system, service Management system, policies and regulations issued systems, user services and management systems, personnel and archives management systems, welfare and housing provident fund management systems ..., etc. dozens of systems.
Second, e-government is a comprehensive system for processing public affairs related to the government, internal affairs. In addition to the administrative affairs of government agencies, there are also legislation, judicial departments, and other public organizations, such as prosecution, review, community affairs, etc .;
third, e-government is new , Advanced, revolutionary government management system. E-government is not simply moving traditional government management transactions into the Internet, but to reconstitution and business processes for organizational structure. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the electronic government and the traditional government management in terms of management.
Near East of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Suning Yunchao Chairman Zhang Na East proposes, to develop e-government in the era of big data, establish a national unified e-government platform to better enhance Administrative efficiency, further reduce administrative costs, and better play social management functions, causing a strong response.
E-government is an important measure to implement government functions, improving government management, public services, and emergency power, which is beneficial to drive the development of the entire national economy and social informationization. The size of the e-government market is initially significant.
Under the strong support and promotion of the country, my country's e-government has made great progress, and the market size continues to expand. According to data, in 2006, my country's e-government market is 55 billion, year-on-year growth 16.4%, 2010, its market size exceeded 100 billion yuan, 2012, its market size reached 139 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 17.3%.
Under the technical support of modern computers, network communications, government agencies have daily office, information collection and release, public management, etc., national administrative forms in digital and networked environments. It contains multi-faceted content, such as government office automation, information on government departments, joint sharing, government real-time information release, remote video conference between governments at all levels, public online inquiry government information, electronic public opinion investigation and social and economic statistics, etc. .
In the government, leaders at all levels can promptly understand, guide and supervise the work of each department, and make various instructions to all departments. This will bring a revolution on office mode and administrative concept. Inside the government, all departments can achieve joint access to information resources through the network, both improving the efficiency, quality and standards, and saving government expenditures, and playing the role of anti-corruption.
The government as a national management department, and its own internet is used to carry out e-government, which helps government management, and realize the electronic, automated and networking of government office. Through the Internet, this fast, cheap communication means, the government can quickly understand the composition, functions and events of government agencies, as well as various policies and regulations, increase the transparency of law enforcement, and consciously accept the public supervision.
In e-government, the various data, documents, files, and social economic data of government agencies are stored in digital forms in the network server, and can be quickly queried by computer search mechanisms.
G2G: Intergovernmental E-government
G2B: Government - Business Agency E-government
G2C: Government - Citizen E-government
G2E: Government - Employees E-government
1. The government gets information from the Internet and promotes network information
2. Strengthen government information services, there is a government's own website and homepage, providing a possible information service to the public to achieve government affairs publication
3. Establish an online service system, enabling government affairs to interact online with public, namely "e-government"
4. Use electronic commerce for the government, ie "government procurement electronic".
5. Take advantage of the government affairs network to realize the government "paperless office".
6. Government Knowledge Base.
Compared to traditional administrative methods, the biggest feature of e-government is the electronicization of its administrative means, namely paperless, information transmission network, administration. Virtualization of legal relationships.
E-government makes government work more disclosed, more transparent e-government makes government affairs more effective, and more streamlined e-government to provide better service e-government to enterprises and citizens to strengthen government, enterprises, citizens Relationships make it more coordinated than before, facilitates companies and citizens to better participate in politics.
E-government is government department / institution to use modern information technology and network technology to achieve efficient, transparent, standardized electronic internal office, collaborative office and external service procedures , System, procedures, and interfaces. Compared with traditional government public services, e-government has directive, convenient, low-cost, and better equality in addition to public goods attributes such as extensive, openness, non-exclusive properties, etc. .
China National Electronic Government Overall Frame
1, Service and Application System
(1) Service System< P> (2) Priority Support Business
(3) Application System
2, Information Resources
(1) Information Collection and Update Resources
(2) Information Disclosure and Sharing Resources
(3) Basic Information Resources
(1) National E-Government Network < / p>
(2) Government information resource catalog system and exchange system
(3) Information security infrastructure
4, laws and regulations and standardization systems< P> 5, management system
network and procurement
to standardize the construction of safety and confidentiality system of the e-government network main network and access network to ensure the safe and reliable operation of e-government internal network All localities are issued in the provincial-oriented unit (hereinafter referred to as "Directory"), which proposes the reference views for the procurement of related equipment, which is easy to carry out effective development of e-government and equipment procurement work. This basic job is trying to be carried out, and it must be emphasized, while also strengthening constraints and coordination from system and measures, exploring the effective way of traveling.
