Dialect geography: The geographic distribution of common dialects is displayed in the form of a map, and the geographic model of language changes is studied.
Develop a simple history
People have long noticed the phenomenon of the language within the language, the "dialect" of the last year of the Western Han Dynasty is the earliest record Chinese vocabulary in geographic Difference work. European modern dialect geography originated in Germany. German linguist G. Winkel (1852 ~ 1911) I want to determine the boundary line of the high German and Lowland, the boundary of the two major dialects, based on the hypothesis of "there is no exception" proposed by the "voice evolution" proposed in the 19th century new language law. Dialect in Düsseldorf conducted a mailing investigation. In 1881, he draws the first group of dialects, a total of 6, including 30 survey projects. However, until today, dialect maps drawn according to this survey are still not yet. In 1896, Swiss J. Jieslong (1854 ~ 1926) hosted the drawing of the French dialect. His sent E. Edon's 639 points in France and adjacent French areas. This map is a total of 13 volumes, and published in 1902, 1910 out. In the future, large-scale dialects survey most of Gierverlon is Blueme, and the gain is added. Among them, there is a dialect survey of Italy, Romania, the United States, the United Kingdom, and China. Italy and American scholars began to pay attention to dialects in the city, and American scholars also investigated dialects of different education levels and age.
Dialect geography's topics and methods
dialect geography have several main work: First, record the special ingredients or structure of certain dialects; the second is to make part of individual dialects Or comprehensive description; the third is some differences between a language throughout or local areas; four is to divide the dialect area; fifth is the causes and processes of the differences in the internal differences of language. The research methods of dialect geography are mainly methods of the above third work, usually include several steps: determine the survey area and research points; determine the survey method; determine the investigation project and prepare the questionnaire; determine the investigation object, investigate, press The survey project and the survey point arrange the results of the survey, and then publish the result list or plot into a dialect page. Dialect map has several forms. Commonly known as: 1 Spectal of the survey of one or several items is marked next to each survey point on the map; 2 The survey is the same, with the same symbol is labeled next to the location, and the symbol used is added; 3 use language The line connects the same points as the survey, or separates the results of the survey results (see chart) with a variety of whispers. The same language line or the herself line represents the boundaries of different languages. If many of the same line or the foreign language line overlap or close, this forms a linear harness or a variety of whispers, indicating where it is an important dialect boundary. After determining the dialect area, you can draw dialect partition maps.
Dialect geography and other linguistic branches
Modern dialect geography is developed in order to find a falsehood of dialect borders and verify the evolution of the voice of the new language law, it Historical linguistics have an indivisible relationship. Many linguists believe that the study of dialect geography later denying the hypothesis of "there is no exception", confirming the wave of waves with it. Due to the dissatisfaction with the new language law, and seeing the distribution of dialects at the present phase, the history of speech evolution can provide clues, the 1920s Mg Bartroi, etc. I want to use a typical dialect distribution research method. Historical comparison method. This is the so-called new linguistics, later called regional linguistics. The attention of early dialect geography focuses on different forms of all dialects to explain the evolution and division of language. However, the difference in dialects is important, and some are not important, not equivalent. With the development of the structuralist language school, some scholars want to describe the difference between the dialects in the differences between dialect structure, and give a variety of different importance from the perspective of the dialect area, since the mid-50 mid-1950s An attempt to have a structural dialect. When scholars began to investigate the city, they found the differences in language and social factors. In this way, by the 1960s, the study of the language of different classes in the city has developed into a narrow social linguistic, also known as social Chinese language or urban simultaneous language. In the mid-1960s, with the development of generating grammar, some people try to use common underlying expressions and grammar rules, reduce the differences between dialects, differentiation and dialect of dialects in dialects. Waiting for the problem, this is to generate dialects. In addition, on the basis of in-depth study of Kreio, the 70s began, some linguists attempted to establish a multivariate grammar to describe the continuity of language internal variations and the ability to master multiple language variants at the same time. The relationship between dialect geography and political, social, cultural and geographical relationships
political boundary and geographical disorder often limit the spread of language evolution and the mutual effects of different dialects. The distance between the distal and communication between the distance between the distance and the communication of the communication and the magnitude of the mutual effect is closely related. The political and cultural status of the two places is different, and the expansion direction of the evolution of the language is often determined. Various social factors, such as social status, education levels, etc. also have correspondence with the differences in people's language, and sometimes determine the expansion direction of language evolution.
dialect geography method is still the most effective way to understand the internal interior of the language. It faces a major subject to propose a more comprehensive pattern of language evolution to explain the difference between dialect room, the distribution of these differences, and the possible direction of dialect evolution. To solve this problem, it is necessary to combine the in-depth study of dialect points in social linguistics, as well as the study of human and geographical migration. In addition, dialect geography should also investigate the differences in the syntax in the syntax and explained.
Dialect Geography, also known as the language geography (LinguisticGeography) is a branch of dialects and is aware of the related and changing relationship between geography and dialects.
Dialect geography is the main content of the former square speakers. Later, inquiry has added social dialects, the original dialect is changed to dialect geography.
Dialect geography mainly studies the situation of dialects in different regions in different regions, research language geographic characteristics