Cognitive style


Cognitive style, refers to a unique style that the individual is a lasting style of cognitive organization and cognitive function during the information processing. It includes both individual perception, memory, thinking, etc., including individual attitudes, motivation, and other personality formation and cognitive differences in cognitive ability. The individual cognitive style is mainly manifested in the following aspects: field dependence and field independence; analytical and non-analytical conceptualization; for cognitive domains; tolerance to two and non-real experiences; complex recognition Know and minimalist cognition; integration and differentiation of information during memory; scanning and focusing; adventure and conservative; solve the problem of stagnation and smoothness. Due to the different cognitive styles of individuals, effective learning guidance methods in teaching should also be different.

Its studies started in the early 1940s. In the 1960s, the study of cognitive styles presents a prosperous scene, there is a large number of cognitive style structures, such as field dependencies - independence; polymerization - divergence; integral-sequence type; speech type - Table icon, etc. It is a famous psychologist Witkin, a famous psychologist in the United States (Hermana.witkin, 1916-1979). Since the 1990s, the study of cognitive styles has made breakthrough results. This is mainly completed by Richerd.riding, Birmingham University, and its colleagues. They not only integrated existing discovery, but more importantly, they put forward a cognitive style and develop a cognitive style assessment system and then investigated them and applied to real scenes.

Cognitive style


Field independence - field dependency

The so-called field is the environment, psychologists describe the external environment as a field. American psychologists Herman · Witkin believes that some people are affected by the environmental information he saw, and some are more affected by the internal clues of the body. He relies more individuals to refer to the internal reference, it is not easy to affect the external factors and interference, and independently, it is called the field independence; individuals rely on the outside of the surrounding environment, with the environment Declining knowledge in stimulus exchange, information referred to as field dependence.

impulse - Penang

impulse type is fast, but the accuracy is poor. Impulse student is always eager to seek problems when they face problems, and they cannot fully analyze the various possibilities of the problem. No matter whether they are eager to express it, even sometimes there is no need to find out the requirements, the problem begins to answer questions. . Their information processing strategy is mostly the overall processing method, and when completing the learning task that needs to be interpreted as an integral interpretation, the academic performance will be better. Pensive student reading ability, memory ability, reasoning ability, creativity, etc. are better.

Contemplation is slow, but the accuracy is high. This kind of student always considers the problem, and then reacts, and they value the quality of the problem, not the speed. But when they answer familiar relatively simple questions, the reaction is faster. When answering a complicated problem, the meditation features behave more obvious. The information processing strategy of contemplate students uses more detailed processing methods, so they will learn more when they do the analysis of the analysis of the details. The impulse student will read difficulties, often accompanying learning ability, and the academic performance is not very good. Because of reading, reasoning requires careful distinguishing, and the careless students will be unfavorable.

Simultaneous - Timing

Das et al., according to brain function, distinguish between simultaneous and continuous cognitive style, they believe that left brain advantages Individuals showed a touch of time processing, and individuals with the right brain advantage exhibited simultaneous processing. The featured cognitive style is that when solving the problem, you can analyze the problem step by step. Each step only considers a hypothesis or an attribute. It has a significant presented presence in time; The characteristic of the style is that when solving the problem, take a wide view, and considering a variety of assumptions and taking into account various possibilities to solve the problem. Simultaneous and contingent is not the difference in processing levels but a different approach.

[ function type ]

British psychologist Costang and French psychologist T · Li Bo put forward three kinds of wisdom, emotions, will In the psychological function, which is the advantage to determine the classification method of the character type. The igutrients usually measure everything with a rational and part of their own actions. Ming Dynasty, reasoning, reasoning, reasoning; emotional people's emotions experience, words and deeds are easy to be emotional; the will offenders have clear activities, behavioral activities, behavioral activities, active, persistence, firmness; intermediate It is a hybrid or non-advantageous.

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