E-government network Security confidential content and feature
According to the requirements of the electronic government internal network security product recommended directory requirements, Network security products mainly include firewall, intrusion detection system, safety audit system, vulnerability scanning system, safety isolation and information exchange system, physical isolation card, etc. The purpose of using the firewall is to establish a security control point between different networks or different network segments of the same network, and the network between different networks or different network segments is implemented by allowing, rejecting or re-directioning data streams. Communication and access to audit and control. The intrusion detection system is the discovery of intrusion behavior, collecting information on a number of key points in a computer network or computer, and analyzing it from which there is a violation of security policies in the network system and signs of attack. Security audit systems can record user activities in the network, including access time, address, data, programs, equipment, etc., and information such as system error and configuration modification. The functionality implemented by the vulnerability scanning system is to provide relevant security checks for the network system, discovering its vulnerabilities and vulnerabilities, assessing the security status of the system, risk analysis, and proposing solutions and suggestions for discovery, thereby improving the overall security of the network system sex. Safety isolation and information exchange system is based on the termination of the network protocol between the external network, and can only be used between (1) between different related networks; (2) the same network Different security domains; (3) between networks and secret level networks that are physically isolated from the Internet; (4) There is no network and the Internet connected to the internet connection. The physical isolation card implements a computer as a physical isolation when two or more different nature network terminals.
Correctly understanding the recommended product and government procurement
Through the above analysis, we can see that e-government security requirements are relatively high, and the performance characteristics are obvious. There must be an authority to assess and evaluate the products of such confidentiality, indicating the direction of the working direction for the vast users and procurement agencies. During the recommended directory execution, some key issues must be clear and easy to carry out in the order of network security.
First, it is necessary to implement the specific subjective sector. E-government is an effective way to improve work efficiency. The internal network is the key to government e-government. Government information centers at all levels are not to be responsible for specific business work, but also assume the management of internal network security, and take one to build a E-government construction leading group, formulated relevant documents, mainly including the overall principles of internal network construction, implementation Measures, specific requirements, security control, related equipment procurement and management, etc., especially the construction of all access network security security system is more investment It is necessary to work with the financial department and the centralized procurement agency to coordinate the working mechanism, which requires the e-government leader in the e-government leading group, mainly to implement the recommended directory requirements, and prevent the products that have purchased products. There is serious defect, outdated and aging, lack of compatibility, etc., ensuring that the main network is safe and effective.
The second is the best combination of the selected directory product and government procurement implementation program. The confidential product catalog is a comprehensive assessment of the government authorized authority of the provincial level to the reliability, functionality, security confidentiality of network equipment, which is important, which requires the purchase of related equipment to be in principle. Directory execution, however government procurement procedures must not specify suppliers and must not reject suppliers' freedom of participation. Since the bidding information is to be published, there will be no information in the directory and the supplier will be able to participate in bidding competition. If you encounter these conditions, you can take several methods: 1. Invitation bidding or competitive negotiation form At the time, it is possible to participate in the invitation to participate in the bidding, and the procurement information will be announced within a certain range, which may cause some disputes, but the authority of the certification can play a powerful policy advantage. 2, publicly publish bidding information, directory of internal and external suppliers have the opportunity to participate in the bidding, fully consider the internal security privacy weights when the score method is designed, and the total score is set in strict accordance with technical performance, standard parameters, reliability, etc. of recommended products. Method. Once the equipment provided in the directory and suppliers have advantages in security and performance, it is reasonable to meet the privacy requirements, and there is a possibility of winning the bid, and of course such companies should adjust into the directory in time.
three is to clarify the validity period of the directory product certificate, timely assessment and supplement, do a good job of related connection. The manufacturer brand in the catalog has a valid certificate time. In the expiration, it is necessary to invalid, which means that the brand in the directory must be used in the validity period of the product certificate. The products in the catalog should have an objective standard for dynamic management, product reputation, reliability, and technical indicators to measure, and the detection and appraisal agency should take a congregation of the assessment, because although it is involved in a confidential product, the enterprise is selected or not Directly affect sales in the next period of time, is closely combined with economic benefits, and is critical to the development of enterprises.
4 is the confidentiality problem of the directory. Since it is a recommended directory of confidential product, it seems that the publication of the publication is not suitable for extensive and too wide, and the general situation is to publish with the e-government leading group and the confidentiality bureau.
"2020 United Nations E-government Survey Report" officially released in July 2020, showed that China's e-government development index increased from 0.6811 in 2018 to 0.7948 The rankings have increased by 20 in 2018, raised to the 45th place world, and achieved a new historical high.